Advertisement

First Aid

  • Olaf Rusoke-Dierich
Chapter

Abstract

First aid includes life-sustaining measures up to the point of hospital admission. The most important thing is to recognise an acute emergency and to distinct between non-life-threatening and life-threatening conditions. It is vital to distinguish, if there is immediate danger and if the injury poses a risk of rapid deterioration or dangers to life. Emergencies during diving are all types of DCI, arterial gas embolism, pulmonary barotrauma, drowning, hypo- or hyperthermia and injuries of marine creatures.

Suggested Reading

  1. Anthem, Medical Policies and Clinical UM Guidelines. 2008. https://www.anthem.com/medicalpolicies/policies/mp_pw_a049925.htm. Accessed 12 July 2015.
  2. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, Aufderheide TP, Cave DM, Hazinski MF, Lerner EB, Rea TD, Syre MR, Swore RA. Part 5: adult basic life support: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science. Circulation. 2010;122(suppl 3):S685–705.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Berg RA, Sanders AB, Kern KB, et al. Adverse hemodynamic effects of interrupting chest compressions for rescue breathing during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Circulation. 2001;104(20):2465–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cameron P, Jalinek G, Kelly AM, Murray L, Heyworth J. Textbook of adult emergency medicine. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2000.Google Scholar
  5. Field JM, Hazinski MF, Sayre MR, et al. Part 1: executive summary: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122(18 Suppl 3):S640–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Hayek DA, Veremakis C. Physiologic concerns during brain resuscitation. In: Civetta JM, Taylor RW, Kirby RR, editors. Critical care. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1992.Google Scholar
  7. Hazinski MF, Shuster M, Donnino MW, Travers AH, Samson RA, Schexanyder SM, Sinz EH, Woodin JA, Atkins DL, Bhanji F, Brooks SC, Callaway CW, de Caen AR, Kleinman ME, Kronick SL, Lavonas EJ, Link MS, Mancini ME, Morrison LJ, Neumar RW, O’Connor RE Singletary EM, Wyckoff MH. Highlights of the 2015 American Heart Association, Guidelines update for CPR and ECC, 2015.Google Scholar
  8. Hupfl M, Selig HF, Nagele P. Chest-compression-only versus standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2010;376(9752):1552–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Link ML, Atkins DL, Passman RS, Halperin HR, Samson RA, White RD, Cudnik MD, Berg MD, Kudenchuk PJ, Kerber RE. Part 6: electrical therapies: automated external defibrillators, defibrillation, cardioversion, and pacing 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122:S706–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Mentzelopoulos SD, Malachias S, Chamos C, Konstantopoulos D, Ntaidou T, Papastylianou A, et al. Vasopressin, steroids, and epinephrine and neurologically favorable survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013 Jul 17;310(3):270–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. MIMS online (Australia). Accessed 12/11/2017. www.mimsonline.com.au.
  12. Morrison LJ, Verbeek PR, Vermeulen MJ, et al. Derivation and evaluation of a termination of resuscitation clinical prediction rule for advanced life support providers. Resuscitation. 2007;74(2):266–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mutschler A, Nienaber U, Brockamp T, et al. A critical reappraisal of the ATLS classification of hypovolaemic shock: does it really reflect clinical reality? Resuscitation. 2013;84:309–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Neumar RW, Otto CW, Link MS, Kornick SL, Shuster M, Callaway CW, Kudenchuck PJ, Ornato JP, McNally B, Silvers SM, Passman RS, White RD, Hess EP, Tang W, Davis D, Sinz E, Morrison LJ. American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science; part 8: adult advanced life support. Circulation. 2010;122:S729–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Nolan JP, Hazinski MF, Aickin R, et al. Part 1: executive summary: 2015 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation. 2015;12:e1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Perki GD, Travers AH, Berg RA, Castren M, Considine J, Escalante R, Gazmuri RJ, Koster RW, Lim SH, Nation KJ, Olasveengen TM, Sakamoto T, Sayre MR, Sierra A, Smyth MA, Stanton D, Vaillancourt C, on behalf of the Basic Life Support Chapter 2: Resuscitation, Part 3: Adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations, Elsevier, Resuscitation 95(2015)e43–e69.Google Scholar
  17. Sayre MR, Berg RA, Cave DM, Page RL, Potts J, White RD. Hands-only (compression-only) cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a call to action for bystander response to adults who experience out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest: a science advisory for the public from the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee. Circulation. 2008;117(16):2162–7.Google Scholar
  18. Travers AH, Rea TD, Bobrow BJ, Edelson DP, Berg RA, Sayre MR, et al. Part 4: CPR overview: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122:S676–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olaf Rusoke-Dierich
    • 1
  1. 1.TownsvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations