Herpetological History of the Balearic Islands: When Aliens Conquered These Islands and What to Do Next

  • Iolanda Silva-RochaEmail author
  • Elba Montes
  • Daniele Salvi
  • Neftalí Sillero
  • José A. Mateo
  • Enrique Ayllón
  • Juan M. Pleguezuelos
  • Miguel A. Carretero
Part of the Environmental History book series (ENVHIS, volume 8)


Balearic herpetofauna represents a paradigmatic case of multiple biological invasions within the Mediterranean Basin, with a much higher number of alien amphibians (i.e. frogs and toads) and reptiles (i.e. lizards, snakes and turtles/tortoises) than native. The paleogeography of the Balearic Islands, located on Western Mediterranean between Spain and Sardinia, is complex, comprehending an ancient split from the continent during the late Miocene and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations connecting and disconnecting islands from one another (but not them to the continent) that eventually re-shaped the archipelago’s biota. The archipelago has been also influenced by humans since the Neolithic, being a cross-road for alien biota between North Africa and Southern Europe, which caused range regressions and extinctions in the native herpetofauna, nowadays restricted to one amphibian and two reptiles. During the last century, tourism development, the pet trade, and cargo transport of ornamental plants have produced a new wave of biological invasions. Recently introduced snakes are of particular concern, since the effect of predation may seriously threaten the remaining native reptiles in the main islands and endemic subspecies in surrounding islets. Balearic people have a negative social perception of such snakes, mainly due to the lack of familiarity with snakes among islanders but also to the herpetophobic attitude of many Mediterranean cultures. Here we review the herpetological invasions in the Balearic Archipelago and their impacts. We further discuss the on-going management actions on alien reptiles in this archipelago, namely the control of invasive snakes in Ibiza involving monitoring, trapping, environmental education and promotion of social participation.


Alien reptiles Balearic Archipelago Cabrera Formentera Humans Ibiza Invasive species Islands Gimnesic Islands Lizards Mallorca Menorca Snakes Nursery trade Pityusic Islands Tourism 



The pilot project was partially funded by the European Regional Development Fund (FEADER), the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture and Environment, and the Balearic Islands Regional Government, through the Leader axis (Rural Development Program of the Balearic Islands). We are grateful to the Wildlife Conservation Service of the Balearic Government and the Partnership for the Fauna Recovery of the Balearic Islands (COFIB) for their total cooperation and for sharing their work with us. NS is supported by a research contract (IF/01526/2013); MAC is supported by the FCT project NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000007, DS is supported by the FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) post-doctoral grant SFRH/BPD/66592/2009 and IS-R by the FCT Ph.D. grant SFRH/BD/95745/2013 under the Programa Operacional Potencial Humano—Quadro de Referência Estratégico Nacional funds from the European Social Fund and Portuguese Ministério da Educação e Ciência.


  1. AEMET IM (2011) Atlas Climático Ibérico - Iberian Climate Atlas. AEMET - Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino IM, Instituto de Meteorologia de PortugalGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcover JA, McMinn M (1993) Es Pouàs: una aventura paleontològica a Eivissa. Pap del Mus la Nat les Illes Balear 1:x–xxGoogle Scholar
  3. Alcover J, Moyà-Solà S, Pons-Moyà J (1981) Les Quimeres Del Passat: Els Vertebrats Fossils Del Plio-Quaternari De Les Balears I Pitiuses. Palma de MallorcaGoogle Scholar
  4. Alcover J, Mayol J, Jaume D et al (1984) Biologia i Ecologia de les poblacions de Baleaphryne muletensis a la muntanya mallorquina. In: Hemmer H, Alcover J (eds) Història Biològica del Ferreret. Monografies científiques 3. Editorial Moll, Palma de Mallorca, pp 129–152Google Scholar
  5. Alcover J, Bover P, Seguí B (1999) Paleoecologia de les illes. In: Alcover J (ed) Ecologia de les Illes. Monografies de la Societat d’Història Natural de les Balears, Palma de MallorcaGoogle Scholar
  6. Alcover JA, Ramis D, Coll J, Trias M (2001) Bases per al coneixement del contacte entre els primers colonitzadors humans i la naturalesa de les Balears. Endins 24:5–57Google Scholar
  7. Álvarez C, Mateo JA, Oliver J, Mayol J (2010) Los ofidios ibéricos de introducción reciente en las Islas Baleares. Bol Asoc Herpetol Esp 21:126–131Google Scholar
  8. Ayuso VM (2001) The Balearic islands: Prehistoric colonization of the furthest Mediterranean islands from the mainland. J Mediterr Archaeol 14:136–158Google Scholar
  9. Bailón S (2004) Fossil records of Lacertidae in mediterranean islands: the state of the art. Biol lacertid lizards, Evol Ecol Perspect 37–62Google Scholar
  10. Bailon S, Quintana J, Garcia-Porta J (2005) Primer registro fósil de las familias Gekkonidae (Lacertilia) y Colubridae (Serpentes) en el Plioceno de Punta Nati (Menorca, Islas Baleares). In: Alcover J, Bover P (eds) Proceedings of the international symposium insular vertebrate evolution: the palaeontological approach. Monografies de la Societat d’Història Natural de les Balears, Palma de MallorcaGoogle Scholar
  11. Bailon S, Bover P, Quintana J, Alcover JA (2010) First fossil record of Vipera Laurenti 1768 “Oriental vipers complex” (Serpentes: Viperidae) from the Early Pliocene of the western Mediterranean islands. CR Palevol 9:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bailon S, Boistel R, Bover P, Alcover JA (2014) Maioricalacerta rafelinensis, gen. et sp. nov. (Squamata, Lacertidae), from the early Pliocene of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean Sea). J Vertebr Paleontol 34:318–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barbadillo LJ (1987) La guía INCAFO de los anfibios y reptiles de la Península Ibérica. Islas Baleares y Canarias, INCAFOGoogle Scholar
  14. Bate DMA (1914) On Remains of a Gigantic Land Tortoise (Testudo gtmnesicus, N.SP.) from the Pleistocene of Menorca. Geol Mag 1:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blondel J, Aronson J, Bodiou J-Y, Boeuf G (2010) The Mediterraneaen region—Biological diversity in space and time. Vasa 401Google Scholar
  16. Boscá E (1883) Exploracion herpetológica de la Isla de Íbiza. An la Soc Española Hist Nat 12:241–250Google Scholar
  17. Boudjelas S (2009) Public participation in invasive species management. In: Clout MN, Williams PA (eds) Invasive species management: a handbook of principles and techniques. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 93–107Google Scholar
  18. Bour R (1985) Una nova tortuga terrestre del Pleistocé d’Eivissa: la tortuga de la cova de Ca Na Reia. Endis 10–11:57–62Google Scholar
  19. Bover P, Quintana J, Alcover JA (2008) Three islands, three worlds: paleogeography and evolution of the vertebrate fauna from the Balearic Islands. Quat Int 182:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bover P, Rofes J, Bailon S et al (2014) Late Miocene/Early Pliocene vertebrate fauna from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean): an update. Integr Zool 9:183–196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bowen-Jones E, Entwistle A (2002) Identifying appropriate flagship species: the importance of culture and local contexts. Oryx 36:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown RP, Perez-Mellado V (1994) Ecological energetics and food acquisition in dense menorcan islet populations of the lizard Podarcis lilfordi. Funct Ecol 8:427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bull L, Courchamp F (2009) Management of interacting invasives: ecosystem approaches. In: Clout MN, Williams PA (eds) Invasive species management: a handbook of principles and techniques. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 232–247Google Scholar
  24. Capula M (1993) Natural hybridization in Podarcis sicula and P. wagleriana (Reptilia: Lacertidae). Biochem Syst Ecol 21:373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Capula M (2002) Genetic evidence of natural hybridization between Podarcis sicula and Podarcis tiliguerta (Reptilia: Lacertidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 23:313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Capula M, Luiselli L, Bologna MA, Ceccarelli A (2002) The decline of the Aeolian wall lizard, Podarcis raffonei: causes and conservation proposals. Oryx—Int J Conserv 36:66–72Google Scholar
  27. Carrera D, Pons P (2010) Importància de les basses temporals per a la conservació dels amfibis Menorquins. In: Fraga P, Estaún I, Cardona E (eds) Basses temporals mediterrànies. LIFE BASSES: gestió i conservació a Menorca. ConsellInsular de Menorca, Institut Menorquí d’Estudis, Maó, pp 327–363Google Scholar
  28. Carretero MA, Silva-rocha I (2015) La culebra de escalera (Rhinechis scalaris) en las Islas Baleares. Bol la Asoc Herpetológica Española 26:105–108Google Scholar
  29. Cau MÁ, Valenzuela A, Alcover JA (2016) Archaeological evidence for the introduction of Emys orbicularis (Testudines: Emydidae) in the Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean. Amphibia-Reptilia 37:229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chapman R (1990) Emerging complexity. The later prehistory of South-East Spain, Iberia and the West Mediterranean. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  31. Dappen N, Losin N, Pérez-Mellado V (2013) The symbol: wall lizards of Ibiza and Formentera. Day’s Edge ProductionsGoogle Scholar
  32. Feriche M (2015) Culebra de herradura—Hemorrhois hippocrepis. In: Salvador A, Marco A (eds) Enciclopedia Virtual de los Vertebrados Españoles. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid. Assessed in January 2017
  33. Fernández JH (1975) Los dioses de la Ibiza cartaginesa. Eivissa 7:31–38Google Scholar
  34. Ficetola GF, Padoa-schioppa E (2009) Human activities alter biogeographical patterns of reptiles on Mediterranean islands. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 18:214–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fitzgerald LA (2012) Finding and Capturing Reptiles. In: McDiarmid R, Foster M, Guyer C et al (eds) Reptile biodiversity. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 77–88Google Scholar
  36. Fortuny Santos J (2002) Metodologia del analisis sectorial en el sistema agroalimentario, aplicada al subsector oleicola catalan: evaluacion de la competitividad, el progresso tecnologico y la eficiencia economica empresarial. Universitat de LleidaGoogle Scholar
  37. Fritz U, Auer M, Bertolero A et al (2006) A rangewide phylogeography of Hermann’s tortoise, Testudo hermanni (Reptilia: Testudines: Testudinidae): implications for taxonomy. Zool Scr 35:531–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gallo T, Waitt D (2011) Creating a successful citizen science model to detect and report invasive species. Bioscience 61:459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garcia-Porta J, Quintana J, Bailon S (2002) Prier hallazgo de Blanus sp (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia) en el neógeno balear. Rev Esp Herpet 16:19–28Google Scholar
  40. Gil JM, Pleguezuelos JM (2001) Prey and prey-size selection by the short-toed eagle (Circaetus gallicus) during the breeding season in Granada (south-eastern Spain). J Zool 255:131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gimeno I, Vilà M, Hulme PE (2006) Are islands more susceptible to plant invasion than continents? A test using Oxalis pes-caprae L. in the western Mediterranean. J Biogeogr 33:1559–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Graziani F, Berti R, Dapporto L, Corti C (2006) Podarcis lizards in an agro-environment in Tuscany (Central Italy): preliminary data on the role of olive tree plantations. In: Corti C, Lo Cascio P, Biaggini M (eds) Mainland and insular Lacertid lizards: a Mediterranean perspective. Firenze University Press, Firenze, pp 65–72Google Scholar
  43. Greca M, Sacchi C (1957) Problemi del popolamento animale nelle piccole isole mediterranee. Annuario Museo Zoologico della Università di Napoli, 9Google Scholar
  44. Grice T (2009) Principles of containment and control of invasive species. In: Clout MN, Williams PA (eds) Invasive species management: a handbook of principles and techniques. Oxford Biology, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  45. Guicking D, Joger U, Wink M (2008) Molecular phylogeography of the viperine snake Natrix maura (Serpentes: Colubridae): evidence for strong intraspecific differentiation. Org Divers Evol 8:130–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Guirand F (1960) Mythologie générale. Librairie Larousse, ParisGoogle Scholar
  47. Herrel A, Huyghe K, Vanhooydonck B et al (2008) Rapid large-scale evolutionary divergence in morphology and performance associated with exploitation of a different dietary resource. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:4792–5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hinckley A, Montes E, Ayllón E, Pleguezuelos JM (2017) The fall of a symbol? A high predation rate by the introduced horseshoe whip snake Hemorrhois hippocrepis paints a bleak future for the endemic Ibiza wall lizard Podarcis pityusensis. Eur J Wildl Res 63:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jiménez-Moreno G, Fauquette S, Suc JP (2010) Miocene to Pliocene vegetation reconstruction and climate estimates in the Iberian Peninsula from pollen data. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 162:403–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kirschbaum HL, Pauly GB (2016) Feeding ecology and range expansion of the nonnative Italian wall lizard (Podarcis sicula). In: AAAS 2016 annual meeting: global science engagement. AAAS, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  51. Kotsakis T (1981) Le Lucertole (Lacertidae, Squamata) del Pliocene, Pleistocene e Olocene delle Baleari. Bolletí la Soc d’Història Nat les Balear 25:135–150Google Scholar
  52. Kraus F (2009) Impacts of alien reptiles and amphibians. Alien Reptil Amphib A Sci Compend Anal 57–93Google Scholar
  53. Lewthwaite J (1985) Social factors and economic change in Balearic prehistory, 3000–1000 B.C. In: Barker G, Gamble C (eds) Beyond domestication in prehistoric Europe. Academic Press, London, pp 205–231Google Scholar
  54. MacArthur RH, Wilson O (1967) The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton N.J., p 203Google Scholar
  55. Mateo JA (2015) Los Anfibios y los Reptiles Introducidos en Baleares: un repaso a lo que sabemos y un ejemplo de puerta de entrada. Llibre Verd Protecció d’Espècies a les Balear 447–454Google Scholar
  56. Mateo J, Ayllón E (2012) Viabilidad del Control de Ofidios en Ibiza y Formentera 72Google Scholar
  57. Mateo JA, Ayres C, Lopez-Jurado LF (2011) Los anfibios y reptiles naturalizados en España. Historia y evolución de una problemática creciente. Bol la Asoc Herpetol Esp 22:2–42Google Scholar
  58. Mayol J (1985) Rèptils i amfibis de les Illes Balears. Editorial Moll, Palma de MallorcaGoogle Scholar
  59. McNeely J (2001) An introduction to human dimensions of invasive alien species. In: McNeely J (ed) The great reshuffling: human dimensions of invasive alien species. IUCN Publishers, Gland, pp 5–22Google Scholar
  60. Mela P. (around 43 D.A.) Cosmografia sive de situ orbis. Retrieved from–0/html/ffa61dcc-82b1-11df-acc7-002185ce6064_4.htm. Accessed in Jan 2017
  61. Melero Y, Palazón S, Bonesi L, Gosàlbez J (2010) Relative abundance of culled and not culled American mink populations in northeast Spain and their potential distribution: are culling campaigns effective? Biol Invasions 12:3877–3885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moreno-Rueda G, Pleguezuelos J (2009) Climate warming and activity period extension in the Mediterranean snake Malpolon monspessulanus. Clim Change 92:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moyà-Solà S, Pons-Moyà J, Alcover JA, Agusti JS (1984) La fauna de vertebrados neógeno-cuaternario de Eivissa (Pitiuses). Nota preliminar. Acta Geol Hisp 19(1):33–35Google Scholar
  64. Moyà-Solà S, Quintana J, Alcover JA, Köhler M (1999) Endemic island faunas of the Mediterranean Miocene. In: The Miocene Land Mammals of Europe, pp 435–442Google Scholar
  65. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG et al (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nevo E, Gorman G, Soulé M et al (1972) Competitive exclusion between insular Lacerta species (Sauria, Lacertidae)—Notes on experimental Introductions. Oecologia 10:183–190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Novosolov M, Raia P, Meiri S (2013) The island syndrome in lizards. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 22:184–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Oliverio M, Burke R, Bologna MA et al (2001) Molecular characterization of native (Italy) and introduced (USA) Podarcis sicula populations (Reptilia, Lacertidae). Ital J Zool 68:121–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Parker WS, Plummer MV (1987) Population ecology. In: Seigel RA, Collins JT, Novak SS (eds) Snakes: ecology and evolutionary biology. Macmillan, New York, pp 253–301Google Scholar
  70. Pedall I, Fritz U, Stuckas H et al (2011) Gene flow across secondary contact zones of the Emys orbicularis complex in the Western Mediterranean and evidence for extinction and re-introduction of pond turtles on Corsica and Sardinia (Testudines: Emydidae). J Zool Syst Evol Res 49:44–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pérez-Mellado V (1998) Podarcis sicula (Rafinesque, 1810). In: Al. R et (ed) Fauna Ibérica. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MadridGoogle Scholar
