Advertisement

Hematologic Malignancies Affecting the Temporal Bone

  • Paul W. Gidley
  • Nathan Fowler
  • Marc-Elie Nader
Chapter

Abstract

Hematologic diseases can involve the temporal bone. Lymphoma, leukemia, and myeloma have otologic manifestations. While lymphoma typically presents as nodal disease at regional nodal stations, extranodal manifestations have been described in the outer, middle, and inner ear. Treatment of localized and systemic lymphoma typically employs chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Leukemic infiltration of the temporal bone can also occur, with acute myelogenous leukemia being the most common subtype observed. Leukemic infiltration of the temporal bone involves primarily the petrous apex, and it can extend to involve the inner ear, middle ear, and facial nerve. Plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma can also present with ear and temporal bone involvement and require tissue biopsy for definitive diagnosis. Although rare, hematologic malignancies of the ear and temporal bone can be devastating. Careful attention to associated symptoms and laboratory abnormalities can alert the treating physician to the possibility of an occult leukemia, lymphoma, or myeloma.

Keywords

Hodgkin’s disease Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Leukemia Acute leukemia Chronic leukemia Myeloid sarcoma Mycosis fungoides Plasmacytoma Temporal bone Middle ear External ear 

Abbreviations

ABVD

Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine

ALL

Acute lymphocytic leukemia

AML

Acute myeloid leukemia

APL

Acute promyelocytic leukemia

ATRA

All-trans retinoic acid

CLL

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

CML

Chronic myeloid leukemia

CNS

Central nervous system

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

CT

Computerized tomography

DLBCL

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

EAC

External auditory canal

EMP

Extramedullary plasmacytoma

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HL

Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Hyper-CVAD

Cyclophosphamide, mesna, doxorubicin, vincristine, dexamethasone

IAC

Internal auditory canal

IT

Intrathecal

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

MD

Myeloproliferative disorder

MDS

Myelodysplastic syndrome

MM

Multiple myeloma

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MS

Myeloid sarcoma

NHL

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

PET/CT

Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography

PLB

Primary lymphoma of bone

SPB

Solitary plasmacytoma of bone

References

  1. 1.
    Armitage JO, Gascoyne RD, Lunning MA, Cavalli F. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lancet. 2017;390(10091):298–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Townsend W, Linch D. Hodgkin’s lymphoma in adults. Lancet. 2012;380(9844):836–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maithrea N, Periyathamby S, Mohamad I. Primary Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the middle ear: a rare cause of facial nerve palsy. Egypt J Ear Nose Throat Allied Sci. 2017;18(1):67–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu Y, Chen Q, Si Y, Zhang ZG. Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the temporal bone accompanied by intracranial abscess. Otol Neurotol. 2014;35(2):e95–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Biggar RJ, Rabkin CS. The epidemiology of AIDS-related neoplasms. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 1996;10(5):997–1010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Khaw B, Sivalingam S, Pathamanathan SS, Tan TS, Naicker M. Simultaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the external auditory canal and thyroid gland: a case report. Ear Nose Throat J. 2014;93(12):508–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hersh SP, Harrison WG, Hersh DJ. Primary B cell lymphoma of the external auditory canal. Ear Nose Throat J. 2006;85(9):597–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Coiffier B, Lepage E, Brière J, Herbrecht R, Tilly H, Bouabdallah R, et al. CHOP chemotherapy plus rituximab compared with CHOP alone in elderly patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(4):235–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vigier S, Nicollas R, Roman S, Barlogis V, Coulibaly B, Triglia JM. Burkitt’s leukemia presenting as atypical acute mastoiditis in a 7-month-old child. Arch Pediatr. 2013;20(12):1317–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Molyneux EM, Rochford R, Griffin B, Newton R, Jackson G, Menon G, et al. Burkitt’s lymphoma. Lancet. 2012;379(9822):1234–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Oyetunji NM, Ladapo AA. Burkitt’s lymphoma of the mastoid temporal bone. J Laryngol Otol. 1981;95(10):1063–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baumgartner BJ, Eusterman V, Myers J, Massengill P. Initial report of a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma appearing on the auricular helix. Ear Nose Throat J. 2000;79(5):391–4. 6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Strahan RW, Calcaterra TC. Otolaryngologic aspects of mycosis fungoides: a case report. Laryngoscope. 1971;81(12):1912–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Darvay A, Russell-Jones R, Acland KM, Lampert I, Chu AC. Systemic B-cell lymphoma presenting as an isolated lesion on the ear. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001;26(2):166–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Levin RJ, Henick DH, Cohen AF. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma presenting as an auricular perichondritis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995;112(3):493–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Clayton AS, McCollough M, Barekman CL. Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Cutis. 1998;62(2):69–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moody BR, Bartlett NL, George DW, Price CR, Breer WA, Rothschild Y, et al. Cyclin D1 as an aid in the diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma in skin biopsies: a case report. Am J Dermatopathol. 2001;23(5):470–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lewis WB, Patel U, Roberts JK, Palis J, Teot L. Angiocentric T-cell lymphoma of the temporal bone. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;126(1):85–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zanation AM, Ebert CS Jr, Coffey CS, Dubin MG, Rose AS. Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma presenting as an isolated external ear swelling in a two-year-old child. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;69(5):695–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fika Z, Karkos PD, Badran K, Williams RE. Primary cutaneous aggressive epidermotropic CD8 positive cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma of the ear. J Laryngol Otol. 2007;121(5):503–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bittencourt AL, Rothers S, Boente P, Santos R. Primary cutaneous eosinophil-rich anaplastic large cell lymphoma: report of an unusual case and literature review. J Cutan Med Surg. 2008;12(2):88–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Greve J, Bas M, Schipper J, Hoffmann TK. Primary cutane manifestation of a precursor-B-lymphoblastic lymphoma in the external ear. Laryngorhinootologie. 2008;87(10):728–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Indudharan R, Arni T, Myint KK, Jackson N. Lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukaemia presenting as perichondritis of the pinna. J Laryngol Otol. 1998;112(6):592–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fenwick JD. Mycosis fungoides involving the external auditory meatus. J Laryngol Otol. 1975;89(11):1155–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brennan JA. The head and neck manifestations of mycosis fungoides. Laryngoscope. 1995;105(5):478–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chuang TY, WP S, Muller SA. Incidence of cutaneous T cell lymphoma and other rare skin cancers in a defined population. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23(2 Pt 1):254–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Molina Utrilla R, Lao Luque J, Perello Scherdel E, Companyo Hermo C, Casamitjana Claramunt F. Otomycosis. Case reports of 18 months in the general University Hospital of the Valle de Hebron in Barcelona. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am. 1994;21(3):255–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zackheim HS, Lebo CF, Wasserstein P, McNutt NS, Epstein EH, Meyler S, et al. Mycosis fungoides of the mastoid, middle ear, and CNS: literature review of mycosis fungoides of the CNS. Arch Dermatol. 1983;119(4):311–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maiche AG, Teerenhovi L, Isokangas O. Diffuse centrocytic malignant lymphoma with unusual sites—report on two cases with possible etiological factors. Acta Oncol. 1991;30(6):767–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Merkus P, Copper MP, Van Oers MH, Schouwenburg PF. Lymphoma in the ear. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2000;62(5):274–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fish BM, Huda R, Dundas SA, Lesser TH. B-cell lymphoma of the external auditory meatus. J Laryngol Otol. 2002;116(1):39–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gonzalez Delgado A, Argudo Marco F, Sanchez Martinez N, Sprekelsen Gasso C. T cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the external auditory canal. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2008;59(4):200–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bruschini L, De Vito A, Fortunato S, Pelosini M, Cervetti G, Petrini M, et al. A case of primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the external auditory canal. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2013;2013:138397.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shuto J, Ueyama T, Suzuki M, Mogi G. Primary lymphoma of bilateral external auditory canals. Am J Otolaryngol. 2002;23(1):49–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kieserman SP, Finn DG. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the external auditory canal in an HIV-positive patient. J Laryngol Otol. 1995;109(8):751–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ogawa S, Tawara I, Ueno S, Kimura M, Miyazaki K, Nishikawa H, et al. De novo CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the temporal bone presenting with an external auditory canal tumor. Intern Med. 2006;45(11):733–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Okura SI, Kaga K. Temporal bone pathology of leukemia and malignant lymphoma with middle ear effusion. Auris Nasus Larynx. 1994;21(1):1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Roberts JM, Fastenberg J, Redd E, Foyt D. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as chronic otomastoiditis. J Otol Rhinol. 2017;71:951–9.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Saito A, Jia W, Sasaki T, Mizukami H, Sasaki A, Shinkawa H, et al. B-cell malignant lymphoma presenting as otitis media and mastoiditis associated with sinus thrombosis. Case Rep Neurol. 2014;6(2):161–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schmedes GW, Rizk HG, Lambert PR. Middle ear mass with facial weakness. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;141(1):89–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kanzaki S, Saito H, Mori T, Shimasaki N, Mukai M, Ogawa K. Thirteen-month-old boy with malignant lymphoma having symptoms mimicking acute otitis media and mastoiditis with facial palsy. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2011;73(5):266–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lang EE, Walsh RM, Leader M. Primary middle-ear lymphoma in a child. J Laryngol Otol. 2003;117(3):205–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Paparella MM, El-Fiky FM. Ear involvement in malignant lymphoma. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1972;81(3):352–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kobayashi K, Igarashi M, McBride RA, Saito R, Kataura A. Temporal bone pathology of metastatic T-cell lymphoma. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1988;447:113–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Okamura H, Ohtani I, Nakamura N, Abe M, Wakasa H. Four cases of metastatic lymphoma into the temporal bone. Auris Nasus Larynx. 1992;19(1):29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tucci DL, Lambert PR, Innes DJ Jr. Primary lymphoma of the temporal bone. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992;118(1):83–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jiang ZY, Saadia-Redleaf MI. Primary lymphoma of the temporal bone presenting as XIIth cranial nerve weakness. Ear Nose Throat J. 2011;90(3):125–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sritharan N, Moghadam A, Choroomi S, Stone H. Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the petrous temporal bone. Otol Neurotol. 2012;33(2):e11–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cakmak O, Kutluk T, Akyol MU, Ruacan S. Angiocentric lymphoma involving the temporal bone in a child. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1999;256(5):262–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Koral K, Curran JG, Thompson A. Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the temporal bone. CT findings. Clin Imaging. 2003;27(6):386–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Danino J, Joachims HZ, Ben-Arieh Y, Hefer T. Weyl-Ben-Arush M. T cell lymphoma of the ear presenting as mastoiditis. J Laryngol Otol. 1997;111(9):852–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Conley SF, Staszak C, Clamon GH, Maves MD. Non-hodgkin’s lymphoma of the head and neck: the university of iowa experience. Laryngoscope. 1987;97(3):291-300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lewis VO, Primus G, Anastasi J, Doherty D, Montag AG, Peabody TD, et al. Oncologic outcomes of primary lymphoma of bone in adults. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003;415:90–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Beal K, Allen L, Yahalom J. Primary bone lymphoma: treatment results and prognostic factors with long-term follow-up of 82 patients. Cancer. 2006;106(12):2652–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Coley BL, Higinbotham NL, Groesbeck HP. Primary reticulum-cell sarcoma of bone: summary of 37 cases 1. Radiology. 1950;55(5):641–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Unni K, Hogendoorn P, editors. Malignant lymphoma. World Health Organization classification of tumours pathology and genetics of tumours of soft tissue and bone. Lyon: IARC; 2002. p. 306–8.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Liu Y-L, Tung C-L, Yang Y-L, Lin D-T, Lin K-H, Liao HL. Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the ear in a 7-year-old child. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(21):e184–e7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kontoyiannis DP, Chagua MR, Ramirez I, Prieto V. Locally invasive auricular aspergillosis after ear piercing in a neutropenic patient with leukemia. Am J Hematol. 2003;73(4):296–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Borner D, Marsch WC, Fischer M. Necrotizing otitis externa caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Hautarzt. 2003;54(11):1080–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Donné A. Cours de microscopie complémentaire des études médicales: anatomie microscopique et physiologie des fluides de l’économie. Paris: J.-B. Baillière; 1844.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Politzer A. Pathologische Veranderungen im Labyrinthe bei leukamischer Taubheit. Cong Int Otol. 1885;3:139.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gotay V. Unusual otologic manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Laryngoscope. 1976;86(12):1856–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Druss JG. Aural manifestations of leukemia. Arch Otolaryngol. 42:267–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shanbrom E, Finch SC. The auditory manifestations of leukemia. Yale J Biol Med. 1958;31:144–56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Paparella MM, Berlinger NT, Oda M, el-Fiky F. Otological manifestations of leukemia. Laryngoscope. 1973;83(9):1510–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Terao K, Cureoglu S, Schachern PA, Paparella MM, Morita N, Nomiya S, et al. Pathologic correlations of otologic symptoms in acute lymphocytic leukemia. Am J Otolaryngol. 2011;32(1):13–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Schuknecht HF, Igarashi M, Chasin WD. Inner ear hemorrhage in leukemia. A case report. Laryngoscope. 1965;75:662–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Breccia M, Petti MC, Testi AM, Specchia G, Ferrara F, Diverio D, et al. Ear involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia at relapse: a disease-associated ‘sanctuary’? Leukemia. 2002;16(6):1127–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chae SW, Cho JH, Lee JH, Kang HJ, Hwang SJ. Sudden hearing loss in chronic myelogenous leukaemia implicating the hyperviscosity syndrome. J Laryngol Otol. 2002;116(04):291–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jabbour E, Borthakur G, Buesos-Ramos C, Kantarjian H, Faderl S. Acute lymphoblastic Leukemia. In: Kantarjian H, Wolff R, Koller C, editors. MD Anderson manual of medical oncology. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006. p. 3–17.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Rhee D, Myssiorek D, Zahtz G, Diamond A, Paley C, Shende A. Recurrent attacks of facial nerve palsy as the presenting sign of leukemic relapse. Laryngoscope. 2002;112(2):235–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Inaba H, Greaves M, Mullighan CG. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Lancet. 2013;381(9881):1943–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Takhenchangbam DS, Laishram RS, Thoudem TS, Sunita A, Imchen LT. Proptosis and facial palsy as an unusual clinical presentation of acute myeloid leukemia. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2013;6(1):52–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wiernik PH. Diagnosis and treatment of adult acute myeloid leukemia other than acute promyelocytic leukemia. In: Wiernik PH, Goldman JM, Dutcher JP, Kyle RA, editors. Neoplastic diseases of the blood. 5th ed. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 375–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Adelson RT, Samy RN, Lindberg G. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia presenting as an ear canal mass. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25(6):1006–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kindem S, Traves V, Requena C, Alcalá R, Llombart B, Serra-Guillén C, et al. Bilateral cauliflower ear as the presenting sign of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Cutan Pathol. 2014;41(2):73–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Porter WM, Sidwell RU, Catovsky D, Bunker CB. Cutaneous presentation of chronic lymphatic leukaemia and response to ultraviolet B phototherapy. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144(5):1092–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kim PS, Sheth PB. Asymptomatic cauliflower ears in a 73-year-old man. Diagnosis: leukemia cutis in the setting of indolent B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Arch Dermatol. 2011;147(12):1443–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Morales-Avellaneda T, Gonzalez-Ramirez AI, Rodriguez-Alfonso B, Mucientes-Rasilla J, Garcia-Berrocal JR, De Diego B. Clinical-scintigraphy discordance in a case of malignant external otitis. Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol. 2012;31(5):267–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Vester K, Treudler R, Paasch U, Becker C, Liebmann A, Simon JC, et al. Specific bilateral ear infiltration as an early manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Eur J Dermatol. 2012;22(2):265–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Koletsa T, Patsatsi A, Kostopoulos I, Georgiou E, Sotiriadis D. Ear lobe involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2013;11(1):80–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kleijwegt FS, van Krimpen C, Faber LM. An elderly man with swelling and discolouration of the right earlobe. Neth J Med. 2015;73(5):253. 6-7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Raufi A, Alsharedi M, Khelfa Y, Griswold DC, Lebowicz Y. Leukemia cutis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia presenting as bilateral helical nodules. SAGE Open Med Case Rep. 2016;4:2050313x16683624.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Marchetti M, Falanga A, Giovanelli S, Oldani E, Barbui T. All-trans-Retinoic Acid Increases Adhesion To Endothelium Of The Human Promyelocytic Leukaemia Cell Line NB4. Br J Haematol. 1996;93(2):360–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tobita T, Shinjyo K, Yanagi M, Takeshita A, Ohnishi K, Ohno R. Relapse in the external auditory canal of acute promyelocytic leukemia after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid. Intern Med. 1997;36(7):484–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yagita M, Onishi R, Yamagata N, Shimazaki C, Kudoh H, Kobayashi M, et al. Extramedullary relapse in the external auditory canal in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Rinsho Ketsueki. 1998;39(9):709–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    WY A, Chan GC, Chim CS, Shek TW, Ooi GC, Ho WK, et al. Unusual sites of involvement by hematologic malignancies. Case 3. External auditory canal tumor: a rare chloroma in acute promyelocytic leukemia with a complete response to arsenic trioxide. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(19):3993–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gokcan MK, Batikhan H, Calguner M, Tataragasi AI. Unilateral hearing loss as a presenting manifestation of granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma). Otol Neurotol. 2006;27(1):106–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Effat KG, Naguib AW. Simultaneous leukaemic infiltrate and cholesteatoma in the same temporal bone. J Laryngol Otol. 1998;112(9):867–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Khan AA, Nazir S, Ahmed A. Relapse of acute myeloid leukemia presenting as acute otitis media. QJM. 2010;103(7):533–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Millot F, Klossek JM, Brizard F, Brizard A, Vandermarq P, Babin P, et al. Recurrence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as a tumor of the middle ear: a case report. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1997;19(4):351–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sharma S, Banerjee A. Acute otitis externa—an unusual presentation of relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1986;29(3):215–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Almadori G, Del Ninno M, Cadoni G, Di Mario A, Ottaviani F. Facial nerve paralysis in acute otomastoiditis as presenting symptom of FAB M2, T8; 21 leukemic relapse. Case report and review of the literature. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1996;36(1):45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wuillemin WA, Vischer MW, Tobler A, Fey MF. Relapse of acute myeloblastic leukaemia presenting as temporal bone chloroma with facial nerve paralysis. Ann Oncol. 1993;4(4):339–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gloria-Cruz TI, Schachern PA, Paparella MM, Adams GL, Fulton SE. Metastases to temporal bones from primary nonsystemic malignant neoplasms. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000;126(2):209–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kelemen G. Aural pathohistology in leukemia. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1975;37(6):321–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zechner G, Altmann F. The temporal bone in leukemia. Histological studies. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1969;78(2):375–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Naraev BG, Linthicum FH Jr. Rapid hearing loss in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Otol Neurotol. 2006;27(3):445–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Taljebini M, Linthicum FH Jr. Hearing loss in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Otol Neurotol. 2007;28(2):282–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sando I, Egami T. Inner ear hemorrhage and endolymphatic hydrops in a leukemic patient with sudden hearing loss. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1977;86(4):518–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Smith N, Bain B, Michaels L, Craven E. Atypical Ph negative chronic myeloid leukaemia presenting as sudden profound deafness. J Clin Pathol. 1991;44(12):1033–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Walker GV, Shihadeh F, Kantarjian H, Allen P, Rondon G, Kebriaei P, et al. Comprehensive craniospinal radiation for controlling central nervous system leukemia. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(5):1119–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Paryani SB, Donaldson SS, Amylon MD, Link M. Cranial nerve involvement in children with leukemia and lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 1983;1(9):542–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sklansky BD, Jafek BW, Wiernik PH. Otolaryngologic manifestations of acute leukemia. Laryngoscope. 1974;84(2):210–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Leite da Silveira P, Goncalves Silva V, Rizzato Paschoal J, Nizam Pfeilsticker L. Bilateral peripheral facial palsy and mastoid infiltration as symptoms of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2015;132(1):41–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Juhn YJ, Inoue S. Facial nerve palsy as an early manifestation of relapse in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ear Nose Throat J. 1996;75(3):157–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Klausen OG, Lind O, Mella O. Facial nerve paralysis caused by tumor-forming chronic lymphatic leukemia: a case report. J Otolaryngol. 1990;19(1):76–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Aikawa T, Ohtani I. Temporal bone findings in central nervous system leukemia. Am J Otolaryngol. 1991;12(6):320–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pileri S, Ascani S, Cox M, Campidelli C, Bacci F, Piccioli M, et al. Myeloid sarcoma: clinico-pathologic, phenotypic and cytogenetic analysis of 92 adult patients. Leukemia. 2007;21(2):340–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    King A. A case of chloroma. Monthly J Med. 1853;17(97):b1.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lee B, Fatterpekar GM, Kim W, Som PM. Granulocytic sarcoma of the temporal bone. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002;23(9):1497–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Murakami M, Uno T, Nakaguchi H, Yamada SM, Hoya K, Yamazaki K, et al. Isolated recurrence of intracranial and temporal bone myeloid sarcoma—case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2011;51(12):850–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Chang K-H, Kim D-K, Jun B-C, Park Y-S. Temporal bone myeloid sarcoma. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;2(4):198–202.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sugimoto Y, Nishii K, Sakakura M, Araki H, Usui E, Lorenzo VF, et al. Acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22) manifesting as granulocytic sarcomas in the rhinopharynx and external acoustic meatus at relapse after high-dose cytarabine: case report and review of the literature. Hematol J. 2004;5(1):84–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kaufman BA, Jones L, Zutter MM, Park TS. Megakaryoblastic leukemia presenting as a temporal bone granulocytic sarcoma. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1993;79(1):128–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Levy R, Shvero J, Sandbank J. Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) of the temporal bone. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1989;18(2):163–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Chapman P, Johnson SA. Mastoid chloroma as relapse in acute myeloid leukaemia. J Laryngol Otol. 1980;94(12):1423–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kao SC, Yuh WT, Sato Y, Barloon TJ. Intracranial granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma): MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1987;11(6):938–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Jun HJ, Choi J, Kim KM, Chae SW. Multiple myeloma with isolated plasmacytoma in temporal bone. Otol Neurotol. 2013;34(7):107–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lorsbach RB. Update on the diagnosis and classification of the plasma cell neoplasms. Surg Pathol Clin. 2010;3(4):1061–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Abemayor E, Canalis RF, Greenberg P, Wortham DG, Rowland JP, Sun NC. Plasma cell tumors of the head and neck. J Otolaryngol. 1988;17(7):376–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Rowland PH, Valentine BA, Stebbins KE, Smith CA. Cutaneous plasmacytomas with amyloid in six dogs. Vet Pathol. 1991;28(2):125–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sato M, Kanai N, Yamamoto S, Take H, Kuyama J, Shiraki T, et al. Giant plasmacytoma of the skull which appeared in the clinical course of multiple myeloma—a case report. No To Shinkei. 1993;45(8):753–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Wax MK, Yun KJ, Omar RA. Extramedullary plasmacytomas of the head and neck. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;109(5):877–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    George JC, Caldemeyer KS, Kreipke DL, Chalian AA, Moran CC. Solitary plasmacytoma of the mastoid bone presenting as coalescent mastoiditis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1994;120(12):1393–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Panosian MS, Roberts JK. Plasmacytoma of the middle ear and mastoid. Am J Otol. 1994;15(2):264–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Weber AL, McKenna MJ. Radiologic evaluation of the jugular foramen. Anatomy, vascular variants, anomalies, and tumors. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 1994;4(3):579–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Megerian CA, McKenna MJ, Nadol JB Jr. Non-paraganglioma jugular foramen lesions masquerading as glomus jugulare tumors. Am J Otol. 1995;16(1):94–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Janicki PT, Adams JS, JT ME Jr. Plasma cell granuloma of the temporal bone. Am J Otol. 1996;17(1):123–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Mantyla R, Kinnunen J, Bohling T. Intracranial plasmacytoma: a case report. Neuroradiology. 1996;38(7):646–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Matsuda M, Nakazawa T, Kizuki H, Matsumura K, Nakasu S, Handa J. Solitary plasmacytoma of the skull vault—case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1996;36(6):388–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Dazert S, Baier G, Aletsee C, Hagen R. Extramedullary plasmacytoma—manifestation in petrous bone. Laryngorhinootologie. 1997;76(9):559–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Chiang SK, Canalis RF, Ishiyama A, Eversole LR, Becker DP. Plasmacytoma of the temporal bone. Am J Otolaryngol. 1998;19(4):267–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Yetiser S, Talas D, Akkaya A, Deveci S. Plasmacytoma of the temporal bone: management with a combination of surgery and radiotherapy. Acta Otolaryngol. 2001;121(8):915–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ruenes R, Palacios E. Plasmacytoma of the petrous temporal bone. Ear Nose Throat J. 2003;82(9):672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Jayagopal S, Berry MG, Ross G, Armour A, Howcroft AJ. A case of squamous cell carcinoma associated with plasmacytoma. Br J Plast Surg. 2004;57(2):172–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Wang X, Wu P, Ge R. Clinical characteristics of solitary plasmacytoma of temporal bone. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;26(10):477–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul W. Gidley
    • 1
  • Nathan Fowler
    • 1
  • Marc-Elie Nader
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Head and Neck SurgeryThe University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations