Tailored Strategies in Carotid Artery Stenting to Avoid Periprocedural Complications
Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been widely accepted as a valuable therapeutic alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for high-grade carotid stenosis. Because carotid revascularization including CAS is usually performed in patients with minimal or no neurological deficits, utmost care should be taken to avoid periprocedural complications. The major concerns associated with CAS are embolic stroke, hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS), and perioperative myocardial infarction.
Plaque characteristics, cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the affected cerebral hemisphere, and concomitant coronary artery disease prior to CAS are all important to assess the risks of these complications and are routinely evaluated.
Tailored CAS is planned based on findings of preoperative evaluation, as follows. (1) If the plaque component is thought vulnerable, proximal embolic protection methods, use of a closed-cell-type stent, or referral to CEA should be considered to avoid embolic complications. (2) If patients have severe CBF impairment, staged angioplasty is an effective strategy to prevent postoperative HPS. (3) If concomitant cardiac diseases are present, the optimal treatment sequence should be discussed between cardiologists and neurointerventionalists.
These tailored strategies based on preoperative risk evaluations may lead to safer procedures and better clinical outcome in CAS patients.
KeywordsCarotid artery stenting Complication Preoperative evaluation Tailored strategy
Carotid artery stenting
Cerebral blood flow
Magnetic resonance angiography
Magnetic resonance imaging
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
Single-photon emission computed tomography
Conflict of Interest
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
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