Advertisement

Transport Policy Measures for Climate Change as Drivers for Health in Cities

  • Haneen Khreis
  • Andrew Sudmant
  • Andy Gouldson
  • Mark Nieuwenhuijsen
Chapter

Abstract

Climate change is an urgent challenge that requires action at the national, regional and local levels. However, a perception that impacts on human wellbeing and the economy will only be felt in the distant future, and a belief that climate action would require reducing attention towards a host of other environmental and societal issues, stand in the way of measures being taken. With cities emerging as key actors in fighting climate change as well as other societal and environmental issues, this chapter provides a review of the ways urban climate action provides direct and more immediate benefits —in climate terms, ‘co-benefits’— to public health. We focus on the impacts of five key transport policy measures which have been established to yield significant greenhouse gas reductions and substantial economic benefits. These are: (1) compact land use planning to reduce motorised passenger travel demand, (2) passenger modal shift and improving transit efficiency, (3) electrification and passenger vehicle efficiency, (4) freight logistics and (5) freight vehicle efficiency and electrification. We show that these measures have great potential to improve public health in urban areas whilst mitigating climate change, and provide arguments that in some cases these benefits may rival, or exceed, benefits to the economy and climate from these actions. We conclude that climate change action in the transport sector represents a great opportunity for policymakers to develop transport roadmaps that jointly achieve climate change objectives and improve public health in cities.

Notes

Acknowledgement

Research for this chapter was originally conducted with support from the New Climate Economy, an international initiative that examines the risks and opportunities of addressing climate change. Special thanks are extended to Sarah Colenbrander for her help in reviewing this analysis.

References

  1. American Public Transportation Association. (2016). The hidden traffic safety solution: Public transportation. Retrieved from https://www.apta.com/resources/reportsandpublications/Documents/APTA-Hidden-Traffic-Safety-Solution-Public-Transportation.pdf.
  2. Anderson, M. L., & Auffhammer, M. (2013). Pounds that kill: The external costs of vehicle weight. Review of Economic Studies, 81(2), 535–571. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/restud/article/81/2/535/1517632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arup/C40. (2014). Climate Action in Megacities Version 2.0. Retrieved from http://issuu.com/c40cities/docs/c40_climate_action_in_megacities/11?e=10643095/6541335.
  4. Bartholomew, K. (2007). Land use-transportation scenario planning: Promise and reality. Transportation, 34(4), 397–412. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11116-006-9108-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beck, L. F., Dellinger, A. M., & O’Neil, M. E. (2007). Motor vehicle crash injury rates by mode of travel, United States: Using exposure-based methods to quantify differences. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(2), 212–218. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/166/2/212/98784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell, M. C., & Galatioto, F. (2013). Novel wireless pervasive sensor network to improve the understanding of noise in street canyons. Applied Acoustics, 74(1), 169–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Besser, L. M., & Dannenberg, A. L. (2005). Walking to public transit: Steps to help meet physical activity recommendations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29(4), 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhalla, K., Shotten, M., Cohen, A., Brauer, M., Shahraz, S., Burnett, R., et al. (2014). Transport for health: The global burden of disease from motorized road transport. Retrieved from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/984261468327002120/pdf/863040IHME0T4H0ORLD0BANK0compressed.pdf.
  9. Blazquez, C., Lee, J. S., & Zegras, C. (2016). Children at risk: A comparison of child pedestrian traffic collisions in Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea. Traffic Injury Prevention, 17(3), 304–312. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15389588.2015.1060555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boyko, C. T., & Cooper, R. (2011). Clarifying and re-conceptualising density. Progress in Planning, 76(1), 1–61. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305900611000274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brownson, R. C., Boehmer, T. K., & Luke, D. A. (2005). Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: What are the contributors? Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 421–443. Retrieved from http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buehler, R., & Pucher, J. (2012). Demand for public transport in Germany and the USA: An analysis of rider characteristics. Transport Reviews, 32(5), 541–567. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01441647.2012.707695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cames, M., & Helmers, E. (2013). Critical evaluation of the European diesel car boom-global comparison, environmental effects and various national strategies. Environmental Sciences Europe, 25(1), 15. Retrieved from https://enveurope.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/2190-4715-25-15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cho, G., Rodríguez, D. A., & Khattak, A. J. (2009). The role of the built environment in explaining relationships between perceived and actual pedestrian and bicyclist safety. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41(4), 692–702. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001457509000554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen, D. A., Ashwood, S., Scott, M., Overton, A., Evenson, K. R., Voorhees, C. C., et al. (2006). Proximity to school and physical activity among middle school girls: The trial of activity for adolescent girls study. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 3(Suppl 1), S129–S138. Retrieved from https://activelivingresearch.org/sites/default/files/JPAH_9_Cohen_0.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Committee on Environmental Health. (2009). The built environment: Designing communities to promote physical activity in children. Pediatrics, 123(6), 1591–1598. Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/123/6/1591.short.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Conlan, B., Fraser, A., Vedrenne, M., Tate, J., & Whittles, A. (2016). Evidence review on effectiveness of transport measures in reducing nitrogen dioxide. London: Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). Retrieved from https://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/assets/documents/reports.Google Scholar
  18. Creutzig, F., & He, D. (2009). Climate change mitigation and co-benefits of feasible transport demand policies in Beijing. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 14(2), 120–131. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361920908001478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Creutzig, F., Mühlhoff, R., & Römer, J. (2012). Decarbonizing urban transport in European cities: Four cases show possibly high co-benefits. Environmental Research Letters, 7(4), 044042. Retrieved from http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044042/meta.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. D’Haese, S., Vanwolleghem, G., Hinckson, E., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Deforche, B., Van Dyck, D., & Cardon, G. (2015). Cross-continental comparison of the association between the physical environment and active transportation in children: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 145. Retrieved from https://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12966-015-0308-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Day, K., Boarnet, M., Alfonzo, M., & Forsyth, A. (2006). The Irvine–Minnesota inventory to measure built environments: Development. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30(2), 144–152. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379705004289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dumbaugh, E., & Li, W. (2010). Designing for the safety of pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists in urban environments. Journal of the American Planning Association, 77(1), 69–88. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944363.2011.536101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elias, W., & Shiftan, Y. (2014). Analyzing and modeling risk exposure of pedestrian children to involvement in car crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 62, 397–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ewing, R., & Hamidi, S. (2015). Compactness versus sprawl: A review of recent evidence from the United States. CPL Bibliography, 30(4), 413–432. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0885412215595439.Google Scholar
  25. Ewing, R., Bartholomew, K., Winkelman, S., Walters, J., & Anderson, G. (2008a). Urban development and climate change. Journal of Urbanism, 1(3), 201–216. Retrieved from http://rsa.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17549170802529316#.Wfoi2WhSyUk.Google Scholar
