Advertisement

Birds of Prey pp 473-498 | Cite as

Raptor Conservation in Practice

  • Richard T. Watson
Chapter

Abstract

Successful conservation usually takes a multidisciplinary approach. In Raptor Conservation in Practice I demonstrate how saving raptor species through techniques like captive breeding and release, and others, is effective only with research to solve conservation problems and measure results, and working to develop sustainable solutions with stakeholders using methods drawn from the disciplines of forensic research and social sciences respectively. I use examples from The Peregrine Fund’s experience over nearly 50 years of putting conservation into practice to develop the idea of the multidisciplinary approach and cite examples of recovery of critically endangered species such as the Peregrine Falcon, California Condor and Ridgway’s Hawk, forensic research to discover a new cause of mortality among vultures in South Asia, and community-based conservation solutions with stakeholders in Madagascar and Panama.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Many Peregrine Fund staff contributed ideas and text to this chapter, which is a condensed compilation of conservation actions and research that have often led to success over the organization’s nearly 50-year lifespan. I particularly wish to acknowledge valuable contributions by David Anderson, Marta Curti, Thomas Hayes, Chris McClure, Darcy Ogada, Lily Arison René de Roland, Amy Siedenstrang, Russell Thorstrom, Hernan Vargas, José Vargas, and Munir Virani.

References

  1. Anderson DL, McClure CJW, Franke A (2017) Applied raptor ecology: Essentials from gyrfalcon research. The Peregrine Fund, BoiseGoogle Scholar
  2. Bachelet D (2011) Conservation strategies in a changing world. In: Watson RT, Cade TJ, Fuller M, Hunt G, Potapov E (eds) Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world, vol II. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 385–398. https://doi.org/10.4080/gpcw.2011.0317 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baral HS, Giri JB, Virani M (2004) On the decline of oriental white-backed vultures Gyps bengalensis in lowland Nepal. In: Chancellor RD, Meyburg B-U (eds) Raptors worldwide. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls/MME/BirdLife Hungary, Berlin/Budapest, pp 215–219Google Scholar
  4. Berger DD, Sindelar CR Jr, Gamble KE (1969) The status of the breeding peregrines of the eastern United States. In: Hickey JJ (ed) Peregrine falcon populations: their biology and decline. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp 165–173Google Scholar
  5. Berry RB, Benkman CW, Muela A, Seminario Y, Curti M (2010) Isolation and decline of a population of the Orange-breasted falcon. Condor 112(3):479–489. https://doi.org/10.1525/cond.2010.100012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife, Barcelona/Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  7. BirdLife International (2015) Global IUCN Red List for birds – 2015 changes. https://globally-threatened-birdforums.birdlife.org/2015/10/global-iucn-red-list-for-birds-2015-changes/
  8. Booms T, Lindgren M, Huettmann F (2011) Linking Alaska’s predicted climate, gyrfalcon, and ptarmigan distributions in space and time: a unique 200-year perspective. In: Watson RT, Cade TJ, Fuller M, Hunt G, Potapov E (eds) Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world, vol I. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 177–190. https://doi.org/10.4080/gpcw.2011.0116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowden CGR, Galligan TH, Prakash V, Paudel K, Cuthbert R, Green RE (2016) An overview of recent advances and priorities for vulture conservation in the South Asia region. Regional symposium on vulture conservation in Asia. IUCN Pakistan, KarachiGoogle Scholar
  10. Buechley E. (2011) Augur Buzzard declines at Lake Naivasha. Swara July: 54–56Google Scholar
  11. Burnham KK, Burnham WA (2011) Ecology and biology of gyrfalcons in Greenland. Pages 1-20 in Watson RT, Cade TJ, Fuller, M, Hunt G, Potapov E (Eds) Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world, Volume II. The Peregrine fund, BoiseGoogle Scholar
  12. Cade TJ (2007) Exposure of California condors to lead from spent ammunition. J Wildl Manag 71(7):2125–2133. https://doi.org/10.2193/2007-084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cade TJ, Burnham WA (2003) Return of the peregrine. A North American Saga of tenacity and teamwork. The Peregrine Fund, BoiseGoogle Scholar
  14. Cade TJ (2000) Progress in translocation of diurnal raptors. Pages 342-372 in Raptors at risk (Chandellor RD, Meyburg B-U, Eds) World Working Group on Birds of Prey, Berlin / Hancock House, BlaineGoogle Scholar
  15. Cade TJ, Temple SA (1995) Management of threatened bird species: evaluation of the hands-on approach. Ibis 137 (Supplement):S161–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chaudhry MJI, Ogada DL, Malik RN, Virani MZ, Giovanni MD (2012) First evidence that populations of the critically endangered long-billed vulture Gyps indicus in Pakistan have increased following the ban of the toxic veterinary drug diclofenac in South Asia. Bird Conserv Int 22:389–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohn BA, Wolff MS, Cirillo PM, Sholtz RI (2007) DDT and breast cancer in young women: new data on the significance of age at exposure. Environ Health Perspect 115(10):1406–1414. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10260 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Cruz-Martinez L, Redig PT, Deen J (2012) Lead from spent ammunition: a source of exposure and poisoning in bald eagles. Hum-wildl interact 6(1):94–104Google Scholar
  19. Cunningham AA, Prakash V, Pain DJ, Ghalsasi GR, Wells AH, Kolte GN, Nighot P, Goudar MS, Kshirgar S, Rahmani A (2003) Indian vultures: victims of a disease epidemic? Anim Conserv 6:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Curti M, Valdez U (2009) Incorporating community education in the strategy for harpy eagle conservation in Panama. J Environ Educ 40(4):3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferguson-Lees J, Christie DA (2001) Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Finkelstein ME, Doak DF, George D, Burnett J, Brandt J, Church M, Grantham J, Smith DR (2012) Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 109(28):11449–11454. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1203141109 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Galligan TH, Taggart MA, Cuthbert RJ, Svobodova D, Chipangura J, Alderson D, Prakash VM, Naidoo V (2016) Metabolism of aceclofenac in cattle to vulture-killing diclofenac. Conserv Biol. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12711
  24. Gilbert M, Virani M, Watson RT, Oaks JL, Benson PC, Khan AA, Ahmed S, Chaudhry MJI, Arshad M, Mahmood S, Shah QA (2002) Breeding and mortality of oriental white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Bird Conserv Int 12:311–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gilbert M, Watson RT, Virani MZ, Oaks JL, Ahmed S, Chaudhry MJI, Arshad M, Mahmood S, Ali A, Khan AA (2006) Rapid population declines and mortality clusters in three oriental white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis colonies due to diclofenac poisoning. Oryx 40:388–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gilbert M, Watson RT, Virani MZ (2007a) Neck-drooping posture in oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis): an unsuccessful predictor of mortality and its probable role in thermoregulation. J Raptor Res 41:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gilbert M, Watson RT, Ahmed S, Asim M, Johnson JA (2007b) Vulture restaurants and their role in reducing diclofenac exposure in Asian vultures. Bird Conserv Int 17:63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gilg O, Sittler B, Hanski I (2011) Will collared lemmings and their predators be the first vertebrates to “fall over the cliff” in Greenland due to global climate changes? Extended abstract. In: Watson RT, Hunt G, Cade TJ, Fuller M, Potapov E (eds) Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world, vol I. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 131–132. https://doi.org/10.4080/gpcw.2011.0113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Global Raptor Information Network (GRIN) (2017) Species account: Bawean Serpent eagle Spilornis baweanus. Downloaded from http://www.globalraptors.org on 1 Jan 2017
  30. Green RE, Newton I, Shultz S, Cunningham AA, Gilbert M, Pain DJ, Prakash V (2004) Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of population declines across the Indian subcontinent. J Appl Ecol 41:793–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Green RE, Hunt WG, Parish CN, Newton I (2009) Effectiveness of action to reduce exposure of free-ranging California condors in Arizona and Utah to lead from spent ammunition. In: Watson RT, Fuller M, Pokras M, Hunt WG (eds) Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 240–253. https://doi.org/10.4080/ilsa.2009.0218 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heinrich WR (2011) Peregrine falcon recovery in the continental United States, 1974–1999, with notes on related programs of the Peregrine Fund. In: Sielicki J, Mizera T (eds) Peregrine falcon populations: status and perspectives in the 21st century. Turul Publishing/Poznañ University of Life Sciences Press, Warsaw/Poznañ, pp 431–444Google Scholar
  33. Hickey JJ (ed) (1969) Peregrine falcon populations: their biology and decline. University of Wisconsin Press, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  34. Houston DC (1974) Food searching behaviour in griffon vultures. E Afr Wildl J 12:63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hunt WG, Parish CN, Orr K, Aguilar RF (2009a) Lead poisoning and the reintroduction of the California condor in Northern Arizona. J Avian Med Surg 23(2):145–150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hunt WG, Burnham WA, Parish CN, Burnham KK, Mutch B, Oaks JL (2009b) Bullet fragments in deer remains: implications for lead exposure in scavengers. In: Watson RT, Fuller M, Pokras M, Hunt WG (eds) Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 254–258. https://doi.org/10.4080/ilsa.2009.0123 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huntley B, Green RE (2011) Bioclimatic models of the distributions of gyrfalcons and ptarmigan. In: Watson RT, Cade TJ, Fuller M, Hunt G, Potapov E (eds) Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world, vol II. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 329–338. https://doi.org/10.4080/gpcw.2011.0312 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Iqbal S, Blumenthal W, Kennedy C, Yip FY, Pickard S, Flanders WD, Loringer K, Kruger K, Caldwell KL, Brown MJ (2009) Hunting with lead: association between blood lead levels and wild game consumption. Environ Res. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2009.08.007
  39. Johansen P, Pedersen HS, Asmund G, Riget F (2006) Lead shot from hunting as a source of lead in human blood. Environ Pollut 142:93–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson JA, Watson RT, Mindell DP (2005) Prioritizing species conservation: does the Cape Verde kite exist? Proc R Soc B 272:1365-1372CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Johnson JA, Tingay RE, Culver M, Hailer F, Clarke ML, Mindell DP (2009) Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle. Mol Ecol 18:54–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.04012.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Johnson JA, Talbot S, Sage G, Burnham KK, Brown J, Maechtle T, Seegar WS, Yates M, Anderson B, Mindell DP (2011) The use of genetics for the management of a recovering population: temporal assessment of migratory Peregrine falcons in North America. PLoS One 2(11):e14042. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kiff LF (1988) Changes in the status of the peregrine in North America: an overview. In: Cade TJ, Enderson JH, Thelander CG, White CM (eds) Peregrine falcon populations: their management and recovery. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 123–139Google Scholar
  44. Lalah JO, Otieno PO, Richards NL, Odino M, Frank L, Cotterill A, Dolrenry S, Hazzah L, Ogada D, Virani M, Martins DJ (2011) A chronicling of long-standing carbofuran use and its menace to wildlife in Kenya. In: Richards N (ed) Carbofuran and wildlife poisoning: global perspectives and forensic approaches. Wiley, New York, pp 39–98. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119998532.ch3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lerner HRL, Mindell DP (2005) Phylogeny of eagles, old world vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Mol Phylogenet Evol 37:327–346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Macías-Duarte A, Montoya A, Méndez-González CE, Rodríguez-Salazar JR, Hunt WG, Krannitz PG (2009) Factors influencing habitat use by migratory grassland birds in Chihuahua, Mexico. Auk 126(4):896−905. https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2009.08251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Macías-Duarte A, Montoya A, Rodriguez-Salazar JR, Hunt G (2016) The imminent disappearance of the aplomado falcon from the Chihuahuan Desert. Journal of Raptor Research 50(2):211–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mechnikova S, Romanov M, Kudryavtsev N (2011) Change in numbers and nesting ecology of the gyrfalcon in the Yamal peninsula, Russia, from 1981 to 2010. In: Watson RT, Cade TJ, Fuller M, Hunt G, Potapov E (eds) Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world, vol II. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 205–212. https://doi.org/10.4080/gpcw.2011.0220 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mineau P, Lyon L, McMillin S (2012) Impacts of carbofuran on birds in Canada and the United States. In: Richards N (ed) Carbofuran and wildlife poisoning: global perspectives and forensic approaches, 1st edn. Wiley, Chichester, pp 208–250Google Scholar
  50. Monadjem A, Virani MZ, Jackson C, Reside A (2012) Rapid decline and shift in the future distribution predicted for the endangered Sokoke Scops owl Otus ireneae due to climate change. Bird Conserv Int. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270912000330
  51. Mossop DH (2011) Long-term studies of willow ptarmigan and gyrfalcon in the Yukon territory: a collapsing 10-year cycle and its apparent effect on the top predator. In: Watson RT, Cade TJ, Fuller M, Hunt G, Potapov E (eds) Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world, vol I. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 323–336. https://doi.org/10.4080/gpcw.2011.0206 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Newton I (2011) Conference summary. In: Watson RT, Cade TJ, Fuller M, Hunt G, Potapov E (eds) Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world, vol I. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 5–10. https://doi.org/10.4080/gpcw.2011.0318 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Oaks JL, Watson RT (2011) South Asian vultures in crisis: environmental contamination with a pharmaceutical. In: Elliot J et al (eds) Wildlife ecotoxicology: forensic approaches. Springer, New York/Dordrecht/Heidelberg/London, pp 413–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Oaks JL, Gilbert M, Virani M, Watson RT, Meteyer CU, Rideout BA, Shivaprasad HL, Ahmed S, Chaudhry MJI, Arshad M, Mahmood S, Ali A, Khan AA (2004) Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature 427:630–633CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ogada D, Keesing F, Virani M (2011) Dropping dead: causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2011:1–15. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06293.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ogada D, Shaw P, Beyers RL, Buij R, Murn C, Thiollay J-M, Beale CM, Holdo RM, Pomeroy D, Baker N, Krüger SC, Botha A, Virani M, Monadjem A, Sinclair ARE (2015) Another Continental Vulture Crisis: Africa’s Vultures Collapsing toward Extinction. Conservation Letters 2015. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12182
  57. Odino M and Ogada D (2008) Furadan use in Kenya: a survey of the distributors and end-users of toxic Carbofuran (Furadan) in pastoralist and rice growing areas. Zoology Department, Ornithology Section, National Museums of Kenya, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  58. Otieno PO, Lalah JO, Virani M, Jondiko IO, Schramm K-W (2011) Carbofuran use and abuse in Kenya: residues in soils, plants, water courses and the African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus) found dead. Environmentalist 31:382–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pain DJ, Bowden CGR, Cunningham AA, Cuthbert R, Das D, Gilbert M, Jakati RD, Jhala Y, Khan AA, Naidoo V, Oaks JL, Parry-Jones J, Prakash V, Rahmani A, Ranade SP, Baral HS, Senacha KR, Saravanan S, Shah N, Swan G, Swarup D, Taggart MA, Watson RT, Virani M, Wolter K, Green RE (2008) The race to prevent the extinction of South Asian vultures. Bird Conserv Int 18:S30–S48. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270908000324 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pain DJ, Fisher IJ, Thomas VG (2009) A global update of lead poisoning in terrestrial birds from ammunition sources. In: Watson RT, Fuller M, Pokras M, Hunt WG (eds) Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 99–118. https://doi.org/10.4080/ilsa.2009.0108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Parish CN, Hunt WG, Feltes E, Sieg R, Orr K (2009) Lead exposure among a reintroduced population of California condors in Northern Arizona and Southern Utah. In: Watson RT, Fuller M, Pokras M, Hunt WG (eds) Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 259–264. https://doi.org/10.4080/ilsa.2009.0217 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Prakash V (1999) Status of vultures in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, with special reference to population crash in Gyps species. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 96:365–378Google Scholar
  63. Rabarosoa R, Watson RT, Thorstrom R, Berkelman J (1997) Status of the Madagascar fish eagle Haliaeetus vociferoides in 1995. Ostrich 68:8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ratcliffe DA (1980) The Peregrine falcon. Buteo Books, VermillionGoogle Scholar
  65. Razafimanjato G, Sam TS, Rakotondratsima M, Rene de Roland L-A, Thorstrom R (2013) Population status of the Madagascar fish eagle Haliaeetus vociferoides in 2005–2006. Bird Conserv Int 24:88–99. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270913000038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Razandrizanakanirina D (1997) Community-based wetland conservation project: mission notes. In: Watson RT (ed) Madagascar wetlands conservation project, progress report III. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 105–120Google Scholar
  67. Richards N (ed) (2012) Carbofuran and wildlife poisoning: global perspectives and forensic approaches, 1st edn. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  68. Salvador DJI, Ibañez JC (2006) Ecology and conservation of Philippine eagles. Ornithol Sci 5:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schaller GB (1972) The Serengeti lion. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  70. Schultz S (2002) Population density, breeding chronology and diet of crowned eagles Stephanoaetus coronatus in Taï National Park, Ivory Coast. Ibis 144:135–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schultz S, Baral HS, Charman S, Cunningham AA, Das D, Ghalsasi GR, Goudar MS, Green RE, Jones A, Nighot P, Pain DJ, Prakash V (2004) Diclofenac poisoning is widespread in declining vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent. Proc Roy Soc Lond B (Supplement) 271(Suppl 6):S458–S460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sieg R, Sullivan K, Parish CN (2009) Voluntary lead reduction efforts within the Northern Arizona range of the California condor. In: Watson RT, Fuller M, Pokras M, Hunt WG (eds) Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 341–349. https://doi.org/10.4080/ilsa.2009.0309 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stauber E, Finch N, Talcott PA, Gay JM (2010) Lead poisoning of bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden (Aquila chrysaetos) eagles in the U.S. inland Pacific northwest region—an 18 year retrospective study: 1991–2008. J Avian Med Surg 24:279–287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Swinnerton KJ, Groombridge JJ, Jones CG, Burn RW, Mungroo Y (2004) Inbreeding depression and founder diversity among captive and free-living populations of the endangered pink pigeon Columba mayeri. Anim Conserv 7:353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Thorstrom R, Watson RT, Baker A, Ayers S, Anderson D (2002) Preliminary ground and aerial surveys for Orange-breasted falcons in Central America. J Raptor Res 36(1):39–44Google Scholar
  76. Thorstrom R, Almonte J, Balbuena de la Rosa S, Rodríguez P, Fernández E (2005) Surveys and breeding biology of Buteo ridgwayi (Ridgway’s hawk) in Los Haitises, Dominican Republic. Caribb J Sci 41:864–869Google Scholar
  77. Tsuji LJS, Wainman BC, Martin ID, Sutherland C, Weber J-P, Dumas P, Nieboer E (2008) Lead shot contribution to blood lead of first nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure. Sci Total Environ 405:180–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Vargas-González J d J, Vargas H (2011) Nesting density of harpy eagles in Darien with population size estimates for Panama. J Raptor Res 45(3):199–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Virani M, Harper DM (2009) Factors influencing the breeding performance of the augur buzzard Buteo augur in southern Lake Naivasha, Rift Valley, Kenya. Ostrich 80(1):9–17. https://doi.org/10.2989/OSTRICH.2009.80.1.2.760 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Virani M, Njoroge P, Gordon I (2010) Disconcerting trends in populations of the endangered Sokoke Scops owl Otus ireneae in the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya. Ostrich 81(2):155–158. https://doi.org/10.2989/00306525.2010.488429 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Watson RT (2000) Flight, foraging and food of the Bateleur Terathopius ecaudatus: an aerodynamically specialized, opportunistic forager. In: Chancellor RD, Meyburg B-U (eds) Raptors at Risk. WWGBP/Hancock House, Berlin, pp 65–75Google Scholar
  82. Watson RT, Hunt G (2011) Preface. In: Watson RT, Cade TJ, Fuller M, Hunt G, Potapov E (eds) Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world, vol I. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, pp 1–3. http://peregrinefund.org/subsites/conference-gyr/proceedings/99-Preface.pdf Google Scholar
  83. Watson RT, Rabarisoa R (2000) Sakalava fishermen and Madagascar fish eagles: enhancing traditional conservation rules to control resource abuse that threatens a key breeding area for an endangered eagle. Ostrich 71:2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Watson RT, Gilbert M, Oaks JL, Virani M (2004) The collapse of vulture populations in South Asia. Biodiversity 5:3–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Watson RT, Gilbert M, Virani M (2008a) Neck-drooping posture of oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis) in close proximity to human observers. J Raptor Res 42:66–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Watson RT, Rene de Roland LA, Rabearivony J, Thorstrom R (2008b) Community-based wetland conservation protects endangered species in Madagascar: Lessons from science to conservation. Proc 16th Biodiversity Symposium, Philippine Wildlife Conservation Society, Manila, Philippines. Banwa 4(1):81–95Google Scholar
  87. Watson RT, Cade T, Hunt WG, Fuller M, Potapov E (eds) (2011) Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world, vol I and II. The Peregrine Fund, Boise. http://www.peregrinefund.org/subsites/conference-gyr/proceedings/index.html Google Scholar
  88. Whytock RC, Morgan BJ, Awa T, Bekokon Z, Abwe EA, Buij R, Virani M, Vickery JA, Bunnefeld N (2018) Quantifying the scale and socioeconomic drivers of bird hunting in Central African forest communities. Biological Conservation 218:18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Woolaver LG Jr (2011) Ecology and conservation genetics of Ridgway’s Hawk Buteo ridgwayi. Ph.D. dissertation, York University, Toronto, Ontario. p 291Google Scholar
  90. World Health Organization (2006) Indoor residual spraying: WHO position statement. Global Malaria Programme, Geneva. http://www.who.int/malaria. Last Accessed 10 Nov 2008
  91. World Health Organization (2011) Global insecticide use for vector-borne disease control: A ten year assessment, 2000–2009. 5th edn. World Health Organization, Geneva. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241502153_eng.pdf. Last Accessed 18 Sept 2012

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Peregrine FundBoiseUSA

Personalised recommendations