  72. Pérez-Mellado V, Corti C (1993) Dietary adaptations and herbivory in lacertid lizards of the genus Podarcis from western Mediterranean islands (Reptilia: Sauria). Bonn Zool Beitr 44:193–220Google Scholar
  73. Pinya S, Carretero MA (2011) The Balearic herpetofauna: a species update and a review on the evidence. Acta Herpetol 6:59–80Google Scholar
  74. Pleguezuelos JM (2004) Las especies introducidas de anfibios y reptiles. In: Pleguezuelos JM, Márquez R, Lizana M (eds) Atlas y libro rojo de los anfibios y reptiles de España. Dirección General de Conservación de la Naturaleza, 2nd edn. Asociación Herpetológica Española, Madrid, pp 502–532Google Scholar
  75. Pleguezuelos JM, Moreno M (1990) Alimentación de Coluber hippocrepis en el SE de la península Ibérica. Amphibia-Reptilia 11:325–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pleguezuelos JM, Fernández-Cardenete JR, Honrubia S et al (2007) Correlates between morphology, diet and foraging mode in the Ladder Snake Rhinechis scalaris (Schinz, 1822). Contrib to Zool 76:179–186Google Scholar
  77. Quintana J (1998) Aproximación a los yacimientos de vertebrados del Mio-Pleistoceno de la isla de Menorca. Bolleti la Soc d’Historia Nat les Balear 41:101–117Google Scholar
  78. Ramis D, Alcover JA, Coll CJ et al (2001) The chronology of the first settlement of the Balearic islands. J Mediterr Archaeol 15:3–24Google Scholar
  79. Rato C, Carranza S, Perera A et al (2010) Conflicting patterns of nucleotide diversity between mtDNA and nDNA in the Moorish gecko, Tarentola mauritanica. Mol Phylogenet Evol 56:962–971CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Reaser JK, Meyerson LA, Cronk Q et al (2007) Ecological and socioeconomic impacts of invasive alien species in island ecosystems. Environ Conserv 34:98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Recuero E, Iraola A, Rubio X et al (2007) Mitochondrial differentiation and biogeography of Hyla meridionalis (Anura: Hylidae): an unusual phylogeographical pattern. J Biogeogr 34:1207–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rivera X, Arribas O, Carranza S, Maluquer-margalef J (2011) An introduction of Podarcis sicula in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) on imported olive trees. Butlletí la Soc Catalana d’Herpetologia 19:79–85Google Scholar
  83. Rodda GH, Fritts TH, Iii EWC, et al (1996) Practical concerns in the eradication of island snakes. Specialist 260–265Google Scholar
  84. Rodda GH, Sawai Y, Chiszar D, Tanaka H (1999) Part V, capture and detection. In: Problem snake management: the habu and the brown treesnake. Comstock Publishing AssociatesGoogle Scholar
  85. Rodríguez V, Brown RP, Terrasa B et al (2013) Multilocus genetic diversity and historical biogeography of the endemic wall lizard from Ibiza and Formentera, Podarcis pityusensis (Squamata: Lacertidae). Mol Ecol 22:4829–4841CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Román A (2004) Alytes muletensis (Sanchiz & Adrover, 1977) In: Pleguezuelos J, Márquez R, Lizana M (eds) Atlas y libro rojo de los anfibios y reptiles de España, 2nd edn. Dirección General de Conservación de la Naturaleza, Asociación Herpetológica Española, Madrid, pp 79–81Google Scholar
  87. Sakai AK, Allendorf FW, Holt JS et al (2001) The population biology of invasive species. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 32(305–332):7Google Scholar
  88. Salazar de Mendonza DP (1770) Monarquía de España. In: Ibarra J (ed) Don Bartholome Ulloa. Mercader de Libros, MadridGoogle Scholar
  89. Salo P, Korpimäki E, Banks PB et al (2007) Alien predators are more dangerous than native predators to prey populations. Proc Biol Sci 274:1237–43CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Salvador A (2015) Lagartija de las Pitiusas—Podarcis pityusensis (Boscá, 1883). Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MadridGoogle Scholar
  91. Seigel R, Ford N (1987) Reproductive ecology. In: Seigel R, Collins J, Novak S (eds) Snakes: ecology and evolutionary biology. Macmillan, New York, pp 210–252Google Scholar
  92. Shine R (1981) Venomous snakes in cold climates ecology of the Australian genus Drysdalia (Serpentes Elapidae). Copeia 1981:14–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shine R (2003) Reproductive strategies in snakes. Proc Biol Sci 270:995–1004CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Shine R, Madsen TRL, Elphick MJ, Harlow PS (1997) The influence of nest temperatures and maternal brooding on hatchling phenotypes in water pythons. Ecology 78:1713–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Silva-Rocha I (2012) Patterns of biological invasion in the herpetofauna of the Balearic Islands: determining the origin and predicting the expansion as conservation tools. Universidade do Porto, PortoGoogle Scholar
  96. Silva-Rocha I, Salvi D, Carretero MA (2012) Genetic data reveal a multiple origin for the populations of the Italian wall lizard Podarcis sicula (Squamata: Lacertidae) introduced in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic islands. Ital J Zool 79:502–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Silva-Rocha I, Salvi D, Harris DJ et al (2014) Molecular assessment of Podarcis sicula populations in Britain, Greece and Turkey reinforces a multiple-origin invasion pattern in this species. Acta Herpetol 9:253–258Google Scholar
  98. Silva-Rocha I, Salvi D, Sillero N et al (2015) Snakes on the balearic islands: an invasion tale with implications for native biodiversity conservation. PLoS ONE 10(4):e0121026CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Simberloff D, Von Holle B (1999) Positive interactions of nonindigenous species: invasional meltdown? Biol Invasions 1:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Speybroeck J, Beukema W, Crochet PA (2010) A tentative species list of the european herpetofauna (amphibia and reptilia)—an update. Zootaxa 27:1–27Google Scholar
  101. Stohlgren TJ, Jarnevich C (2009) Risk assessment of invasive species. In: Clout M, Willians P (eds) Invasive species management: a handbook of principles and techniques. Oxford Biology, Oxford, pp 19–35Google Scholar
  102. van den Berg M, Zawadzki M (2010) Wiederentdeckung einer ausgestorben geglaubten Population der Baleareneidechse, Podarcis lilfordi (GÜNTHER, 1874) auf der Illa de Ses Mones (Balearen, Menorca, Spanien) in Sympatrie mit der Ruineneidechse, Podarcis siculus (RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ, 1810). Accessed 10 Jan 2017
  103. Velázquez Brieva F (2007) El dios Bes: de Egipto a Ibiza. Museu Arqueològic d’Eivissa i Formentera, IbizaGoogle Scholar
  104. Velo-Antón G, Wink M, Schneeweiß N, Fritz U (2011) Native or not? Tracing the origin of wild-caught and captive freshwater turtles in a threatened and widely distributed species (Emys orbicularis). Conserv Genet 12:583–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Viada C, Mayol J, Oliver J (2006) Libro rojo de los vertebrados de las Baleares. Conselleria de Medi Ambient, 3rd edn. Govern de les Illes Balears, MallorcaGoogle Scholar
  106. Vitousek PM, Loope LL, Aderson H, D’Antonio C (1996) Island Ecosystems: do they represent “natural experiments” in biological diversity and ecosystem function? Funct Roles Biodivers A Glob Perspect 245–259Google Scholar
  107. Whittaker RJ, Fernandez-Palacios JM (2007) Island biogeography: ecology, evolution, and conservation. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  108. Williamson MH (1996) Biological invasions. Chapman & HallGoogle Scholar
  109. Wittenberg R, Cock MJW (2001) Invasive alien species: a toolkit of best prevention and management practices. Glob Invasive species Program 241Google Scholar
  110. Zamora-Camacho FJ, Moreno-Rueda G, Pleguezuelos JM (2010) Long- and short-term impact of temperature on snake detection in the wild: further evidence from the snake Hemorrhois hippocrepis. Acta Herpetol 5:143–150Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iolanda Silva-Rocha
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Elba Montes
    • 5
    • 6
  • Daniele Salvi
    • 9
  • Neftalí Sillero
    • 3
  • José A. Mateo
    • 4
  • Enrique Ayllón
    • 7
  • Juan M. Pleguezuelos
    • 8
  • Miguel A. Carretero
    • 1
  1. 1.CIBIO/InBIO—Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic ResourcesUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.FCUP, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  3. 3.CICGE: Centro de Investigação em Ciências Geo-Espaciais, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do PortoVila Nova de GaiaPortugal
  4. 4.Black MarketPalma de MallorcaSpain
  5. 5.Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biological ScienciesValencia UniversityValenciaSpain
  6. 6.Environment Department, Ibiza Island CouncilIbizaSpain
  7. 7.Asociacion Herpetologica EspanolaEspanolaSpain
  8. 8.Department of Zoology, Faculty of SciencesGranada UniversityGranadaSpain
  9. 9.Department of Health, Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of L’Aquila, Via VetoioCoppito, L’AquilaItaly

Personalised recommendations