The body uses energy for all life processes. The energy is provided by nutrition like fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, trace elements, minerals as well as oxygen. Through various biochemical processes, organic materials and oxygen are converted into energy (ATP, GTP, NADH, NADPH, etc.) to be directly utilised by the body’s metabolic processes. Depending on the demand, the body needs a certain amount of energy. ATP is a powerful energy source. Each mole of ATP releases 7.3 kcal (30.7 kJ). However, ATP stores in muscles last only for 1–2 s after onset of exercise and have to be resynthesised again after being used. As some enzymes only can use energy of ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) together, ATP has to be hydrolysed:
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