Advertisement

The Study of Information Technology Outsourcing

  • Eleni Lioliou
  • Leslie P. Willcocks
Chapter
Part of the Technology, Work and Globalization book series (TWG)

Abstract

As the practice of information technology (IT) outsourcing has been evolving, the research issues concerned with it, and the theories used to explain it, have shifted accordingly (Dibbern et al. 2004; Lacity et al. 2009; Willcocks et al. 2018). In the early stages, research on IT outsourcing was centred on the ‘make-or-buy’ decision. Researchers from economic perspectives supported that outsourcing is a reasonable option when contracting out the IT function is cheaper than developing it in-house (e.g. Williamson 1975; McFarlan and Nolan 1995; Ang and Straub 1998). On the other hand, scholars adopting a strategic perspective argued that “core activities should stay in-house, whilst non-core activities can be outsourced” (e.g. Jauch and Wilson 1979; Prahalad and Hamel 1990; Hamel 1991; Quinn and Hilmer 1994; Lacity and Willcocks 1995; Cox 1996). In this chapter we explore how the study of information technology outsourcing (ITO) and business process outsourcing (BPO) developed from these beginnings, and the themes and problems dealt with in the literature, with a particular focus on contracts, relationships, and governance—the main concerns of this book.

References

  1. Allery, P. (2004). Effective Outsourcing: Practice and Procedures. London: LexisNexis.Google Scholar
  2. Altinkemer, K., Chaturvedi, A., & Gulati, R. (1994). Information Systems Outsourcing: Issues and Evidence. International Journal of Information Management, 14(4), 252–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen, T., & Christensen, M. (2002). Contract Renewal Under Uncertainty. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 26(4), 637–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. C., & Narus, J. A. (1990). A Model of Distributor Firm and Manufacturer Firm Working Partnerships. The Journal of Marketing, 54(1), 42–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ang, S., & Cummings, L. (1997). Strategic Response to Institutional Influences on Information Systems Outsourcing. Organization Science, 8(3), 235–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ang, S., & Straub, D. W. (1998). Production and Transaction Economies and IS Outsourcing: A Study of the US Banking Industry. MIS Quarterly, 22(4), 535–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aubert, B., & Weber, R. (2001). Transaction Cost Theory, the Resource Based View, and Information Technology Sourcing Decisions: A Re-Examination of Lacity et al.’s Findings. Working paper, ISSN 0832-7203.Google Scholar
  8. Aubert, B., Houde, J. F., Patry, M., & Rivard, S. (2003). Characteristics of IT Outsourcing Contracts (p. 269b). IEEE.Google Scholar
  9. Aubert, B. A., Rivard, S., & Patry, M. (2004). A Transaction Cost Model of IT Outsourcing. Information and Management, 41, 921–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Avgerou, C., & McGrath, K. (2007). Power, Rationality, and the Art of Living Through Socio-Technical Change. MIS Quarterly, 31(2), 295–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bapna, R., Barua, A., Mani, D., & Mehra, A. (2010). Research Commentary—Cooperation, Coordination, and Governance in Multisourcing: An Agenda for Analytical and Empirical Research. Information Systems Research, 21(4), 785–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barthelemy, J. (2001). The Hidden Costs of IT Outsourcing. Sloan Management Review, 42(3), 60–69.Google Scholar
  13. Barthelemy, J. (2003). The Hard and Soft Sides of IT Outsourcing Management. European Management Journal, 21(5), 539–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bennedsen, M., & Schultz, C. (2005). Adaptive Contracting: The Trial and Error Approach to Outsourcing. Economic Theory, 25(1), 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bensaou, M. (1999). Portfolios of Buyer-Supplier Relationships. Sloan Management Review, 40(4), 35–43.Google Scholar
  16. Beulen, E., & Ribbers, P. (2003). IT Outsourcing Contracts: Practical Implications of the Incomplete Contract Theory. Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.Google Scholar
  17. Blau, M. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  18. Brunard, V., & Kleiner, B. H. (1994). Developing Trustful and Co-operative Relationships. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 15(2), 16–19.Google Scholar
  19. Bulkeley, H., Watson, M., & Hudson, R. (2007). Modes of Governing Municipal Waste. Environment and Planning, 39, 2733–2753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bush, B., & Maltby, J. (2004). Taxation in West Africa: Transforming the Colonial Subject into the “Governable Person”. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 15(1), 5–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carrabine, E. (2000). Discourse, Governmentality and Translation: Towards a Social Theory of Imprisonment. Theoretical Criminology, 4(3), 309–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chan, J. (2000). Globalization, Reflexivity and the Practice of Criminology. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 33(2), 118–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen, A., & Bharadwaj, A. (2009). An Empirical Analysis of Contract Structures in IT Outsourcing. Information Systems Research, 20(4), 484–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Claver, E., Gonzalez, R., Gasco, J., & Llopis, J. (2002). Information Systems Outsourcing: Reasons, Reservations and Success Factors. Logistics Information Management, 15(4), 294–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clegg, S. R. (1989). Frameworks of Power. London: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clegg, S., Pitsis, T., Rura-Polley, T., & Marosszeky, M. (2002). Governmentality Matters: Designing an Alliance Culture of Inter-Organizational Collaboration for Managing Projects. Organization Studies, 23(3), 317–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coase, R. H. (1937). The Nature of the Firm. Economica, 4, 386–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Coombs, R., Knights, D., & Willmott, H. (1992). Culture, Control and Competition: Towards a Conceptual Framework for the Study of Information Technology in Organizations. Organization Studies, 13(1), 51–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cordoba, J., & Robson, W. (2003). Making the Evaluation of Information Systems Insightful: Understanding the Role of Power-Ethics Strategies. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, 6(2), 55–64.Google Scholar
  30. Cox, A. (1996). Relational Competence and Strategic Procurement Management. European Journal of Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, 2(1), 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Creon, M. J., Grover, V., & Teng, J. T. (2017). Theoretical Perspectives on the Outsourcing of Information Systems. In Outsourcing and Offshoring Business Services (pp. 25–52). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cullen, S., Lacity, M., & Willcocks, L. (2014). Outsourcing – All You Need to Know. Melbourne: White Plume.Google Scholar
  33. Currie, W. L. (1996). Outsourcing in the Private and Public Sectors: An Unpredictable IT Strategy. European Journal of Information Systems, 4, 226–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Currie, W. L., & Willcocks, L. P. (1998). Analyzing Four Types of IT Sourcing Decisions in the Context of Scale, Client/Supplier Interdependency and Risk Mitigation. Information Systems Journal, 8(2), 119–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. David, R. J., & Han, S. K. (2004). A Systematic Assessment of the Empirical Support for Transaction Cost Economics. Strategic Management Journal, 25(1), 39–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Davies, J., & Mitchell, G. (1994). The Dual Nature of the Impact of IT on Organizational Transformations. In R. Baskerville, S. Smithson, O. Ngwenyama, & J. DeGross (Eds.), Transforming Organizations with Information Technology. Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  37. Dean, M. (1999). Governmentality. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  38. Dibbern, J., Goles, T., Hirschheim, R., & Jayatilaka, B. (2004). Information Systems Outsourcing: A Survey and Analysis of the Literature. The Database for Advances in Information Systems, 35(4), 6–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Doolin, B. (1998). Information Technology as a Disciplinary Technology: Being Critical in Interpretive Research in Information Systems. Journal of Information Technology, 13, 301–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Domberger, S. (1998). The Contracting Organization: A Strategic Guide to Outsourcing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Easton, G. (1992). Industrial Networks: A Review. In B. Axelson & G. Easton (Eds.), Industrial Networks: A New View of Reality. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Ellram, L., Tate, W., & Billington, C. (2008). Offshore Outsourcing of Professional Services: A Transaction Cost Economics Perspective. Journal of Operations Management, 26(2), 148–163.Google Scholar
  43. Fitzgerald, G., & Willcocks, L. (1994). Contract and Partnerships in the Outsourcing of IT. Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Information Systems, Vancouver, British Columbia.Google Scholar
  44. Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  45. Foucault, M. (1980a). Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  46. Foucault, M. (1980b). Two Lectures. In C. Gordon (Ed.), Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  47. Ghosh, B., & Scott, J. (2009). Relational Alignment in Offshore IS Outsourcing. MIS Quarterly Executive, 8(1), 19–29.Google Scholar
  48. Gietzmann, M. B. (1996). Incomplete Contracts and the Make or Buy Decision: Governance Design and Attainable Flexibility. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 21(6), 611–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Goo, J., Kishore, R., Nam, K., Rao, H. R., & Song, Y. (2007). An Investigation of Factors That Influence the Duration of IT Outsourcing Relationships. Decision Support Systems, 42(4), 2107–2125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Goo, J., Nam, K., & Kishore, R. (2009). The Role of Service Level Agreements in Relational Management of Information Technology Outsourcing: An Empirical Study. MIS Quarterly, 33, 119–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Griffith, D. A., Harmancioglu, N., & Droge, C. (2009). Governance Decisions for the Offshore Outsourcing of New Product Development in Technology Intensive Markets. Journal of World Business, 44(3), 217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Grover, V., Cheon, M. J., & Teng, J. T. C. (1996). The Effect of Service Quality and Partnership on the Outsourcing of Information Systems Functions. Journal of Management Information Systems, 12(4), 89–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gulati, R., & Nickerson, J. A. (2008). Interorganizational Trust, Governance Choice, and Exchange Performance. Organization Science, 19, 688–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hamel, G. (1991). Competition for Competence and Interpartner Learning Within International Strategic Alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 12(1), 83–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hindess, B. (1996). Liberalism, Socialism and Democracy: Variations on a Governmental Theme. In Foucault and Political Reason: Liberalism, Neo-Liberalism and Rationalities of Government (pp. 65–80). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  56. Hoskin, K., & Macve, R. (1986). Accounting and the Examination: A Genealogy of Disciplinary Power. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 11(2), 105–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Huber, T., Fischer, T., Dibbern, J., & Hirschheim, R. (2013). A Process Model of Complementarity and Substitution of Contractual and Relational Governance in IS Outsourcing. Journal of Management Information Systems, 30(3), 81–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Humphreys, A. (2006). The Consumer as Foucauldian Object of Knowledge. Social Science Computer Review, 24(3), 296–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hunt, J., & Wickham, G. (1994). Foucault and Law. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  60. Hunter, I. (1994). Rethinking the School: Subjectivity, Bureaucracy, Criticism. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  61. Introna, L. (1997). Management, Information and Power. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jauch, L. R., & Wilson, H. K. (1979). A Strategic Perspective for Make or Buy Decisions. Long Range Planning, 12(6), 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Karimi-Alaghehband, F., Rivard, S., Wu, S., & Goyette, S. (2011). An Assessment of the Use of Transaction Cost Theory in Information Technology Outsourcing. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 20(2), 125–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kern, T., & Blois, K. (2017). Norm Development in IT Outsourcing Relationships. In L. Willcocks, M. Lacity, & C. Sauer (Eds.), Outsourcing and Offshoring Business Services. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  65. Kern, T., & Willcocks, L. (2000). The Relationship Advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Kern, T., & Willcocks, L. (2002). Exploring Relationships in Information Technology Outsourcing: The Interaction Approach. European Journal of Information Systems, 11(1), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kerr, D. (1999). Beheading the King the Enthroning the Market: A Critique of Foucauldian Governmentality. Science & Society, 63(2), 173–203.Google Scholar
  68. Knights, D., & Murray, F. (1994). Managers Divided: Organizational Politics and Information Technology Management. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  69. Knights, D., Murray, F., & Willmott, H. (1997). Networking as Knowledge Work. In B. Bloomfield, R. Coombs, D. Knights, & D. Littler (Eds.), Information Technology and Organizations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Koh, C., Ang, S., & Straub, D. (2004). IT Outsourcing Success: A Psychological Contract Perspective. Information Systems Research, 15(4), 356–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kotlarsky, J., & Oshri, I. (2005). Social Ties, Knowledge Sharing and Successful Collaboration in Globally Distributed System Development Projects. European Journal of Information Systems, 14(1), 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kotlarsky, J., Van Fenema, P., & Willcocks, L. (2008). Developing a Knowledge-Based Perspective on Coordination: The Case of Global Software Projects. Information & Management, 45, 96–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Krancher, O., Huber, T., & Dibbern, J. (2015). Explaining Endogenous Control Change in Outsourced Software Projects. The 9th Global Sourcing Workshop, La Thuile, Italy.Google Scholar
  74. Krancher, O., Kotlarsky, J., Oshri, I., & Dibbern, J. (2018). Bilateral Versus Collective Governance: How Clients Promote Relational Norms in Multisourcing (Online). The 12th Global Sourcing Workshop, La Thuile, Italy.Google Scholar
  75. Kumar, K., & Van Dissel, H. G. (1996). Sustainable Collaboration: Managing Conflict and Cooperation in Interorganizational Systems. MIS Quarterly, 20(3), 279–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lacity, M., & Hirschheim, R. (1993). Information Systems Outsourcing. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  77. Lacity, M., & Willcocks, L. (1995). Interpreting Information Technology Sourcing Decisions from a Transaction Cost Perspective: Findings and Critique. Accounting Management and Information Technologies, 5, 203–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lacity, M., Willcocks, L., & Feeny, D. (1996). IT Outsourcing Maximizes Flexibility and Control. Harvard Business Review, 73(3), 84–93.Google Scholar
  79. Lacity, M., & Willcocks, L. (2009). Information Systems and Outsourcing: Studies in Theory and Practice. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lacity, M., Khan, S., & Willcocks, L. (2009). A Review of the IT Outsourcing Literature: Insights For Practice. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 18(3), 130–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lacity, M., Willcocks, L., & Khan, S. (2011). Beyond Transaction Cost Economics: Towards an Endogenous Theory of Information Technology Outsourcing. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 20(2), 139–157. ISSN 0963-8687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lacity, M., Khan, S., & Yan, A. (2017). Review of the Empirical Business Services Sourcing Literature: An Update and Future Directions. In L. Willcocks, M. Lacity, & C. Sauer (Eds.), Outsourcing and Offshoring Business Services. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  83. Lee, J. N., & Kim, Y. G. (1999). Effect of Partnership Quality on IS Outsourcing Success: Conceptual Framework and Empirical Validation. Journal of Management Information Systems, 15(4), 29–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lee, J. N., & Kim, Y. G. (2003). Exploring a Causal Model for the Understanding of Outsourcing Partnership. Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.Google Scholar
  85. Lioliou, E., & Zimmermann, A. (2015). Vendor Opportunism in IT Outsourcing: A TCE and Social Capital Perspective. Journal of Information Technology, 30(4), 307–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lioliou, E., Zimmermann, A., Willcocks, L., & Gao, L. (2014). Formal and Relational Governance in IT Outsourcing: Substitution, Complementarity and the Role of the Psychological Contract. Information Systems Journal, 24(6), 503–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lioliou, E., Willcocks, L., & Liu, X. (2018). Researching IT Multi-Sourcing and Opportunistic Behavior in Conditions of Uncertainty: A Case Approach. Journal of Business Research, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  88. Lyon, D. (1994). The Rise of Surveillance Society. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  89. Malhotra, D., & Murnighan, J. K. (2002). The Effects of Contracts on Interpersonal Trust. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47, 534–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mao, J. Y., Lee, J. M., & Deng, C. P. (2008). Vendors’ Perspectives on Trust and Control in Offshore Information Systems Outsourcing. Information & Management, 45(7), 482–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McFarlan, W., & Nolan, R. (1995). How to Manage an IT Outsourcing Alliance. Sloan Management Review, 36(2), 9–23.Google Scholar
  92. Michell, V., & Fitzgerald, G. (1997). The IT Outsourcing Market-Place: Vendors and Their Selection. Journal of Information Technology, 12, 223–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Miller, P. (2001). Governing by Numbers: Why Calculative Practices Matter. Social Research, 68(2), 379–396.Google Scholar
  94. Miller, P., & O-Leary, T. (1993). Accounting Expertise and the Politics of the Product: Economic Citizenship and Modes of Corporate Governance. Accounting Organizations and Society, 18, 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Miller, P., & Rose, N. (1990). Governing Economic Life. Economy and Society, 19(1), 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Miranda, S. M., & Kim, Y. (2006). Professionalism Versus Political Contexts: Institutional Mitigation and the Transaction Cost Heuristic in Information Systems Outsourcing. MIS Quarterly, 30(3), 725–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mohr, J. J., & And Spekman, R. E. (1994). Characteristics of Partnership Success: Partnership Attributes, Communication Behavior, and Conflict Resolution Techniques. Strategic Management Journal, 15(2), 135–152.Google Scholar
  98. Morgan, G., & Willmott, H. (1993). The “New” Accounting Research: On Making Accounting More Visible. Accounting, Audibility and Accountability Journal, 6(4), 3–36.Google Scholar
  99. Munro, I. (2000). Non-Disciplinary Power and the Network Society. Organization, 7, 679–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Neu, D., & Graham, C. (2006). The Birth of a Nation: Accounting and Canada’s First Nations, 1860–1900. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 31(1), 47–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Neu, D., & Heincke, M. (2004). The Subaltern Speaks: Financial Relations and the Limits of Governmentality. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 15(1), 179–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nicholson, B., Jones, J., & Espenlaub, S. (2006). Transaction Costs and Control of Outsourced Accounting: Case Evidence from India. Management Accounting Research, 17(3), 238–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. O’Leary, T., & Miller, P. (2007). Mediating Instruments and Making Markets: Capital Budgeting, Science and the Economy. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 32, 701–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Orlikowski, W. J., & Baroudi, J. J. (1991). Studying Information Technology in Organizations: Research Approaches and Assumptions. Information Systems Research, 2(1), 1–28.Google Scholar
  105. Oshri, I., Kotlarsky, J., & Gerbasi, A. (2015a). Strategic Innovation Through Outsourcing: The Role of Relational and Contractual Governance. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 24(3), 203–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Oshri, I., Kotlarsky, J., & Willcocks, L. (2015b). The Handbook of Global Outsourcing and Offshoring. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Parkhe, A. (1993). Strategic Alliances Structuring: A Game-Theoretic and Transaction Cost Examination of Interfirm Cooperation. Academy of Management Journal, 36(4), 794–829.Google Scholar
  108. Plugge, A., & Bouwman, H. (2015). Understanding Collaboration in Multisourcing Arrangements: A Social Exchange Theory Perspective. In International Workshop on Global Sourcing of Information Technology and Business Processes (pp. 171–186). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  109. Plugge, A., & Janssen, M. (2014, March). Governance of Multivendor Outsourcing Arrangements: A Coordination and Resource Dependency View. In International Workshop on Global Sourcing of Information Technology and Business Processes (pp. 78–97). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  110. Poppo, L., & Zenger, T. R. (2002). Do Formal Contracts and Relational Governance Function as Substitutes or Complements. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 707–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Poster, M. (1990). The Mode of Information: Poststructuralism and Social Context. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  112. Prahalad, C., & Hamel, G. (1990). The Core Competence of the Corporation. Harvard Business Review, 68(3), 79–91.Google Scholar
  113. Preston, A., Chua, W. F., & Neu, D. (1997). The Diagnosis-Related Group-Prospective Payment System and the Problem of the Government of Rationing Health Care to the Elderly. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 22(2), 147–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pruitt, D. (1981). Negotiation Behavior. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  115. Quinn, J. B., & Hilmer, F. G. (1994). Strategic Outsourcing. Sloan Management Review, 35(4), 43–55.Google Scholar
  116. Rose, N. (1996). Inventing Our Selves: Psychology, Power and Personhood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rose, N., & Miller, P. (1992). Political Power Beyond the State: Problematics of Government. British Journal of Sociology, 43(2), 173–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sabherwal, R. (1999). The Role of Trust in Outsourced IS Development Projects. Communications of the ACM, 42(2), 80–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sahay, S., Nicholson, B., & Krishna, S. (2003). Global IT Outsourcing – Software Development Across Borders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Saunders, C. (2002). Outsourcing: A View from Those Doing the Work. In R. Hirschheim, A. Heinzl, & J. Dibbern (Eds.), Information Systems Outsourcing: Enduring Themes, Emergent Patters, and Future Directions. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  121. Saunders, C., Gebelt, M., & Hu, Q. (1997). Achieving Success in Information Systems Outsourcing. California Management Review, 39(2), 63–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sending, J. O., & Neumann, B. I. (2006). Governance to Governmentality: Analyzing NGOs, States, and Power. International Studies Quarterly, 50, 651–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Simon, H. (1957). Models of Man. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  124. Smith, M., Mitra, S., & Narasihman, S. (1998). Information Systems Outsourcing: A Study of Pre-Event Firm Characteristics. Journal of Management Information Systems, 15(2), 61–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Srivastava, S., & Thompson, S. H. (2012). Contract Performance in Offshore Systems Development: Role of Control Mechanisms. Journal of Management Information Systems, 29, 115–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Thouin, M., Hoffman, J., & Ford, E. (2009). IT Outsourcing and Firm-Level Performance: A Transaction Cost Perspective. Information & Management, 46, 463–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tompkins, J., Simonson, S., Tompkins, W., & Upchurch, B. (2006). Creating and Outsourcing Relationship. Supply Chain Management Review, 10(2), 52–58.Google Scholar
  128. Uitermark, J. (2004). The Genesis and Evolution of Urban Policy: A Confrontation of Regulationist and Governmentality Approaches. Political Geography, 24(2), 137–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Vlaar, P., Van den Bosch, F., & Volberda, H. (2007). On the Evolution of Trust, Distrust, and Formal Coordination and Control in International Relationships: Toward an Integrative Framework. Group & Organization Management, 32, 407–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wang, E. (2002). Transaction Attributes and Software Outsourcing Success: An Empirical Investigation of Transaction Cost Theory. Information Systems Journal, 12(2), 153–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Willcocks, L. (2006). Michel Foucault in the Social Study of ICTs: Critique and Reappraisal. Social Science Computer Review, 24(3), 274–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Willcocks, L., & Choi, C. J. (1995). Co-operative Partnership and Total IT Outsourcing: From Contractual Obligation to Strategic Alliance? European Management Journal, 13(1), 67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Willcocks, L., Lacity, M., & Sauer, C. (Eds.). (2017). Outsourcing and Offshoring Business Services. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  134. Willcocks, L., Oshri, I., & Kotlarsky, J. (Eds.). (2018). Dynamic Innovation in Outsourcing. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  135. Williamson, O. E. (1975). Markets and Hierarchies Analysis and Antitrust Implications: A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization. London: Collier-Macmillan.Google Scholar
  136. Williamson, O. E. (1979). Transaction-Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractual Relations. Journal of Law and Economics, 22(2), 233–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Williamson, O. E. (1985). The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  138. Williamson, O. (1991). Strategizing, Economizing, and Economic Organization. Strategic Management Journal, 12, 75–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Williamson, O. E. (1998). Transaction Cost Economics: How It Works; Where It Is Headed. De Economist, 146, 23–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Yakhlef, A. (1998). IT Outsourcing and the Construction of Accountable Worlds. Organization, 5(3), 425–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Zajac, E. J., & Olsen, C. P. (1993). From Transactional Cost to Transactional Value Analysis: Implications for the Study of Interorganizational Strategies. Journal of Management Studies, 30(1), 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Zand, D. (1972). Trust and Managerial Problem Solving. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(2), 229–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Zuboff, S. (1988). In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eleni Lioliou
    • 1
  • Leslie P. Willcocks
    • 2
  1. 1.Queen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.London School of EconomicsLondonUK

Personalised recommendations