  26. Ewing, R., Schmid, T., Killingsworth, R., Zlot, A., & Raudenbush, S. (2008b). Relationship between urban sprawl and physical activity, obesity, and morbidity. In Urban ecology (pp. 567–582). New York: Springer. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-0-387-73412-5_37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ewing, R., Meakins, G., Hamidi, S., & Nelson, A. C. (2014). Relationship between urban sprawl and physical activity, obesity, and morbidity–Update and refinement. Health & Place, 26, 118–126. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135382921300172X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Flint, E., Webb, E., & Cummins, S. (2016). Change in commute mode and body-mass index: Prospective, longitudinal evidence from UK Biobank. The Lancet. Public Health, 1(2), e46–e55. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2468266716300068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Foraster, M., Deltell, A., Basagaña, X., Medina-Ramón, M., Aguilera, I., Bouso, L., et al. (2011). Local determinants of road traffic noise levels versus determinants of air pollution levels in a Mediterranean city. Environmental Research, 111(1), 177–183. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935110001878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Frank, L. D., Schmid, T. L., Sallis, J. F., Chapman, J., & Saelens, B. E. (2005). Linking objectively measured physical activity with objectively measured urban form: Findings from SMARTRAQ. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(2), 117–125. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379704003253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fritschi, L., Brown, L., Kim, R., Schwela, D., & Kephalopolous, S. (2011). Burden of disease from environmental noise - quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe, World Health Organisation.Google Scholar
  32. Frumkin, H. (2002). Urban sprawl and public health. Public Health Reports, 117(3), 201. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/articles/urban_sprawl_and_public_health_phr.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gasser, M., Riediker, M., Mueller, L., Perrenoud, A., Blank, F., Gehr, P., & Rothen-Rutishauser, B. (2009). Toxic effects of brake wear particles on epithelial lung cells in vitro. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 6(1), 30. Retrieved from https://particleandfibretoxicology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-8977-6-30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gehring, U., Beelen, R., Eeftens, M., Hoek, G., De Hoogh, K., De Jongste, J. C., Keuken, M., et al. (2015). Particulate matter composition and respiratory health: The PIAMA Birth Cohort study. Epidemiology, 26(3), 300–309. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/epidem/Abstract/2015/05000/Particulate_Matter_Composition_and_Respiratory.3.aspx.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Giles-Corti, B., Vernez-Moudon, A., Reis, R., Turrell, G., Dannenberg, A. L., Badland, H., et al. (2016). City planning and population health: A global challenge. The Lancet, 388(10062), 2912–2924. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673616300666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Godwin, A., & Price, A. M. (2016). Bicycling and walking in the Southeast USA: Why is it rare and risky? Journal of Transport & Health, 3(1), 26–37. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214140516000074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Götschi, T., Garrard, J., & Giles-Corti, B. (2016). Cycling as a part of daily life: A review of health perspectives. Transport Reviews, 36(1), 45–71. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01441647.2015.1057877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gouldson, A., Colenbrander, S., Sudmant, A., McAnulla, F., Kerr, N., Sakai, P., et al. (2015). Exploring the economic case for climate action in cities. Global Environmental Change, 35, 93–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.07.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Grabow, M. L., Spak, S. N., Holloway, T., Stone, B., Jr., Mednick, A. C., & Patz, J. A. (2012). Air quality and exercise-related health benefits from reduced car travel in the midwestern United States. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(1), 68. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3261937/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Green, C. P., Heywood, J. S., & Navarro, M. (2016). Traffic accidents and the London congestion charge. Journal of Public Economics, 133, 11–22. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272715001929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Guttikunda, S. K., & Mohan, D. (2014). Re-fueling road transport for better air quality in India. Energy Policy, 68, 556–561. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421514000020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hamer, M., & Chida, Y. (2009). Physical activity and risk of neurodegenerative disease: A systematic review of prospective evidence. Psychological Medicine, 39(1), 3–11. Retrieved from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/psychological-medicine/article/physical-activity-and-risk-of-neurodegenerative-disease-a-systematic-review-of-prospective-evidence/5FB109E05E85CF701F11FB6DBA9AE9B3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hänninen, O., Knol, A. B., Jantunen, M., Lim, T. A., Conrad, A., Rappolder, M., et al. (2014). Environmental burden of disease in Europe: Assessing nine risk factors in six countries. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(5), 439. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4014759/.Google Scholar
  44. Harlan, S. L., & Ruddell, D. M. (2011). Climate change and health in cities: Impacts of heat and air pollution and potential co-benefits from mitigation and adaptation. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 3, 126–134. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877343511000029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hu, G., Qiao, Q., Silventoinen, K., Eriksson, J. G., Jousilahti, P., Lindström, J., et al. (2003). Occupational, commuting, and leisure-time physical activity in relation to risk for type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Finnish men and women. Diabetologia, 46(3), 322–329. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-003-1031-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hu, G., Jousilahti, P., Borodulin, K., Barengo, N. C., Lakka, T. A., Nissinen, A., & Tuomilehto, J. (2007). Occupational, commuting and leisure-time physical activity in relation to coronary heart disease among middle-aged Finnish men and women. Atherosclerosis, 194(2), 490–497. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021915006005363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. IEA. (2015). World energy outlook special report 2015: Energy and climate change. Retrieved from https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/weo-2015-special-report-2015-energy-and-climate-change.html.
  48. IEA. (2016). World energy outlook special report 2016: Energy and air pollution. Retrieved from https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/weo-2016-special-report-energy-and-air-pollution.html.
  49. Jabben, J., Verheijen, E., & Potma, C. (2012, August). Noise reduction by electric vehicles in the Netherlands. In Proceedings of Internoise.Google Scholar
  50. Jacobsen, P. L. (2003). Safety in numbers: More walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. Injury Prevention, 9(3), 205–209. Retrieved from http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/9/3/205.short.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. James, P., Ito, K., Buonocore, J. J., Levy, J. I., & Arcaya, M. C. (2014). A Health Impact Assessment of proposed public transportation service cuts and fare increases in Boston, Massachusetts (USA). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(8), 8010–8024. Retrieved from http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/11/8/8010/htm.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ji, S., Cherry, C. R., Bechle M, J., Wu, Y., & Marshall, J. D. (2012). Electric vehicles in China: Emissions and health impacts. Environmental Science & Technology, 46(4), 2018–2024. Retrieved from http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es202347q.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kenworthy, J., & Laube, F. (2002). Travel demand management: The potential for enhancing urban rail opportunities & reducing automobile dependence in cities. World Transport Policy & Practice, 8(3.) Retrieved from https://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=768994.
  54. Khreis, H., Warsow, K. M., Verlinghieri, E., Guzman, A., Pellecuer, L., Ferreira, A., et al. (2016). The health impacts of traffic-related exposures in urban areas: Understanding real effects, underlying driving forces and co-producing future directions. Journal of Transport & Health, 3(3), 249–267. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214140516301992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Khreis, H., May, A. D., & Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. (2017). Health impacts of urban transport policy measures: A guidance note for practice. Journal of Transport & Health, 6, 209–227. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214140516304145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leather, J. (2009). Rethinking transport and climate change. Asian Development Bank and Clean Air Initiative. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11540/1403. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
  57. Lee, C., & Moudon, A. V. (2004). Physical activity and environment research in the health field: Implications for urban and transportation planning practice and research. CPL Bibliography, 19(2), 147–181. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0885412204267680.Google Scholar
  58. Lee, T., & Van de Meene, S. (2013). Comparative studies of urban climate co-benefits in Asian cities: An analysis of relationships between CO2 emissions and environmental indicators. Journal of Cleaner Production, 58, 15–24. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652613003211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lee, G., Ritchie, S. G., Saphores, J. D., Jayakrishnan, R., & Ogunseitan, O. (2012). Assessing air quality and health benefits of the Clean Truck Program in the Alameda corridor, CA. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 46(8), 1177–1193. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965856412000808.Google Scholar
  60. Lee, J. S., Christopher Zegras, P., & Ben-Joseph, E. (2013). Safely active mobility for urban baby boomers: The role of neighborhood design. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 61, 153–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lee, E. Y., Jerrett, M., Ross, Z., Coogan, P. F., & Seto, E. Y. (2014). Assessment of traffic-related noise in three cities in the United States. Environmental Research, 132, 182–189. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24792415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ling-Yun, H. E., & Lu-Yi, Q. I. U. (2016). Transport demand, harmful emissions, environment and health co-benefits in China. Energy Policy, 97, 267–275. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Litman, T. (2011). Pricing for traffic safety: How efficient transport pricing can reduce roadway crash risk. Victoria: Victoria Transport Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  64. Litman, T. (2012). Pricing for traffic safety: How efficient transport pricing can reduce roadway crash risks. Transportation Research Record, 2318, 16–22. Retrieved from http://trrjournalonline.trb.org/doi/pdf/10.3141/2318-03.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lubans, D. R., Boreham, C. A., Kelly, P., & Foster, C. E. (2011). The relationship between active travel to school and health-related fitness in children and adolescents: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1), 5. Retrieved from https://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1479-5868-8-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. MacArthur, J., Dill, J., & Person, M. (2014). Electric bikes in North America: Results of an online survey. Transportation Research Record, 2468, 123–130. Retrieved from http://docs.trb.org/prp/14-4885.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Martin, A., Panter, J., Suhrcke, M., & Ogilvie, D. (2015). Impact of changes in mode of travel to work on changes in body mass index: Evidence from the British Household Panel Survey. Journal of Epidemiology Community Health, jech-2014.Google Scholar
  68. Matthews, C. E., Jurj, A. L., Shu, X. O., Li, H. L., Yang, G., Li, Q., et al. (2007). Influence of exercise, walking, cycling, and overall nonexercise physical activity on mortality in Chinese women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165(12), 1343–1350. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/165/12/1343/125702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McKinley, G., Zuk, M., Höjer, M., Avalos, M., González, I., Iniestra, R., et al. (2005). Quantification of local and global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City. Retrieved from http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es035183e.
  70. Mendonça, C., Freitas, E., Ferreira, J. P., Raimundo, I. D., & Santos, J. A. (2013). Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 51, 11–17. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001457512003740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Miranda-Moreno, L. F., Morency, P., & El-Geneidy, A. M. (2011). The link between built environment, pedestrian activity and pedestrian–vehicle collision occurrence at signalized intersections. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(5), 1624–1634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mueller, N., Rojas-Rueda, D., Cole-Hunter, T., de Nazelle, A., Dons, E., Gerike, R., et al. (2015). Health impact assessment of active transportation: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 76, 103–114. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743515001164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mueller, N., Rojas-Rueda, D., Basagaña, X., Cirach, M., Cole-Hunter, T., Dadvand, P., et al. (2017a). Urban and transport planning related exposures and mortality: A health impact assessment for cities. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125(1), 89. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5226698/.Google Scholar
  74. Mueller, N., Rojas-Rueda, D., Basagaña, X., Cirach, M., Cole-Hunter, T., Dadvand, P., et al. (2017b). Health impacts related to urban and transport planning: A burden of disease assessment. Environment International, 107, 243–257. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412017303665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nakahara, S., Ichikawa, M., & Kimura, A. (2011). Population strategies and high-risk-individual strategies for road safety in Japan. Health Policy, 100(2), 247–255. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168851010003350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., & Khreis, H. (2016). Car free cities: Pathway to healthy urban living. Environment International, 94, 251–262. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016302161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ogilvie, D., Egan, M., Hamilton, V., & Petticrew, M. (2004). Promoting walking and cycling as an alternative to using cars: Systematic review. BMJ, 329(7469), 763. Retrieved from http://www.bmj.com/content/329/7469/763.short.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pathak, M., & Shukla, P. R. (2016). Co-benefits of low carbon passenger transport actions in Indian cities: Case study of Ahmedabad. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 44, 303–316. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361920915001078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Préfecture de Police. (2013). ‘Bilan Sécurité Routière de la Préfecture de Police; Blesses Graves’ 2013.Google Scholar
  80. Rabl, A., & De Nazelle, A. (2012). Benefits of shift from car to active transport. Transport Policy, 19(1), 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reisi, M., Aye, L., Rajabifard, A., & Ngo, T. (2016). Land-use planning: Implications for transport sustainability. Land Use Policy, 50, 252–261. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264837715002896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Roberts, I., Marshall, R., & Norton, R. (1992). Child pedestrian mortality and traffic volume in New Zealand. BMJ, 305(6848), 283. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1882717/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rode, P., Floater, G., et al. (2013). Going green: How cities are leading the next economy. London: LSE Cities, London School of Economics and Political Science.Google Scholar
  84. Rodriguez, D. A., Khattak, A. J., & Evenson, K. R. (2006). Can new urbanism encourage physical activity?: Comparing a new Urbanist neighborhood with conventional suburbs. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1), 43–54. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944360608976723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rojas-Rueda, D., De Nazelle, A., Teixidó, O., & Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. (2012). Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: A health impact assessment study. Environment International, 49, 100–109. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412012001833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rojas-Rueda, D., De Nazelle, A., Teixidó, O., & Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. (2013). Health impact assessment of increasing public transport and cycling use in Barcelona: A morbidity and burden of disease approach. Preventive Medicine, 57(5), 573–579. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743513002739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rothman, L., Buliung, R., Macarthur, C., Teresa, T., & Howard, A. (2014). Walking and child pedestrian injury: A systematic review of built environment correlates of safe walking. Injury Prevention, 20(1), 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sabel, C. E., Hiscock, R., Asikainen, A., Bi, J., Depledge, M., van den Elshout, S., Friedrich, R., et al. (2016). Public health impacts of city policies to reduce climate change: Findings from the URGENCHE EU-China project. Environmental Health, 15(1), S25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Saelens, B. E., Sallis, J. F., & Frank, L. D. (2003). Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: Findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25(2), 80–91. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1207%2FS15324796ABM2502_03?LI=true.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Salon, D. (2016). Estimating pedestrian and cyclist activity at the neighborhood scale. Journal of Transport Geography, 55, 11–21. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0966692316303593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Saunders, L. E., Green, J. M., Petticrew, M. P., Steinbach, R., & Roberts, H. (2013). What are the health benefits of active travel? A systematic review of trials and cohort studies. PLoS One, 8(8), e69912. Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0069912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sims, R., Schaeffer, R., Creutzig, F., Cruz-Núñez, X., D’Agosto, M., Dimitriu, D., Figueroa Meza, M. J., Fulton, L., Kobayashi, S., Lah, O., McKinnon, A., Newman, P., Ouyang, M., Schauer, J. J., Sperling, D., & Tiwari, G. (2014). Transport. In O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel, & J. C. Minx (Eds.), Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Soret, A., Guevara, M., & Baldasano, J. M. (2014). The potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain). Atmospheric Environment, 99, 51–63. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231014007419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stevenson, M., Thompson, J., de Sá, T. H., Ewing, R., Mohan, D., McClure, R., et al. (2016). Land use, transport, and population health: Estimating the health benefits of compact cities. The Lancet, 388(10062), 2925–2935. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673616300678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stone, B., Jr., Mednick, A. C., Holloway, T., & Spak, S. N. (2007). Is compact growth good for air quality? Journal of the American Planning Association, 73(4), 404–418. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944360708978521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sudmant, A., Millward-Hopkins, J., Colenbrander, S., & Gouldson, A. (2016). Low carbon cities: Is ambitious action affordable? Climatic Change, 138(3–4), 681–688. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584-016-1751-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sugiyama, T., Neuhaus, M., Cole, R., Giles-Corti, B., & Owen, N. (2012). Destination and route attributes associated with adults’ walking: A review. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 44(7), 1275–1286. Retrieved from http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/22217568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sun, G., Gwee, E., Chin, L. S., & Low, A. (2014). Passenger transport mode shares in world cities. Journeys, 12, 54–64. Retrieved from http://www.lta.gov.sg/ltaacademy/doc/Journeys_Issue_12_Nov_2014.pdf.Google Scholar
  99. SWOV, Institute for Road Safety Research. (2016). Road deaths and population data in the Netherlands. Retrieved from http://www.swov.nl/NL/Research/cijfers/Cijfers.htm.
  100. Tainio, M. (2015). Burden of disease caused by local transport in Warsaw, Poland. Journal of Transport & Health, 2(3), 423–433. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214140515005125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tainio, M., Olkowicz, D., Teresiński, G., De Nazelle, A., & Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. (2014). Severity of injuries in different modes of transport, expressed with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). BMC Public Health, 14(1), 765. Retrieved from https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-14-765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Thorpe, A., & Harrison, R. M. (2008). Sources and properties of non-exhaust particulate matter from road traffic: A review. Science of the Total Environment, 400(1), 270–282. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004896970800658X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Timilsina, G. R., & Dulal, H. B. (2010). Urban road transportation externalities: Costs and choice of policy instruments. The World Bank Research Observer, 26(1), 162–191. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/wbro/article/26/1/162/1728191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Timmers, V. R., & Achten, P. A. (2016). Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles. Atmospheric Environment, 134, 10–17. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135223101630187X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Torrao, G., Fontes, T., Coelho, M., & Rouphail, N. (2016). Integrated indicator to evaluate vehicle performance across: Safety, fuel efficiency and green domains. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 92, 153–167. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001457516300793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Transport Department Hong Kong. (2016). Road safety; Summary of key statistics. Retrieved from http://www.td.gov.hk/en/road_safety/.
  107. UK Energy Research Centre. (2016). Review of UK energy policy, A UKERC Policy Briefing. Retrieved November 2016, from http://www.ukerc.ac.uk/news/ukerc-calls-for-urgent-action-on-uk-energy-during-this-parliament.html.
  108. UNEP. 2014. Urban air pollution. United Nations Urban Environment Unit. Retrieved from http://www.unep.org/urban_environment/Issues/urban_air.asp.
  109. Verheijen, E., & Jabben, J. (2010). Effect of electric cars on traffic noise and safety. Bilthoven: RIVM.Google Scholar
  110. Watts, N., Adger, W. N., Agnolucci, P., Blackstock, J., Byass, P., Cai, W., et al. (2015). Health and climate change: Policy responses to protect public health. The Lancet, 386(10006), 1861–1914. Retrieved from http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(15)60854-6/abstract.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wei, V. F., & Lovegrove, G. (2012). Sustainable road safety: A new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 44(1), 140–148. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001457510003829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wong, B. Y. M., Faulkner, G., & Buliung, R. (2011). GIS measured environmental correlates of active school transport: A systematic review of 14 studies. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1), 1. Retrieved from https://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1479-5868-8-39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Woodcock, J., Edwards, P., Tonne, C., Armstrong, B. G., Ashiru, O., Banister, D., et al. (2009). Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: Urban land transport. The Lancet, 374(9705), 1930–1943. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673609617141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Woodcock, J., Givoni, M., & Morgan, A. S. (2013). Health impact modelling of active travel visions for England and Wales using an Integrated Transport and Health Impact Modelling Tool (ITHIM). PLoS One, 8(1), e51462. Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0051462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. World Health Organization. (2015). Global status report on road safety 2015. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/road_safety_status/2015/GSRRS2015_Summary_EN_final2.pdf?ua=1.
  116. World Health Organization. (2017). Physical activity, Fact Sheet, Updated February 2017. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs385/en/.
  117. WRI. (2012). Top emitters in 2012. Retrieved from http://www.wri.org/resources/charts-graphs/top-10-emitters-2012.
  118. Xia, T., Nitschke, M., Zhang, Y., Shah, P., Crabb, S., & Hansen, A. (2015). Traffic-related air pollution and health co-benefits of alternative transport in Adelaide, South Australia. Environment International, 74, 281–290. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412014002980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Xue, X., Ren, Y., Cui, S., Lin, J., Huang, W., & Zhou, J. (2015). Integrated analysis of GHGs and public health damage mitigation for developing urban road transportation strategies. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 35, 84–103. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361920914001746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yang, X., Liu, H., & He, K. (2016). The significant impacts on traffic and emissions of ferrying children to school in Beijing. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 47, 265–275. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136192091630339X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Yeo, J., Park, S., & Jang, K. (2015). Effects of urban sprawl and vehicle miles traveled on traffic fatalities. Traffic Injury Prevention, 16(4), 397–403. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15389588.2014.948616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Yiannakoulias, N., & Scott, D. M. (2013). The effects of local and non-local traffic on child pedestrian safety: A spatial displacement of risk. Social Science & Medicine, 80, 96–104. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953612008076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Yu, C. Y. (2014). Environmental supports for walking/biking and traffic safety: Income and ethnicity disparities. Preventive Medicine, 67, 12–16. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743514002291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zuo, F., Li, Y., Johnson, S., Johnson, J., Varughese, S., Copes, R., Liu, F., Wu, H. J., Hou, R., & Chen, H. (2014). Temporal and spatial variability of traffic-related noise in the City of Toronto, Canada. Science of the Total Environment, 472, 1100–1107. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969713014423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haneen Khreis
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Andrew Sudmant
    • 6
  • Andy Gouldson
    • 6
  • Mark Nieuwenhuijsen
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI)College StationUSA
  2. 2.ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL)BarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF)BarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP)MadridSpain
  5. 5.Institute for Transport StudiesUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  6. 6.ESRC Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, Priestley International Centre for ClimateUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations