Anterior Approach to Correction of Levator Maldevelopment Ptosis with a New Emphasis on Supramaximal Levator Resection for Poor-Function Ptosis

  • Francesco P. BernardiniEmail author
  • J. Earl Rathbun


Managing congenital ptosis usually employs either a frontalis sling or levator resection. Each surgery has its advantages and disadvantages. Unilateral, poor levator function congenital ptosis is particularly difficult to manage. Successful surgery has been described with both a unilateral and bilateral frontalis sling in these cases. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the management of unilateral congenital ptosis with a new emphasis on supramaximal levator resection.


Congenital ptosis Levator resection Frontalis sling Supramaximal levator resection 

Supplementary material

419986_5_En_17_MOESM1_ESM.mp4 (200.3 mb)
Video 17.1 Pediatric levator advancement. Courtesy of Richard C. Allen, MD, PhD, FACS. (MP4 205117 kb)
419986_5_En_17_MOESM2_ESM.mp4 (199.5 mb)
Video 17.2 Levator advancement for congenital ptosis. Courtesy of Richard C. Allen, MD, PhD, FACS. (MP4 204296 kb)
Video 17.3 Demonstration of the orbital septum in a pediatric patient. Courtesy of Richard C. Allen, MD, PhD, FACS. (MPEG 79596 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oculoplastica Bernardini, Casa di Cura Villa SerenaGenovaItaly
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of California, San FranciscoSanta RosaUSA

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