Management of Advanced Heart Failure: An Overview

  • Ghulam Murtaza
  • William G. CottsEmail author


Advanced heart failure is a prevalent and complex disease with high morbidity and mortality. While there are many causes for heart failure, some of the common ones include ischemia, hypertension, alcohol, and viral infections. Management of this disease involves a multidisciplinary team approach and a myriad of resources. Treatment goals include afterload and preload reduction, improving organ and tissue perfusion, and ameliorating signs and symptoms of heart failure such as dyspnea, fatigue, and edema. Treatment options include, but are not limited to, a multitude of medications including intravenous diuretics and inotropic agents for symptomatic control. Quality of life for patients afflicted with this disease process is poor, requiring frequent hospitalizations. Palliative care is an integral part of the treatment approach and helps alleviate some of the suffering.


Advanced heart failure Inotropes Palliative care Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) Diuretics Quality of life Beta blockers ACE inhibitors Hemodynamics Ultrafiltration 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineAdvocate Christ Medical CenterOak LawnUSA
  2. 2.Advocate Heart InstituteAdvocate Christ Medical CenterOak LawnUSA

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