The Entrepreneurial ‘Mindset’: Entrepreneurial Intentions from the Entrepreneurial Event to Neuroentrepreneurship

  • Gabi Kaffka
  • Norris Krueger


Entrepreneurial intentions are among the most researched phenomena in the field of entrepreneurship, but its real value is in the new doors it is opening. The increase in entrepreneurial intentions research during the 1980s and 1990s coincides with the introduction of contributions from the field of psychology: social psychology, cognitive psychology and now developmental psychology and even neuroscience. What we are now finding is advancing theory, research, practice and especially education. Entrepreneurial intentions may affect entrepreneurial behavior and, subsequently, venture development and growth, but the more we study intentions, the more we need to look deeper at where intent actually arises. This chapter celebrates this still-growing trajectory with a look at how it has evolved and an example of where it is heading.


Intentions Intent Entrepreneurial thinking Entrepreneurial cognition Entrepreneurial mindset Deep beliefs Shapero Theory of planned behavior Entrepreneurial learning Entrepreneurship education 


  1. Adam, A. –F.. (2015). How to bridge the gap between entrepreneurial intention and behavior? The role of commitment. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2015(1). Academy of Management.Google Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Baron, R. A. (2004). The cognitive perspective: A valuable tool for answering entrepreneurship’s basic “why” questions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 221–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: The case for intention. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 442–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blank, S. G. (2006). The four steps to the epiphany. San Mateo: Scholar
  6. Brannback, M., Krueger, N., Carsrud, A., & Elfving, J. (2007). “Trying” to be entrepreneurial. Babson Entrepreneurship Conference, Madrid.Google Scholar
  7. Bratman, M. (1987). Intention, plans, and practical reason. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Cesinger, B., Kramer, M., Schwarzinger, D., & Gelleri, P. (2011). The dark side of personality: Effects of narcissism, machiavellianism and psychopathy on entrepreneurial intention and performance. In British Academy of Management Annual Conference, British Academy of Management.Google Scholar
  9. Clarke, J. (2011). Revitalizing entrepreneurship: How visual symbols are used in entrepreneurial performances. Journal of Management Studies, 48(6), 1365–1391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clarke, J., & Holt, R. (2010). The mature entrepreneur: A narrative approach to entrepreneurial goals. Journal of Management Inquiry, 19(1), 69–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cornelissen, J. P., & Clarke, J. S. (2010). Imagining and rationalizing opportunities: Inductive reasoning and the creation and justification of new ventures. The Academy of Management Review, 539–557.Google Scholar
  12. Cornelissen, J. P., Clarke, J. S., & Cienki, A. (2012). Sensegiving in entrepreneurial contexts: The use of metaphors in speech and gesture to gain and sustain support for novel business ventures. International Small Business Journal, 30(3), 213–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davidsson, P. (1995). Determinants of entrepreneurial intentions (QUT working paper).Google Scholar
  14. Day, M., Boardman, M., & Krueger, N. F. (Eds.). (2017). Handbook of research methodologies and design in neuroentrepreneurship. Cheltenham: Elgar.Google Scholar
  15. Fayolle, A., & Liñán, F. (2014). The future of research on entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Research, 67(5), 663–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fisher, G. (2012). Effectuation, causation and bricolage: A behavioral comparison of emerging theories in entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 36(5), 1019–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fitzsimmons, J. R., & Douglas, E. J. (2011). Interaction between feasibility and desirability in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(4), 431–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gupta, V. K., Chiles, T. H., & McMullen, J. S. (2016). A process perspective on evaluating and conducting effectual entrepreneurship research. Academy of Management Review, 41(3), 540–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hill, R. C., & Levenhagen, M. (1995). Metaphors and mental models: Sense-making and sense-giving in innovative and entrepreneurial activities. Journal of Management, 21(6), 1057–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaffka, G. A. (2017). The co-construction of entrepreneurial sensemaking: An empirical examination of socially situated cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurial cognitive development. Enschede. doi:
  21. Krueger, N. F. (1989). The role of perceived self-efficacy in the formation of entrepreneurial risk perceptions. PhD dissertation, The Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  22. Krueger, N. F. (1993). The impact of prior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptions of new venture feasibility and desirability. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(1), 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Krueger, N. (2015). OECD thematic paper on entrepreneurial education in practice; Part 1, the entrepreneurial mindset. Published online.
  24. Krueger, N. (2009). Entrepreneurial intentions are dead: Long live entrepreneurial intentions. In Understanding the entrepreneurial mind (pp. 51–72). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Krueger, N. F. (2017). Entrepreneurial intentions are dead: Long live entrepreneurial intentions. In Revisiting the Entrepreneurial Mind (pp. 13–34). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Krueger, N. F., & Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18, 91–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krueger, N. F., & Carsrud, A. L. (1993). Entrepreneurial intentions: Applying the theory of planned behaviour. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 5(4), 315–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krueger, N., & Welpe, I. (2014). Neuroentrepreneurship: What can entrepreneurship learn from neuroscience. In Annals of entrepreneurship education and pedagogy (pp. 60–90). Cheltenham: Elgar.Google Scholar
  29. Krueger Jr, N. F. (2007). What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(1), 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lackeus, M. (2015). OECD entrepreneurship360 background paper, entrepreneurship education – What, why, when, how.
  31. Liñán, F., & Fayolle, A. (2015). A systematic literature review on entrepreneurial intentions: Citation, thematic analyses, and research agenda. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11(4), 907–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McBride, R., Wuebker, R. J., & Grant, J. (2013). The ontology of entrepreneurial opportunity. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2013(1), 16582. Academy of Management.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McGrath, R. G. (1999). Falling forward: Real options reasoning and entrepreneurial failure. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 13–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1987). A longitudinal analysis of the early development and consequences of organizational commitment. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 19(2), 199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Miller, K. D. (2007). Risk and rationality in entrepreneurial processes. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1–2), 57–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mitchell, R. K., Mitchell, J. R., & Smith, J. B. (2008). Inside opportunity formation: Enterprise failure, cognition, and the creation of opportunities. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 2(3), 225–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nabi, G., Liñán, F., Fayolle, A., Krueger, N., & Walmsley, A. (2016). The impact of entrepreneurship education in higher education: A systematic review and research agenda. Academy of Management: Learning and Education, 16(2), 277–299. ISSN 1537-260X.Google Scholar
  39. Nabi, G., Liñán, F., Fayolle, A., Krueger, N., & Walmsley, A. (2017). The impact of entrepreneurship education in higher education: A systematic review and research agenda. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 16(2), 277–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ozgen, E., & Baron, R. A. (2007). Social sources of information in opportunity recognition: Effects of mentors, industry networks, and professional forums. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(2), 174–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Penaluna, A., & Penaluna K. (2015). OECD thematic paper on entrepreneurial education in practice; Part 2, Building motivations and competencies. Published online.
  42. Pratt, M. G. (2000). The good, the bad, and the ambivalent: Managing identification among Amway distributors. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45(3), 456–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rauch, A., & Hulsink, W. (2015). Putting entrepreneurship education where the intention to act lies: An investigation into the impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial behavior. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(2), 187–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Robinson, S., Neergaard, H., Tanggaard, L., & Krueger, N. F. (2016). New horizons in entrepreneurship education: From teacher-led to student-centered learning. Education+ Training, 58(7/8), 661–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Santos, F. M., & Eisenhardt, K. M. (2005). Organizational boundaries and theories of organization. Organization Science, 16(5), 491–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  47. Shapero, A. (1982). Social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In C. Kent, D. Sexton, & K. Vesper (Eds.), The encyclopedia of entrepreneurship (pp. 72–90). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  48. Shapero, A., & Sokol, L. (1982) The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship (pp. 72–90). Available at SSRN:
  49. Shepherd, D. A., & Patzelt, H. (2017). Trailblazing in entrepreneurship: Creating new paths for understanding the field. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  50. Sieger, P., Fueglistaller, U., & Zellweger, T. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions and activities of students across the world. International Report of the GUESSS Project 2011. St. Gallen. Accessed 05 Feb 2013.
  51. Venkataraman, S., Sarasvathy, S. D., Dew, N., & Forster, W. R. (2012). Reflections on the 2010 AMR decade award: Whither the promise? Moving forward with entrepreneurship as a science of the artificial. Academy of Management Review, 37(1), 21–33.Google Scholar
  52. Vlaar, P. W., van Fenema, P. C., & Tiwari, V. (2008). Co-creating understanding and value in distributed work: How members of onsite and offshore vendor teams give, make, demand, and break sense. MIS Quarterly, 32(2), 227–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Weick, K. E. (2012). Organized sense-making: A commentary on processes of interpretive work. Human Relations, 65(1), 141–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Weick, K. E. (2005). 5 managing the unexpected: complexity as distributed sensemaking. In Uncertainty and surprise in complex systems (pp. 51–65). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zott, C., & Huy, Q. N. (2007). How entrepreneurs use symbolic management to acquire resources. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52(1), 70–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabi Kaffka
    • 1
  • Norris Krueger
    • 2
  1. 1.University of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  2. 2.School of Advanced StudiesUniversity of PhoenixTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations