Cardiorenal Syndromes

  • Ali ValikaEmail author
  • Aziz Valika
  • Suneel Udani


Combined disorders of heart and kidney are referred to as cardiorenal syndromes (CRS) (Ronco et al. Eur Heart J. 31(6):703–11, 2010). Disorders of one organ have a direct impact on the other organs, and can lead to worsened patient outcomes. We know that mortality is increased in patients with heart failure (HF) who have a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We also know that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of both atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and HF, with cardiac disorders responsible for up to 50% of deaths in patients with renal failure (Coresh et al. Levey Am J Kidney Dis. 41(1):1–12, 2003). Acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ often leads to functional impairment of the other, and diagnostic and treatment algorithms remain lacking in these scenarios. The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) group has sought to further classify CRS, so that we may better understand and risk stratify patients into various subtypes, allowing for future therapeutic targets to emerge (Ronco et al. Eur Heart J. 31(6):703–11, 2010). This chapter reviews the five subtypes of CRS, and their associated pathology and current treatment options available.


Cardiorenal syndromes Acute kidney injury Heart failure Renocardiac syndrome 



Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor


Acute coronary syndrome


Acute decompensated heart failure


Acute dialysis quality initiative


Acute kidney injury


Angiotensin receptor blockers


Angiotensin neprilysin inhibitor


Acute tubular injury


Coronary artery disease


Chronic kidney disease


Cardiac output


Creatinine clearance


Cardiorenal syndrome


Erythropoietin stimulating agent


End stage renal disease


Fibroblast growth factor 23


Glomerular filtration rate


Heart failure




Left ventricular hypertrophy


Modification of diet in renal disease


Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin


Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system


Risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage renal disease


Right ventricle


Serum creatinine


Sympathetic nervous system




Vascular calcifications


Worsening renal function


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advocate Medical Group-Advocate Heart Institute, Advocate Good Samaritan HospitalOak BrookUSA
  2. 2.Nephrology Associates of Northern Illinois and IndianaDowners GroveUSA

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