Urban and Transport Planning, Environment and Health
The world is currently witnessing its largest urban growth in human history. Over 50% of people worldwide live in cities and this figure is estimated to increase to up to 70% over the next 20 years. Cities have long been known to be society’s predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, but they are also a main source of pollution, crime and disease. Well-designed and efficient urban and transport systems are essential for cities and their citizens to thrive. Yet, the reality is that current urban and transport development have been less than optimal, creating and exacerbating human exposures to motor vehicle crashes, air pollution, noise, heat islands, lack of green space and sedentary behaviour, to name a few. These trends are associated with a large global burden of disease that has the potential to cripple even the best health care systems. This chapter provides an introduction to the many environmental and health issues that cities face as a result of urban and transport planning and policies. Some examples assessing the health impacts of urban and transport policies are overviewed. Different paradigms for cities and different city initiatives are overviewed. Finally, an introduction to the following chapters is provided.
- Beelen, R., Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Stafoggia, M., Andersen, Z. J., Weinmayr, G., Hoffmann, B., et al. (2014). Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: An analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE Project. Lancet, 383, 785–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bettencourt, L. M., & West, G. (2010). A unified theory of urban living. Nature, 467, 912–913. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v467/n7318/abs/467912a.html.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bhalla, K., Shotten, M., Cohen, A., Brauer, M., Shahraz, S., Burnett, R., et al. (2014). Transport for health: The global burden of disease from motorized road transport. Washington: World Bank Group. Retrieved from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/01/19308007/transport-health-global-burden-disease-motorized-road-transport.Google Scholar
- Creutzig, F., Mühlhoff, R., & Römer, J. (2012). Decarbonizing urban transport in European cities: Four cases show possibly high co-benefits. Environmental Research Letters, 7(4), 044042. Retrieved from http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044042/meta.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cucca, R. (2012). The unexpected consequences of sustainability: Green cities between innovation and ecogentrification. Sociologica, 6(2), 1–21.Google Scholar
- Dobbs, R., Smit, S., Remes, J., Manyika, J., Roxburgh, C., & Restrepo, A. (2011). Urban world: Mapping the economic power of cities. New York: McKinsey Global Institute.Google Scholar
- European Conference of Ministers of Transport. (2006). Sustainable urban travel: Implementing sustainable urban travel policies: Applying the 2001 key messages. Paris: ECMT.Google Scholar
- Evans. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.thebalance.com/resilient-city-definition-and-urban-design-principles-3157826.
- Ewing, R., & Cervero, R. (2010). Travel and the built environment: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Planning Association, 76(3), 265–294. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944361003766766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Forouzanfar, M. H., Alexander, L., Anderson, H. R., Bachman, V. F., Biryukov, S., Brauer, M., et al. (2015). Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet, 386(10010), 2287–2323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Halonen, J., Hansell, A., Gulliver, J., Morley, D., Blangiardo, M., Fecht, D., et al. (2015). Road traffic noise is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality in London. European Heart Journal, 36, 2653–2661. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehv216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Khreis, H., Warsow, K. M., Verlinghieri, E., Guzman, A., Pellecuer, L., Ferreira, A., et al. (2016). The health impacts of traffic-related exposures in urban areas: Understanding real effects, underlying driving forces and co-producing future directions. Journal of Transport & Health, 3(3), 249–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Magilavy, B. (2011). Sustainability plan. Sustainable city. Retrieved December 6, 2011.Google Scholar
- May, A. D., Khreis, H., & Mullen, C. (2016). Option generation for policy measures and packages: The role of the KonSULT knowledgebase. Proceedings 14th World Conference on Transport Research, Shanghai.Google Scholar
- Mueller, N., Rojas-Rueda, D., Cole-Hunter, T., de Nazelle, A., Dons, E., Gerike, R., et al. (2015). Health impact assessment of active transportation: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 76, 103–114. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743515001164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Patz, J., Frumkin, H., Holloway, T., Vimont, D., & Haines, A. (2016). Climate change challenges and opportunities for global health. JAMA, 53726, 1565–1580.Google Scholar
- Reisi, M., Aye, L., Rajabifard, A., & Ngo, T. (2016). Land-use planning: Implications for transport sustainability. Land Use Policy, 50, 252–261. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264837715002896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- SDG. (2015). Retrieved November 8, 2016, from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300
- Stevenson, M., Thompson, J., de Sá, T. H., Ewing, R., Mohan, D., McClure, R., et al. (2016). Land use, transport, and population health: Estimating the health benefits of compact cities. The Lancet, 388(10062), 2925–2935. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673616300678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tainio, M., de Nazelle, A. J., Götschi, T., Kahlmeier, S., Rojas-Rueda, D., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., et al. (2016). Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking? Preventive Medicine, 87, 233–236. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743516000402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- UN Habitat. (2016). Retrieved November 8, 2016, from https://habitat3.org/the-new-urban-agenda/.
- United Nations. (2014). World urbanization prospects. The 2014 revision, highlights. Retrieved from http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Highlights/WUP2014-Highlights.pdf.
- UN. (2015a). World urbanization prospects: The 2014 revision (ST/ESA/SER.A/366). United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.Google Scholar
- UN. (2015b). World population ageing 2015 (ST/ESA/SER.A/390). United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.Google Scholar
- WHO. (2017). Retrieved November 6, 2017, from http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/environment-and-health/urban-health/activities/healthy-cities/who-european-healthy-cities-network/what-is-a-healthy-city.
- Woodcock, J., Edwards, P., Tonne, C., Armstrong, B. G., Ashiru, O., Banister, D., et al. (2009). Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: Urban land transport. The Lancet, 374(9705), 1930–1943. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673609617141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- WHO. (2008). Commission on Social Determinants of Health Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health (Final Report, Executive Summary). Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2008/WHO_IER_CSDH_08.1_eng.pdf.
- WHO and UN Habitat. (2010). Hidden cities: Unmasking and overcoming health inequities in urban settings. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- Xia, T., Nitschke, M., Zhang, Y., Shah, P., Crabb, S., & Hansen, A. (2015). Traffic-related air pollution and health co-benefits of alternative transport in Adelaide, South Australia. Environment International, 74, 281–290. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412014002980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar