Pediatric Pain

  • Lori-Ann OliverEmail author
  • Jodi-Ann Oliver
  • Hassan Rayaz
  • J. Lance Lichtor


A stronger case is being made for the management of acute and chronic pain in children. The old dogma that children and infants do not perceive pain in the same way as adults and therefore do not require the same level of care and intervention is false. Children and infants do in fact experience pain, whether following surgery or as part of a chronic pain syndrome. If this pain is not treated appropriately, it can lead to long-term or permanent repercussions for both the patients and their families. Pain management in children is best accomplished using a multimodal approach: opioids (patient- and nurse-controlled continuous infusions), adjuncts such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen, anti-neuroleptics such as gabapentin, and regional anesthesia techniques such as placement of peripheral nerve blocks and neuraxial blockade such as caudals, epidurals, and spinals. In the case of postoperative pain, the placement of peripheral and central blocks has the added benefit of not only decreasing the overall use of opioids throughout the surgical procedure as well as during the immediate postoperative period but, if placed appropriately such as prior to surgical incision, can be used as a preemptive measure to prevent the development of pain.


Acute pain Chronic pain Pain assessment of pain in children compared to adults Postoperative pain Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) Phantom limb pain Opioids and pain management Non-opioid adjuncts and pain management of acute and chronic pain Peripheral nerve blocks Neuraxial blocks in children Post-thoracotomy pain syndrome Sickle cell crisis and development of chronic pain Neuropathic pain 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lori-Ann Oliver
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jodi-Ann Oliver
    • 1
  • Hassan Rayaz
    • 1
  • J. Lance Lichtor
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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