Basic Wound Repair: Surgical Techniques, Flaps, and Grafts
Understanding basic wound healing and basic surgical techniques is critical to optimizing surgical outcomes. Basic surgical technique includes having an understanding of facial anatomy, relaxed skin tension lines, wound construction, and wound healing. Choosing the proper suture technique and material is dependent on the location, size, tension, and suture handling characteristics. Reconstruction of defects can be aided greatly by the use of flaps and grafts. Flaps offer the advantage of being vascularized. Variation of flaps includes sliding, advancement, rotation, rhomboid, bilobed, transposition, Z-plasty, and V-Y-plasty. Split-thickness and full-thickness grafts may be used when adjacent tissue is insufficient and when an underlying blood supply is available.