Modelling and Validating an Engineering Application in Kernel P Systems

  • Raluca LefticaruEmail author
  • Mehmet Emin Bakir
  • Savas Konur
  • Mike Stannett
  • Florentin Ipate
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10725)


This paper illustrates how kernel P systems (kP systems) can be used for modelling and validating an engineering application, in this case a cruise control system of an electric bike. The validity of the system is demonstrated via formal verification, carried out using the kPWorkbench tool. Furthermore, we show how the kernel P system model can be tested using automata and X-machine based techniques.


Membrane computing Kernel P systems Cruise control Electric bike Bicycle Verification Testing 



The work of SK is supported by Innovate UK (project no: KTP010551). MB is supported by a PhD studentship provided by the Turkey Ministry of Education. FI is supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P4-ID-PCE-2016-0210.


  1. 1.
    Bakir, M.E., Ipate, F., Konur, S., Mierla, L., Niculescu, I.: Extended simulation and verification platform for kernel P systems. In: Gheorghe, M., Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A., Sosík, P., Zandron, C. (eds.) CMC 2014. LNCS, vol. 8961, pp. 158–178. Springer, Cham (2014). Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bakir, M.E., Konur, S., Gheorghe, M., Niculescu, I., Ipate, F.: High performance simulations of kernel P systems. In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, HPCC 2014, pp. 409–412 (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cimatti, A., Clarke, E., Giunchiglia, E., Giunchiglia, F., Pistore, M., Roveri, M., Sebastiani, R., Tacchella, A.: NuSMV 2: An OpenSource tool for symbolic model checking. In: Brinksma, E., Larsen, K.G. (eds.) CAV 2002. LNCS, vol. 2404, pp. 359–364. Springer, Heidelberg (2002). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coakley, S., Gheorghe, M., Holcombe, M., Chin, S., Worth, D., Greenough, C.: Exploitation of high performance computing in the FLAME agent-based simulation framework. In: 14th IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communication, HPCC 2012, pp. 538–545 (2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dragomir, C., Ipate, F., Konur, S., Lefticaru, R., Mierla, L.: Model checking kernel P systems. In: Alhazov, A., Cojocaru, S., Gheorghe, M., Rogozhin, Y., Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A. (eds.) CMC 2013. LNCS, vol. 8340, pp. 151–172. Springer, Heidelberg (2014). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gheorghe, M., Ceterchi, R., Ipate, F., Konur, S.: Kernel P systems modelling, testing and verification - sorting case study. In: Leporati, A., Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A., Zandron, C. (eds.) CMC 2016. LNCS, vol. 10105, pp. 233–250. Springer, Cham (2017). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gheorghe, M., Ceterchi, R., Ipate, F., Konur, S., Lefticaru, R.: Kernel P systems: from modelling to verification and testing. Theoretical Computer Science (accepted for publication).
  8. 8.
    Gheorghe, M., Ipate, F.: On testing P systems. In: Corne, D.W., Frisco, P., Păun, G., Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A. (eds.) WMC 2008. LNCS, vol. 5391, pp. 204–216. Springer, Heidelberg (2009). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gheorghe, M., Ipate, F., Dragomir, C., Mierla, L., Valencia-Cabrera, L., García-Quismondo, M., Pérez-Jiménez, M.J.: Kernel P systems - Version I. In: Eleventh Brainstorming Week on Membrane Computing (11BWMC), pp. 97–124 (2013)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gheorghe, M., Konur, S., Ipate, F., Mierla, L., Bakir, M.E., Stannett, M.: An integrated model checking toolset for kernel P systems. In: Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A., Sempere, J.M., Zandron, C. (eds.) CMC 2015. LNCS, vol. 9504, pp. 153–170. Springer, Cham (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holcombe, M.: X-machines as a basis for dynamic system specification. Softw. Eng. J. 3(2), 69–76 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Holcombe, M., Ipate, F.: Correct Systems: Building a Business Process Solution. Applied computing. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holzmann, G.J.: The model checker SPIN. IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. 23(5), 275–295 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ipate, F., Holcombe, M.: An integration testing method that is proved to find all faults. Int. J. Comput. Math. 63(3–4), 159–178 (1997)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Konur, S.: An event-based fragment of first-order logic over intervals. J. Logic Lang. Inf. 20(1), 49–68 (2011)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Konur, S.: Specifying safety-critical systems with a decidable duration logic. Sci. Comput. Program. 80(Part B), 264–287 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Konur, S., Fisher, M.: A roadmap to pervasive systems verification. Knowl. Eng. Rev. 30(3), 324–341 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Konur, S., Gheorghe, M., Dragomir, C., Mierla, L., Ipate, F., Krasnogor, N.: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of systems and synthetic biology constructs using P systems. ACS Synth. Biol. 4(1), 83–92 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Konur, S., Kiran, M., Gheorghe, M., Burkitt, M., Ipate, F.: Agent-based high-performance simulation of biological systems on the GPU. In: 17th IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, HPCC 2015, pp. 84–89 (2015)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lefticaru, R., Konur, S., Yildirim, U., Uddin, A., Campean, F., Gheorghe, M.: Towards an integrated approach to verification and model-based testing in system engineering. In: The International Workshop on Engineering Data- & Model-driven Applications (EDMA-2017) within the IEEE International Conference on Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom), pp. 131–138 (2017).
  21. 21.
    Păun, G.: Computing with membranes. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 61(1), 108–143 (2000)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    The P systems website. Accessed 30 Oct 2017
  23. 23.
    Sanassy, D., Fellermann, H., Krasnogor, N., Konur, S., Mierla, L., Gheorghe, M., Ladroue, C., Kalvala, S.: Modelling and stochastic simulation of synthetic biological boolean gates. In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, HPCC 2014, Paris, France, August 20–22, 2014, pp. 404–408 (2014)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Varadarajan, A.V., Romijn, M., Oosthoek, B., van de Mortel-Fronczak, J.M., Beijer, J.: Development and validation of functional model of a cruise control system. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Formal Engineering Approaches to Software Components and Architectures, pp. 45–58. EPTCS (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raluca Lefticaru
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mehmet Emin Bakir
    • 3
  • Savas Konur
    • 1
  • Mike Stannett
    • 3
  • Florentin Ipate
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceUniversity of BradfordBradfordUK
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of BucharestBucharestRomania
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceThe University of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations