Advertisement

Organized Crime, Gangs, and Trafficking

  • Mackenzie Lambine
  • Giselle Gaviria
Chapter

Abstract

Youth gang involvement has received intensive scholarly, public, and administrative attention during the past few decades (Decker, Melde, & Pyrooz, 2013). In the USA, the modern street gang has been a significant feature of the urban landscape in various regions since around the 1950s and was found to be heavily dependent upon trends in rapid urbanization and immigration (Howell & Moore, 2010). A street gang is a variation on the traditional adolescent peer group, where most of its members engage in various violent or non-violent offending when compared to their demographically similar counterparts (Melde & Esbensen, 2013). Gang-related crime and non-gang-affiliated group crime are a worldwide phenomenon, the behavioral and psychological dynamics of which are similar (Hagedorn, 2005).

References

  1. Beckett, H. Brodie, I., Factor, F., Melrose, M., Pearce, J., Pitts, J., … Warrington, C. (2013). “It’s wrong, but you get used to it”: A qualitative study of gang associated sexual violence towards, and exploitation of, young people in England. Office of the Children’s Commissioner’s Inquiry into Child Exploitation in Gangs and Groups Final Report. Retrieved from http://www.childrenscommissioner.gov.uk/info/csegg1
  2. Brown, V. A. (2007). Gang member perpetrated domestic violence: A new conservation. University of Maryland Law Journal of Race, Religion, Gender and Class, 7, 395–413.Google Scholar
  3. Curry, D. C. (1998). Female gang involvement. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35(1), 100–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Curry, D., & Decker, H. (1998). Confronting gangs: Crime and community. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury.Google Scholar
  5. Decker, S. H., & Curry, G. D. (2002). Gangs, gang homicides, and gang loyalty: Organized crimes or disorganized criminals. Journal of Criminal Justice, 30(4), 343–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Decker, S. H., Melde, C., & Pyrooz, D. (2013). What do we know about gangs and gang members and where do we go from here? Justice Quarterly, 30, 369–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Densley, J. (2013). How gangs work: An ethnography of youth violence. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Esbensen, F. A., Deschenes, E. P., & Winfree, L. T. (1999). Differences between gang girls and gang boys: Results from a multi-site survey. Youth and Society, 31(1), 27–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fleisher, M. S. (1998). Dead end kids: Gang girls and the boys they know. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  10. Frank, M. J., & Terwilliger, G. Z. (2015). Gang-controlled sex trafficking. Virginia Journal of Criminal Law, 3, 342–384.Google Scholar
  11. Hagedorn, J. M. (2005). The global impact of gangs. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 21(2), 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Firmin, C. (2013). Busting the “gang rape myth”: Girls’ victimization and agency in gang-associated sexual violence. In M. Horvath & J. Woodhams (Eds.), Handbook on the study of multiple perpetrator rape: A multidisciplinary response to an international problem (pp. 97–115). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Howell, J. C., & Moore, J. P. (2010). History of street gangs in the United States. In National Gang Center Bulletin. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/Content/Documents/History-of-Street-Gangs.pdf
  14. Kelly, A. (2015). Girls in gangs: Listening to and making sense of females’ perspectives of gang life (Doctoral dissertation). Ottawa, Canada: University of Ottawa.Google Scholar
  15. Lederer, L. J. (2009). Sold for sex: The link between street gangs and trafficking in persons. Human Rights and Civil Society, 1, 1–20.Google Scholar
  16. Melde, C., & Esbensen, F. A. (2013). Gangs and violence: Disentangling the impact of gang membership on the level and nature of offending. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29(2), 143–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Metropolitan Police Service (2015). The London child sexual exploitation operating protocol. Retrieved from https://beta.met.police.uk/globalassets/downloads/child-abuse/the-london-revised-cse-operating-protocol-2nd-edition.pdf
  18. Miller, J. (2001). One of the guys: Girls, gangs, and gender. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Sheldon, R., Tracy, S., & Brown, W. (2004). Youth gangs in American Society. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  20. Taylor, T. J. (2008). The boulevard ain’t safe for your kids… 1: Youth gang membership and violent victimization. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(2), 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Terrance J. Taylor, Dana Peterson, Finn-Aage Esbensen, Adrienne Freng, (2016) Gang Membership as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Violent Victimization. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 44 (4):351–380Google Scholar
  22. Wang, J. Z. (2000). Female gang affiliation: Knowledge and perceptions of at-risk girls. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 44(5), 618–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wolf, A., & Gutierrez, L. (2012). It’s about time: Prevention and intervention services for gang-affiliated girls. Oakland, CA: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mackenzie Lambine
    • 1
  • Giselle Gaviria
    • 2
  1. 1.Middlesex UniversityLondonUK
  2. 2.Walker and AssociatesFort LauderdaleUSA

Personalised recommendations