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The 4D LINT Model of Function Allocation: Spatial-Temporal Arrangement and Levels of Automation

  • Christopher D. D. Cabrall
  • Thomas B. Sheridan
  • Thomas Prevot
  • Joost C. F. de Winter
  • Riender Happee
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 722)

Abstract

Human factors researchers are well familiar with Sheridan and Verplank’s (1978) ‘levels of automation’. Although this automation dimension has proved useful, the last decade has seen a vast increase of automation in different forms, especially in transportation domains. To capture these and future developments, we propose an extended automation taxonomy via additional dimensions. Specifically, we propose a 4D LINT representation for vehicle operation regarding control across multiple simultaneous dimensions of (1) Location (from local to remote), (2) Identity (between human and computer), (3) Number of agents (degree of centralization of control), as well as (4) adaptive optimization over Time. Our model aims to provide guidance and support in communicable ways to allocation authority agents (whether human or computer) in optimized supervisory outer loop control of complex and intelligent dynamic systems for more efficient, safe, and robust transportation operations.

Keywords

Human factors Functional allocation Supervisory control Control optimization Levels of automation Human-machine interaction Human systems integration Systems engineering Unmanned aerial vehicles UAS traffic management Automated driving Autonomous vehicles V-2-V, Vehicle-to-Vehicle V-2-I, Vehicle-to-Infrastructure V-2-X, Vehicle-to-Everything Tele-operated driving 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research presented in this paper was supported by the project HFAuto – Human Factors of Automated Driving (PITN-GA-2013-605817).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher D. D. Cabrall
    • 1
  • Thomas B. Sheridan
    • 2
  • Thomas Prevot
    • 3
  • Joost C. F. de Winter
    • 1
  • Riender Happee
    • 1
  1. 1.Delft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyBostonUSA
  3. 3.Uber Technologies Inc.San FranciscoUSA

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