Advertisement

The Connected Car

  • Dietmar P. F. Möller
  • Roland E. Haas
Chapter
Part of the Computer Communications and Networks book series (CCN)

Abstract

This chapter introduces the key technologies essential for the evolution of connected cars. Section 5.1 introduces cyber-physical systems (CPS) and describes engineered systems that integrate computing and networking technologies. The cyber part of CPS is deeply embedded in and interacts with physical processes, the physical components. Section 5.2 presents the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) with regard to its communication capabilities anytime, from anywhere, with everything and key object radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology, which enables objects, things, or entities to be connected wirelessly. Section 5.3 focuses on telematics, infotainment, and the evolution of the connected car, taking into account technology maturity levels, driving factors, and business models of connected cars. Section 5.4 refers to platforms and architectures with regard to connected cars as well as the connected car reference platform and the connected car in the cloud. Section 5.5 introduces autonomous vehicles with regard to the respective guidelines for the testing and deployment of autonomous vehicles published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In Sect. 5.6, the GENIVI Alliance®, essential for the telematic and infotainment components, is introduced. Section 5.7 introduces several case studies of specific themes essential for the evolution of the connected car, such as the BMW ConnectedDrive Store, the Mercedes COMAND® Online, and HERE, which provides digital mapping for fully autonomous driving. Section 5.8 contains comprehensive questions for verifying the knowledge gained and finally followed by references and suggestions for further reading.

References and Further Reading

  1. (Abelson and Sussmann 1996) Abelson, H., Sussmann, G. J.: Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs. MIT Press, 1966Google Scholar
  2. (Airbiquity 2016) Connected Car Evolution: What’s Next? Airbiquity Company Info, 2016Google Scholar
  3. (Baheti and Gill) Baheti, R., Gill, H.: Cyber-physical systems: In: The Impact of Control Technology, IEEE, pp. 161–166, 2011.Google Scholar
  4. (Baker 2015) Baker, L.: Model-Based Systems Engineering Process with Functional Model Analysis. Presentation AlaSim 2015Google Scholar
  5. (Barr 2004) Barr, D.: Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems. NCS Technical Information Bulletin 04-1, 2004Google Scholar
  6. (Bechmann et al. 2015) Bechmann, R., Scherk, M., Heimann, R., Schäfer, R.: Trend Analysis: Connected Car 2015. MBtech Consulting GmbH, 2015. Available from: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/10955202/trend-analysis-connected-car-2015-mbtech-group
  7. (Beiker 2012) Beiker, S.A.: Legal Aspects of Autonomous Driving. Santa Clara Law Review, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2012Google Scholar
  8. (Belay 2016) Belay, S.: Smart Ticketing. In: Smart Mobility, Ed. B. Flügge, Chapter 10 (in German). Springer Publ., 2016Google Scholar
  9. (Biddlecombe 2005) Biddlecombe, E.: BBC News 17.11.2005Google Scholar
  10. (Burns and Wellings 2001) Burns, A., Wellings, A.: Real-Time Systems and Programming Languages. Addision Wesley Publ. 2001Google Scholar
  11. (Chaouchi 2010) Chaouchi, H.: The Internet of Things – Connecting Objects to the Web. J. Wiley Publ. 2010Google Scholar
  12. (Chaturvedi 2010) Chaturvedi, D. K.: Modeling and Simulation of Systems Using MATLAB and Simulink. CRC Press 2010Google Scholar
  13. (Chen et al. 2011) Chen, M., Gonzalez, S., Vasilakos, A., Cao, H., Leung, V.: Body Area Networks: A Survey. ACM/Springer Mobile Networks and Applications, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 171–193, 2011Google Scholar
  14. (Cisco 2008) WiFi Location Based Services 4.1. Design Guide, Cisco Systems Inc. 2008, Text Part OL-1161201Google Scholar
  15. (Dargie and Poellabauer 2010) Dargie, W., Poellabauer, C.: Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Practice, John Wiley Publ., 2010Google Scholar
  16. (Deriyenko 2012) Deriyenko, T.: RFID Application in Vehicle Tracking. Project Work in ITIS Class Internet of Things, TU Clausthal, 2012Google Scholar
  17. (Erdem et al. 2010) Erdem, E. Y., Chen, Y. M., Mohebbi, M., Darling, R. B., Bohringer, K. F., Suh, J, W., Kovacs, G. T. A.: Thermally Actuated Omnidirectional Walking Microrobot. In: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 433–442, 2010Google Scholar
  18. (Fitch et al. 2013) Fitch, G. M., Soccolich, S. A., Guo, F., McClafferty, J., Fang, Y., Olson, R. I., Perez, M. A., Hanowsky, R. J., Hanky, J., M., Dingus, T. A.: The Impact of Hand-Held and Hands-Free Cell Phone Use on Driving Performance and Safety-Critical Event Risk. Final Report DOT HS811-757, 2013Google Scholar
  19. (Geisberger and Broy 2012) Geisberger, E., Broy, M.: Integrated Research Agenda Cyber-Physical Systems (in German), Springer Publ. 2012Google Scholar
  20. (Geisberger and Broy 2015) Geisberger, E., Broy, M.: Living in a networked world - Integrated research agenda Cyber-Physical Systems (agenda CPS). Herbert Utz Verlag, Munich, 2015Google Scholar
  21. (Goel 2008) Goel, A.: Fleet Telematics. Springer Publ. 2008Google Scholar
  22. (Golatowski et al. 2003) Golatowski, F., Blumenthal, J., Handy, M., Haase, M., Burchardt, H., Timmermann, D.: Service-Oriented Software Architecture for Sensor Networks. In: Proc. Intern. Workshop Mobile Comp. (IMC), pp. 93–98, 2003Google Scholar
  23. (GSMA 2012) Connected Cars: Business Model Innovation. GSM Connected Living Programme: Automotive, 2012. Available from: https://www.gsma.com/iot/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/GSMA-Connected-Cars-Business-Model-Innovation1.pdf
  24. (Gulati 2015a) Gulati, A.: Telematics Redefining Automotive Industry. Auto Tech Review No.1, 2015Google Scholar
  25. (Gulati 2015b) Gulati, A.: All new cars to be internet-enabled by 2025. The Financial Express, March 2015Google Scholar
  26. (Gunes et al. 2014) Gunes, V., Peter, S., Givargisi, T., Vahid, F.: A Survey on Concepts, Applications, and Challenges in Cyber-Physical Systems. In: Transact. on Internet and Information Systems, Vol. 8, No. 12, pp. 4242–4268, 2014Google Scholar
  27. (Gupta and Chow 2010): Gupta, R. A., Chow, M.-Y.: Networked Control System: Overview and Research Trends. In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57, No. 7, pp. 2527–2535, 2010.Google Scholar
  28. (Gyimesi and Berman 2011) Gyimesi, K., Berman, S.: Digital Transformation in the Automotive Industry. IBM Executive Summary Automotive: GBE03409-USEN-00, 2011Google Scholar
  29. (Jianjun et al. 2013) Jianjun, S., Xu, W., Jizhen, G., Yangzhou, C.: The Analysis of Traffic Control Cyber-Physical Systems. In: Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 96, pp. 2487–2496, 2013Google Scholar
  30. (Johanning and Mildner 2015) Johanning, V., Mildner, R.: Car IT Compact - The car of the future - networked and autonomous (in German). Springer Publ. 2015Google Scholar
  31. (Juliussen 2003) Juliussen, E.: The Future of Automotive Telematics. In: Business Briefing: Global Automotive Manufacturing and Technology, pp. 1–4. 2003. https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~johnmc/courses/cpsc875/resources/infotainment/auto.pdf
  32. (Kärkkäinen 2003) Kärkkäinen, M.: Increasing Efficiency in the Supply Chain for Short Shelf Life Goods. In: Internat. Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, Vol. 31, No. 10, pp. 529–536, 2003Google Scholar
  33. (Koutsoukos et al. 2008) Koutsoukos, X., Kottenstette, N., Hall, J., Panos, A., Sztipanovits, J.: Passivity-Based Control Design for Cyber-Physical Systems. In: Proc. International Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems – Challenges and Applications (CPS-CA), 2008.Google Scholar
  34. (Lee 2008) Cyber Physical Systems: Design Challenges. In: Proc. 11th IEEE International Symposium on Object Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing, pp. 363–369, 2008.Google Scholar
  35. (Lee and Seshia 2011) Lee, E. A., Seshia, S. A.: Introduction to Embedded Systems – A Cyber-Physical Systems Approach. LeeSeshia.org, 2011Google Scholar
  36. (Lewis 2004) Lewis, F. E.: Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Smart Environments: Technologies, Protocols, and Applications, pp.1–18. Eds.: Clark, D. J., Das, S. K., John Wily Publ. 2004Google Scholar
  37. (Li et al. 2011) Li, W., Jagtap, P., Zavala, L., Joshi, A., Finin, T.: CARE-CPS: Context-Aware Trust Evaluation for Wireless Networks in Cyber-Physical System using Policies. In: Proceed. IEEE International Symposium on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks (POLICY), pp. 171–172, 2011Google Scholar
  38. (Liu 2000) Liu, J. W. S.: Real-Time Systems. Prentice Hall Publ. 2000Google Scholar
  39. (Mathis 2012) Mathis, R.: Neste Oil Launches Automatic Vehicle Identification at Fueling Stations, 2012. Available from: https://www.secureidnews.com/news-item/neste-oil-launches-automated-vehicle-identification-at-fueling-stations/
  40. (Meyer and Shaheen 2017) Meyer, G., Shaheen, S. (Eds.): Disrupting Mobility - Impacts of Sharing Economy and Innovative Transportation on Cities. Springer Publ. 2017Google Scholar
  41. (Mo et al. 2014) Mo, L., Cao, X., Chen, J., Sun, Y.: Collaborative Estimation and Actuation for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks. In: Proc. 19th World Congress International Federation of Automatic Control, pp. 5544–5549, 2014Google Scholar
  42. (Möller et al. 2015) Möller, D. P. F., Fidencio, A. X., do Cota, E., Jehle, I. A., Vakilzadian, H.: Cyber-Physical Smart Traffic Light System. In: Proceed. IEEE/EIT Conference, pp. 546–551, 2015, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/EIT.2015
  43. (Möller 2016) Möller, D. P. F.: Guide to Computing Fundamentals in Cyber-Physical Systems – Concepts, Design Methods, and Applications. Springer Publ., 2016Google Scholar
  44. (Moonen et al. 2005) Moonen, A., von den Berg, R., Bekoooij, M., Bhullar, H., van Meerbergen, J.: A Multi-Core Architecture for In-Car Digital Entertainment. http://www.es.ele.tue.nl/epicurus/publications/gspx05.pdf
  45. (Mulligan 2007) Mulligan, G.: The 6LoWPAN Architecture. In: EmNets Proceed. 4th Workshop on Embedded Networked Systems, pp. 78–83, ACM, 2007Google Scholar
  46. (NHTSA 2016) Federal Automated Vehicle Policy – Accelerating the Next Revolution in Roadway Safety. U.S. DoT HHTSA, 2016Google Scholar
  47. (Ning 2013) Ning, H.: Unit and Ubiquitous Internet of Things. CRC Press, 2013Google Scholar
  48. (Pala and Inanc 2007) Pala, Z., Inanc, N.: Smart Parking Applications Using RFID Technology. In: RFID Eurasia 1st Annual Conference, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/RFIDEURASIA.2007.4368108
  49. (PCAST 2007) PCAST: Leadership under Challenge: Information Technology R&D in a Competitive World. PCAST by Executive Order 13226, Published 2007Google Scholar
  50. (Pellizzoni 2015) Pellizzoni, R.: Cyber-Physical Systems. Available from: https://ece.uwaterloo.ca/~rpellizz/ECE720T5-2014.php
  51. (Poslad 2009) Poslad, S.: Ubiquitous Computing – Smart Devices, Environments and Interactions. John Wiley and Sons Publ., 2009Google Scholar
  52. (Radhakisan and Gill 2013) Radhakisan, B., Gill, H.: Cyber-Physical Systems. The Impact of Control Theory, IEEE, pp.161–166, 2011Google Scholar
  53. (Rajkumar et al. 2010) Rajkumar, I. L., Sha, L., Stankovic, J.: Cyber-Physical Systems: The Next Computing Revolution. In: Proc. 47th IEEE/ACM Design Automation Conf., pp. 731–736, 2010.Google Scholar
  54. (Randell et al. 1995) Randell, B., Laprie, J. C., Kopetz, H., Littewoods, E.: Predictably Dependent Computing Systems. Springer Publ. 2007Google Scholar
  55. (Rauch et al. 2014) Rauch, S., Aeberhard, M., Ardelt, M., Kämpchen, N.: Autonomous driving on the motorway – A potential study for future driver assistance systems (in German). http://mediatum.ub.tum.de/doc/1142101/1142101.pdf
  56. (Siebenpfeiffer 2014) Siebenpfeiffer, W. (Ed.): Networked Automobile - Safety, Car IT, Concepts (in German). Springer Publ. 2014Google Scholar
  57. (Sohraby et al. 2007) Sohraby, K., Minoli, D., Znati, T. F.: Wireless Sensor Networks: Technology, Protocols and Application. John Wiley Publ. 2007Google Scholar
  58. (Springer et al. 2014) Springer, T., Peter, S., Givargis, T.: Resource Synchronization in Hierarchically Scheduled Real-Time Systems using Preemptive Critical Sections. In: Proc. IEEE Workshop on Software Technologies for Future Embedded and Ubiquitous Systems (SEUS), 2014Google Scholar
  59. (ST Microelectronics 2013) Complete car door module – AN 2334 Application Note. ST Microelectronics, 2013Google Scholar
  60. (Vembo 2016) Vembo, D.: Connected Cars – Architecture, Challenges and Way Forward. Whitepaper Sasken Communication Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 2016. Available from: https://www.sasken.com/sites/default/files/files/white_paper/Sasken-Whitepaper-Connected%20Cars%20Challenges.pdf
  61. (Weiser 1991) Weiser M.: The Computer for the 21st Century. In: Scientific American, pp. 94–100, 1991Google Scholar
  62. (Wessel 2011) Wessel, R.: Finnish Railroad Streamlines Operations. RFID Journal online. July 14th 2011. Available from: http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?8594
  63. (Xiao et al. 2008) Xiao, Z., Guan, Q., Zheng, Z.: The Research and Development of the Highways Electronic Toll Collection System. In: International Workshop on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp. 359–362, 2008Google Scholar
  64. (Yan et al. 2012) Yan, L., Chakrabarty, K., Ho, T.-Y.: A cyber-physical synthesis approach for error recovery in digital microfluidic biochips. In: Proc. IEEE Design, Automation and Test in Europe, Conference and Exhibition (DATE), 2012Google Scholar
  65. (Zaheruddin and Mandaviwalla 2005) Zaheraheruddin, A., Mandaviwalla, M.: Integrating the Supply Chain with RFID: A Technical and Business Analysis, In: Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Volume 15, 2005, pp. 393–427Google Scholar
  66. (Zhai et al. 2007) Zhai, J., Zhou, Z., Shi, Z., Shen, L.: An Integrated Information Platform for Intelligent Transportation Systems Based on Ontology. In: IFIP Vol. 254, Research and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information Systems, pp. 787–796. Eds.: Xu, I., Tjoa, A., Chaudhary, S., Springer Publ. 2007Google Scholar
  67. (Zhang and Mi 2011) Zhang, X., Mi, C.: Vehicle Power Management – Modeling, Control and Optimization. Springer Publ. 2011Google Scholar
  68. (Zhao and Guibas 2004) Zhao F., Guibas, L.: Wireless Sensor Networks: An Information Processing Approach. Morgan Kaufmann Publ. 2004Google Scholar
  69. (Zhou and Baras 2013) Zhou, Y., Baras, J. S.: CPS Modeling Integration Hub and Design Space Exploration with Application to Microrobotics. In: Control of Cyber-Physical Systems, Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, Vol. 449, pp. 23–42, 2013Google Scholar

Links

  1. (URL11 2017) www.sasken.com

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dietmar P. F. Möller
    • 1
  • Roland E. Haas
    • 2
  1. 1.Clausthal University of TechnologyClausthal-ZellerfeldGermany
  2. 2.QSO TechnologiesBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations