Advertisement

Paralympic Sport and Social Justice: Towards a Happy Marriage or Difficult Separation?

  • P. David Howe
Chapter

Abstract

Over the last 25 years, the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) and its network of national affiliates have placed integration of disabled people firmly on the sporting agenda, a process widely regarded as a positive step. Access to high-performance sporting provision is, however, problematic for two reasons. Firstly, the nature of high-performance sport is such that some people will always be excluded due to a lack of ability and secondly, the vast number of athletes with a potential to be Paralympians and therefore part of Paralympic programmes are not individuals who are denied access to sporting provision. In terms of increasing access for vulnerable people in the Global South to physical exercise, inclusion and healthy lifestyles, Paralaympic programmes do not fulfil the requirements of a social justice agenda.

References

  1. Bowen, J. (2002). The Americans with Disabilities Act and its application to sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 29, 66–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Christie, J. (2004, December 11). “Spirit in motion”: Paralympians rise. The Globe and Mail.Google Scholar
  3. Cole, B. A. (2005). Good faith and effort? Perspectives on educational inclusion. Disability & Society, 20, 331–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coubertin, P. de. (1956/1935). The fundamentals of the philosophy of the modern Olympics. Bulletin de Comité International Olympique, 56, 52–54.Google Scholar
  5. Deal, M. (2007). Aversive disablism: Subtle prejudice toward disabled people. Disability & Society, 22(1), 93–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Donnelly, J. (1985). The concept of human rights. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  7. Freeman, M. (2002). Human rights: An interdisciplinary approach. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Friedman, J. L., & Norman, G. C. (2009). The Paralympics: Yet another missed opportunity for social integration. Boston University International Law Review, 27(2), 345–366.Google Scholar
  9. Goodman, S. (1986). Spirit of Stoke Mandeville: The story of Ludwig Guttmann. London: Collins.Google Scholar
  10. Guttman, L. (1976). Textbook of sport for the disabled. Aylesbury: HM&M.Google Scholar
  11. Harris, J. (1985). The value of life: An introduction to medical ethics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Hoberman, J. (1995). Toward a theory of Olympic internationalism. Journal of Sports History, 22(1), 1–37.Google Scholar
  13. Howe, P. D. (2008). The cultural politics of the Paralympic movement: Through the anthropological lens. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Howe, P. D. (2010). Disability, Olympism and Paralympism. In A. Bairner & G. Molnar (Eds.), Politics of the Olympics (pp. 69–80). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Howe, P. D. (2011). Cyborg and supercrip: The Paralympics technology and the (dis)empowerment of disabled athletes. Sociology, 45(5), 868–882.Google Scholar
  16. Howe, P. D. (2012). Children of a lesser God: Paralympics and high-performance sport. In J. Sugden & A. Tomlinson (Eds.), Watching the Olympics: Politics, power and representation (pp. 165–181). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. International Olympic Committee (IOC). (2004). Olympic charter. Retrieved from http://www.joc.or.jp/olympism/charter/pdf/olympiccharter2004.pdf. Accessed 29 Apr 2017.
  18. International Olympic Committee (IOC). (2017). Social development through sport. Retrieved from https://www.olympic.org/development-through-sport. Accessed 29 Apr 2017.
  19. International Paralympic Committee (IPC). (2017). The IPC – Who we are. Retrieved from https://www.paralympic.org/the-ipc/about-us. Accessed 29 Apr 2017.
  20. Jones, C., & Howe, P. D. (2005). The conceptual boundaries of sport for the disabled: Classification and athletic performance. Journal of Philosophy of Sport, 32, 133–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Labanowich, S. (1988). A case for the integration of the disabled into the Olympic Games. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 5, 263–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Landry, F. (1995). Paralympic games and social integration. In M. De Moragas Spả & M. Botella (Eds.), The key of success: The social, sporting, economic and communications impact of Barcelona ’92 (pp. 1–17). Bellaterra: Servei de Publicacions de la Universitat Autỏnoma de Barcelona.Google Scholar
  23. Lenskyj, H. (2008). Olympic industry resistance: Challenging Olympic power and propaganda. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  24. Locke, J. (1689/1970). Two treaties of government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. MacIntyre, A. (1999). Dependent rational animals: Why human beings need the virtues. Chicago: Open Court.Google Scholar
  26. Malhotra, R. (2008). Expanding the frontiers of justice: Reflections on the theory of capabilities, disability rights, and the politics of global equality. Socialism and Democracy, 22(1), 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Northway, R. (1997). Integration and inclusion: Illusion or progress in services in services for disabled people. Social Policy and Administration, 31(2), 157–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nussbaum, M. C. (2006). Frontiers of justice: Disability, nationality, species membership. London: Belknap Harvard.Google Scholar
  29. Oliver, M. (1990). The politics of disablement. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Oliver, M. (1996). Understanding disability: From theory to practice. Basingstoke: Macmillian.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oliver, M., & Barnes, C. (1998). Social policy and disabled people: From exclusion to inclusion. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  32. Purdue, D. E. J., & Howe, P. D. (2012). See the sport, not the disability? – Exploring the Paralympic paradox. Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise, 4(2), 189–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rawls, J. (1971). The theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Seymour, W. (1998). Remaking the body: Rehabilitation and change. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Silva, C. F., & Howe, P. D. (2012). Difference, adapted physical activity and human development: Potential contribution of capabilities approach. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 29(1), 25–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stammer, N. (1999). Social movements the social construction of human rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 21(4), 980–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Steadward, R. (1996). Integration and sport in the Paralympic movement. Sport Science Review, 5, 26–41.Google Scholar
  38. United Nations. (1948). Universal declaration of human rights. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Documents/UDHR_Translations/eng.pdf. Accessed 29 Apr 2017.
  39. United Nations. (1993). Vienna declaration and programme of action. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/Vienna.aspx. Accessed 29 Apr 2017.
  40. United Nations. (2006). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/convention/convoptprot-e.pdf. Accessed 29 Apr 2017.
  41. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (1978). International charter of physical education and sport. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/education/nfsunesco/pdf/SPORT_E.PDF. Accessed 29 Apr 2017.
  42. Vanlandewijck, Y. C., & Chappel, R. J. (1996). Integration and classification issues in competitive sports for athletes with disabilities. Sport Science Review, 5, 65–88.Google Scholar
  43. Wolff, E. A., Torres, C., & Hums, M. A. (2008). Olympism and the Olympic athlete with a disability. In O. Schantz & K. Gilbert (Eds.), The Paralympics: Elite sport or freak show (pp. 167–175). Aachen: Meyer & Meyer.Google Scholar
  44. Zola, I. K. (1989). Towards the necessary universalizing of disability policy. The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 67(Supplement 2), 401–428.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Sport, Exercise and Health SciencesLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK

Personalised recommendations