Local Anesthetics and Adjuvants

  • Francesco Vetri
  • Jose A. Aguirre
  • Effrossyni G. Votta-Velis
  • Alain Borgeat


Local anesthetics are the pharmacologic cornerstone of regional anesthesia producing reversible and complete blockade of neuronal transmission when applied near the axons. Their application results in complete interruption of nerve impulse conduction, allowing abolition of sensation from the area innervated by the corresponding nerves and leading also to motor block.


Local anesthetics Local anesthetic adjuvants Local anesthetic toxicity Local anesthetic mechanism of action Bupivacaine Ropivacaine Mepivacaine Lidocaine Peripheral nerve block 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Vetri
    • 1
  • Jose A. Aguirre
    • 2
  • Effrossyni G. Votta-Velis
    • 1
  • Alain Borgeat
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Division of AnesthesiologyBalgrist University HospitalZurichSwitzerland

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