What Are Plant-Released Biogenic Volatiles and How They Participate in Landscape- to Global-Level Processes?

Chapter

Abstract

Plants face a multitude of abiotic and biotic stresses with varying severity throughout their life, and these stresses can result in varying changes to the ecosystem services provided by the plants. Climate change involves modification of several environmental drivers, and it is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of various abiotic and biotic stresses, including rising temperatures, increasingly uneven distribution of precipitation, and more frequent outbreaks of herbivore and pathogen attacks. As any stress reduces plant CO2 fixation, enhanced stress frequency and severity are expected to lead to faster rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration, thereby further exacerbating climate change. On the other hand, plants can importantly modify their own life environment by release of volatile organic compounds (BVOC). The plant-generated volatiles modify the oxidative status of the ambient atmosphere by enhancing the rate of ozone formation in atmospheres polluted by mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx). From this perspective, plant emissions can be considered as ecosystem “disservice.” Plant-emitted volatiles also importantly participate in aerosol and cloud formation in both polluted and non-polluted atmospheres, thereby reducing solar radiation penetration and ambient temperature. Plant-facilitated cooling can partly counteract global warming, and thus, plant emissions provide an important global regulatory ecosystem service. Apart from constitutive volatile emissions that are present in only some species and are expected to decrease under stress, especially under severe stress, all plants respond to stresses by inducing BVOC emissions that serve as signal molecules eliciting stress response pathways and leading to plant acclimation. These induced BVOC emissions, the plant “talk,” also contribute to atmospheric processes and can potentially reduce the stress severity, and, accordingly, stress-driven reductions in CO2 uptake. Thus, the stress responses and acclimation of vegetation to future environmental stresses can importantly modify the speed and magnitude of climate change.

Keywords

Constitutive Emissions Climate Change Induced Emissions Global Feedbacks Plant-Biosphere Relationships Stress Terpenoids Volatile Organic Compounds 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I thank Prof. Josep Peñuelas (Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Barcelona, Catalonia) and Dr. Trevor F. Keenan (Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, USA) for insightful comments on the MS. My work on plant volatiles has been supported by the Estonian Ministry of Science and Education (institutional grant IUT-8-3) and the European Commission through the European Research Council (advanced grant 322603, SIP-VOL+) and the European Regional Development Fund (Centre of Excellence EcolChange, TK 131).

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life SciencesTartuEstonia

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