Skin Cancer: At-Risk Populations and Prevention

  • Claire NoellEmail author
  • Saud Aleissa
  • Bichchau Michelle Nguyen


Skin cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide. Genetic and environmental factors increase the risk of developing skin cancer. Identifying at-risk individuals is important in skin cancer diagnosis and management. This chapter discusses in detail the risk factors, at-risk populations, and prevention of skin cancer.


Basal cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Melanoma Skin cancer Prevention At-risk populations Risk factors 


  1. 1.
    Madan V, Lear JT, Szeimies RM. Non-melanoma skin cancer. Lancet. 2010;375(9715):673–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Society AC. Cancer facts & figures 2016. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2016.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    El Ghissassi F, Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Secretan B, Bouvard V, et al. A review of human carcinogens--part D: radiation. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10(8):751–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vitasa BC, Taylor HR, Strickland PT, Rosenthal FS, West S, Abbey H, et al. Association of nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis with cumulative solar ultraviolet exposure in Maryland watermen. Cancer. 1990;65(12):2811–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wehner MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2012;345:e5909.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hearn RM, Kerr AC, Rahim KF, Ferguson J, Dawe RS. Incidence of skin cancers in 3867 patients treated with narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159(4):931–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stern RS, Study PF-U. The risk of squamous cell and basal cell cancer associated with psoralen and ultraviolet A therapy: a 30-year prospective study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;66(4):553–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lichter MD, Karagas MR, Mott LA, Spencer SK, Stukel TA, Greenberg ER. Therapeutic ionizing radiation and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study Group. Arch Dermatol. 2000;136(8):1007–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Perkins JL, Liu Y, Mitby PA, Neglia JP, Hammond S, Stovall M, et al. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(16):3733–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cowen EW, Nguyen JC, Miller DD, McShane D, Arron ST, Prose NS, et al. Chronic phototoxicity and aggressive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in children and adults during treatment with voriconazole. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62(1):31–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kolaitis NA, Duffy E, Zhang A, Lo M, Barba DT, Chen M, et al. Voriconazole increases the risk for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma after lung transplantation. Transpl Int. 2017;30(1):41–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Su F, Viros A, Milagre C, Trunzer K, Bollag G, Spleiss O, et al. RAS mutations in cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas in patients treated with BRAF inhibitors. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(3):207–15.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cheng PS, Weng SF, Chiang CH, Lai FJ. Relationship between arsenic-containing drinking water and skin cancers in the arseniasis endemic areas in Taiwan. J Dermatol. 2016;43(2):181–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mayer JE, Goldman RH. Arsenic and skin cancer in the USA: the current evidence regarding arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Int J Dermatol. 2016;55(11):e585–e91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gawkrodger DJ. Occupational skin cancers. Occup Med (Lond). 2004;54(7):458–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Copcu E, Aktas A, Sişman N, Oztan Y. Thirty-one cases of Marjolin’s ulcer. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003;28(2):138–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tao J, Zhang X, Guo N, Chen S, Huang C, Zheng L, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma complicating discoid lupus erythematosus in Chinese patients: review of the literature, 1964–2010. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;66(4):695–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Au J, Patel D, Campbell JH. Oral lichen planus. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2013;25(1):93–100. viiCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bleeker MC, Visser PJ, Overbeek LI, van Beurden M, Berkhof J. Lichen sclerosus: incidence and risk of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016;25(8):1224–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sasson M, Krain AD. Porokeratosis and cutaneous malignancy. A review. Dermatol Surg. 1996;22(4):339–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cribier B, Scrivener Y, Grosshans E. Tumors arising in nevus sebaceus: a study of 596 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42(2 Pt 1):263–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marcil I, Stern RS. Risk of developing a subsequent nonmelanoma skin cancer in patients with a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer: a critical review of the literature and meta-analysis. Arch Dermatol. 2000;136(12):1524–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bradford PT. Skin cancer in skin of color. Dermatol Nurs. 2009;21(4):170–7. 206; quiz 178PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kim GK, Del Rosso JQ, Bellew S. Skin cancer in asians: part 1: nonmelanoma skin cancer. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2009;2(8):39–42.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Byrd-Miles K, Toombs EL, Peck GL. Skin cancer in individuals of African, Asian, Latin-American, and American-Indian descent: differences in incidence, clinical presentation, and survival compared to Caucasians. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6(1):10–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Garrett GL, Blanc PD, Boscardin J, Lloyd AA, Ahmed RL, Anthony T, et al. Incidence of and risk factors for skin cancer in organ transplant recipients in the United States. JAMA Dermatol. 2017;153(3):296–303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Coghill AE, Johnson LG, Berg D, Resler AJ, Leca N, Madeleine MM. Immunosuppressive medications and squamous cell skin carcinoma: nested case-control study within the Skin Cancer after Organ Transplant (SCOT) Cohort. Am J Transplant. 2016;16(2):565–73.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Knoll GA, Kokolo MB, Mallick R, Beck A, Buenaventura CD, Ducharme R, et al. Effect of sirolimus on malignancy and survival after kidney transplantation: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data. BMJ. 2014;349:g6679.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Scott FI, Mamtani R, Brensinger CM, Haynes K, Chiesa-Fuxench ZC, Zhang J, et al. Risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer associated with the use of immunosuppressant and biologic agents in patients with a history of autoimmune disease and nonmelanoma skin cancer. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152(2):164–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Greene MH, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF. Subsequent cancer in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia--a possible immunologic mechanism. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1978;61(2):337–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mehrany K, Weenig RH, Pittelkow MR, Roenigk RK, Otley CC. High recurrence rates of basal cell carcinoma after mohs surgery in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Arch Dermatol. 2004;140(8):985–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mehrany K, Weenig RH, Pittelkow MR, Roenigk RK, Otley CC. High recurrence rates of squamous cell carcinoma after Mohs’ surgery in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31(1):38–42. discussionCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhao H, Shu G, Wang S. The risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in HIV-infected patients: new data and meta-analysis. Int J STD AIDS. 2016;27(7):568–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kimonis VE, Goldstein AM, Pastakia B, Yang ML, Kase R, DiGiovanna JJ, et al. Clinical manifestations in 105 persons with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1997;69(3):299–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Abuzahra F, Parren LJ, Frank J. Multiple familial and pigmented basal cell carcinomas in early childhood – Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012;26(1):117–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Michaëlsson G, Olsson E, Westermark P. The Rombo syndrome: a familial disorder with vermiculate atrophoderma, milia, hypotrichosis, trichoepitheliomas, basal cell carcinomas and peripheral vasodilation with cyanosis. Acta Derm Venereol. 1981;61(6):497–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lehmann AR, McGibbon D, Stefanini M. Xeroderma pigmentosum. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2011;6:70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kraemer KH, Lee MM, Scotto J. Xeroderma pigmentosum. Cutaneous, ocular, and neurologic abnormalities in 830 published cases. Arch Dermatol. 1987;123(2):241–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Luande J, Henschke CI, Mohammed N. The Tanzanian human albino skin. Natural history. Cancer. 1985;55(8):1823–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Burger B, Itin PH. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2014;45:123–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Group USCSW. United States cancer statistics: 1999–2013 incidence and mortality web-based report. Atlanta: U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; 2016.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kohler BA, Sherman RL, Howlader N, Jemal A, Ryerson AB, Henry KA, et al. Annual report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2011, featuring incidence of breast cancer subtypes by race/ethnicity, poverty, and state. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015;107(6):djv048.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nikolaou V, Stratigos AJ. Emerging trends in the epidemiology of melanoma. Br J Dermatol. 2014;170(1):11–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jemal A, Saraiya M, Patel P, Cherala SS, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Kim J, et al. Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992–2006. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65(5 Suppl 1):S17–25. e1–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cormier JN, Xing Y, Ding M, Lee JE, Mansfield PF, Gershenwald JE, et al. Ethnic differences among patients with cutaneous melanoma. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(17):1907–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    (CDC) CfDCaP. Use of indoor tanning devices by adults--United States, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61(18):323–6.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, Pasquini P, Abeni D, Boyle P, et al. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: I. Common and atypical naevi. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41(1):28–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nelemans PJ, Groenendal H, Kiemeney LA, Rampen FH, Ruiter DJ, Verbeek AL. Effect of intermittent exposure to sunlight on melanoma risk among indoor workers and sun-sensitive individuals. Environ Health Perspect. 1993;101(3):252–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, and skin cancer risk: a cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014;23(6):1080–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    De Fabo EC, Noonan FP, Fears T, Merlino G. Ultraviolet B but not ultraviolet A radiation initiates melanoma. Cancer Res. 2004;64(18):6372–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Herman JR. Global increase in UV irradiance during the past 30 years (1979–2008) estimated from satellite data. J Geophys Res Atmos. 2010;115(D4):2156–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lazovich D, Isaksson Vogel R, Weinstock MA, Nelson HH, Ahmed RL, Berwick M. Association between indoor tanning and melanoma in younger men and women. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152(3):268–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stern RS, Study PFu. The risk of melanoma in association with long-term exposure to PUVA. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44(5):755–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stern RS, Nichols KT, Väkevä LH. Malignant melanoma in patients treated for psoriasis with methoxsalen (psoralen) and ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA). The PUVA follow-up study. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(15):1041–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Geller AC, Mayer JE, Sober AJ, Miller DR, Argenziano G, Johnson TM, et al. Total nevi, atypical nevi, and melanoma thickness: an analysis of 566 patients at 2 US Centers. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152(4):413–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vourc’h-Jourdain M, Martin L, Barbarot S, aRED. Large congenital melanocytic nevi: therapeutic management and melanoma risk: a systematic review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;68(3):493–8. e1-14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Alikhan A, Ibrahimi OA, Eisen DB. Congenital melanocytic nevi: where are we now? Part I. Clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, histology, malignant transformation, and neurocutaneous melanosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67(4):495.e1–17. quiz 512–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, Pasquini P, Picconi O, Boyle P, et al. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: II. Sun exposure. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41(1):45–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Disse M, Reich H, Lee PK, Schram SS. A review of the association between parkinson disease and malignant melanoma. Dermatol Surg. 2016;42(2):141–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hemminki K, Zhang H, Czene K. Familial and attributable risks in cutaneous melanoma: effects of proband and age. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120(2):217–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Olsen JH, Friis S, Frederiksen K, McLaughlin JK, Mellemkjaer L, Møller H. Atypical cancer pattern in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Br J Cancer. 2005;92(1):201–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Robbins HA, Clarke CA, Arron ST, Tatalovich Z, Kahn AR, Hernandez BY, et al. Melanoma risk and survival among organ transplant recipients. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135(11):2657–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Brewer JD, Shanafelt TD, Call TG, Cerhan JR, Roenigk RK, Weaver AL, et al. Increased incidence of malignant melanoma and other rare cutaneous cancers in the setting of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Int J Dermatol. 2015;54(8):e287–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Olsen CM, Knight LL, Green AC. Risk of melanoma in people with HIV/AIDS in the pre- and post-HAART eras: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e95096.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stam-Posthuma JJ, van Duinen C, Scheffer E, Vink J, Bergman W. Multiple primary melanomas. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44(1):22–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pomerantz H, Huang D, Weinstock MA. Risk of subsequent melanoma after melanoma in situ and invasive melanoma: a population-based study from 1973 to 2011. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;72(5):794–800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Marghoob AA, Slade J, Salopek TG, Kopf AW, Bart RS, Rigel DS. Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas are important risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Screening implications. Cancer. 1995;75(2 Suppl):707–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kahn HS, Tatham LM, Patel AV, Thun MJ, Heath CW. Increased cancer mortality following a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer. JAMA. 1998;280(10):910–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Manson JE, Rexrode KM, Garland FC, Garland CF, Weinstock MA. The case for a comprehensive national campaign to prevent melanoma and associated mortality. Epidemiology. 2000;11(6):728–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ransohoff KJ, Jaju PD, Tang JY, Carbone M, Leachman S, Sarin KY. Familial skin cancer syndromes: increased melanoma risk. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;74(3):423–34. quiz 35-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Begg CB, Hummer A, Mujumdar U, Armstrong BK, Kricker A, Marrett LD, et al. Familial aggregation of melanoma risks in a large population-based sample of melanoma cases. Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15(9):957–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Goldstein AM. Familial melanoma, pancreatic cancer and germline CDKN2A mutations. Hum Mutat. 2004;23(6):630.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW. Cancer genes and the pathways they control. Nat Med. 2004;10(8):789–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Leachman SA, Carucci J, Kohlmann W, Banks KC, Asgari MM, Bergman W, et al. Selection criteria for genetic assessment of patients with familial melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;61(4):677.e1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Njauw CN, Kim I, Piris A, Gabree M, Taylor M, Lane AM, et al. Germline BAP1 inactivation is preferentially associated with metastatic ocular melanoma and cutaneous-ocular melanoma families. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35295.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bertolotto C, Lesueur F, Giuliano S, Strub T, de Lichy M, Bille K, et al. A SUMOylation-defective MITF germline mutation predisposes to melanoma and renal carcinoma. Nature. 2011;480(7375):94–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Valverde P, Healy E, Jackson I, Rees JL, Thody AJ. Variants of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor gene are associated with red hair and fair skin in humans. Nat Genet. 1995;11(3):328–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gorlin RJ, Cohen MM, Condon LM, Burke BA. Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1992;44(3):307–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tan MH, Mester JL, Ngeow J, Rybicki LA, Orloff MS, Eng C. Lifetime cancer risks in individuals with germline PTEN mutations. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18(2):400–7. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hawkes JE, Cassidy PB, Manga P, Boissy RE, Goldgar D, Cannon-Albright L, et al. Report of a novel OCA2 gene mutation and an investigation of OCA2 variants on melanoma risk in a familial melanoma pedigree. J Dermatol Sci. 2013;69(1):30–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    De Luca DA, Bollea Garlatti LA, Galimberti GN, Galimberti RL. Amelanotic melanoma in albinism: the power of dermatoscopy. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016;30(8):1422–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Thompson SC, Jolley D, Marks R. Reduction of solar keratoses by regular sunscreen use. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(16):1147–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Naylor MF, Boyd A, Smith DW, Cameron GS, Hubbard D, Neldner KH. High sun protection factor sunscreens in the suppression of actinic neoplasia. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131(2):170–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Green A, Williams G, Neale R, Hart V, Leslie D, Parsons P, et al. Daily sunscreen application and betacarotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9180):723–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Curiel-Lewandrowski C, Chen SC, Swetter SM, Sub-Committee MPWG-PSL. Screening and prevention measures for melanoma: is there a survival advantage? Curr Oncol Rep. 2012;14(5):458–67.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Otley CC, Maragh SL. Reduction of immunosuppression for transplant-associated skin cancer: rationale and evidence of efficacy. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kauffman HM, Cherikh WS, Cheng Y, et al. Maintenance immunosuppression with target-of-rapamycin inhibitors is associated with a reduced incidence of de novo malignancies. Transplantation. 2005;80:883.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Schena FP, Pascoe MD, Alberu J, et al. Conversion from calcineurin inhbitors to sirolimus maintenance therapy in renal allograft recipients: 24 month efficacy and safety results from the CONVERT trial. Transplantation. 2009;87:233.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fisher GJ, Voorhees JJ. Molecular mechanisms of retinoid actions in skin. FASEB J. 1996;10:1002–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    George R, Weightman W, Russ GR, Bannister KM, Mathew TH. Acitretin for chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancers in renal transplant recipients. Australas J Dermatol. 2002;43(4):269–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    de Sévaux RG, Smit JV, de Jong EM, van de Kerkhof PC, Hoitsma AJ. Acitretin treatment of premalignant and malignant skin disorders in renal transplant recipients: clinical effects of a randomized trial comparing two doses of acitretin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49(3):407–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Harwood CA, Leedham-Green M, Leigh IM, Proby CM. Low-dose retinoids in the prevention of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in organ transplant recipients: a 16-year retrospective study. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141(4):456–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Weinstock MA, Bingham SF, Digiovanna JJ, Rizzo AE, et al. Tretinoin and the prevention of keratinocyte carcinoma (Basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin): a veterans affairs randomized chemoprevention trial. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132(6):1583–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Surjana D, Halliday GM, Damian DL. Nicotinamide enhances repair of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and ex vivo skin. Carcinogen. 2013;34:1144–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Chen AC, Martin AJ, Choy B, et al. A phase 3 randomized trial of nicotinamide for skin cancer chemoprevention. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1618–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wernli KJ, Henrikson NB, Morrison CC, Nguyen M, Pocobelli G, Blasi PR. Screening for skin cancer in adults: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2016;316(4):436–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire Noell
    • 1
    Email author
  • Saud Aleissa
    • 1
  • Bichchau Michelle Nguyen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyTufts Medical CenterBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations