Cyberbullying in Spain

  • Juan Calmaestra
  • Tatiana García-Vélez
  • Antonio Maldonado
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Cybercrime and Cybersecurity book series (PSCYBER)


Cyberbullying has been a research topic in Spain for approximately 10 years. The first major works on this topic were published by Ombudsman-UNICEF (2007) and Ortega-Ruiz et al. (2008). The first work (Ombudsman-UNICEF 2007) showed a very low incidence rate of cyberbullying – only 0.4% of the respondents could be considered as frequent victims of cyberbullying. Moreover, 5.1% of the sample were regarded to be occasional victims of this problem. The percentage of frequent cyberbullies amounted to 0.6%, while occasional cyberbullies were 4.8%. A year later, the first research work focused on cyberbullying in Spain was published (Ortega-Ruiz et al. 2008), and showed higher percentages, as follows: frequent cybervictims 1.5%, occasional cybervictims 9.3%; frequent cyberbullies 1.7%; occasional cyberbullies 5.7%; frequent cyberbullies/victims 0.6%; and occasional cyberbullies/victims 7.8%,



This publication and the study presented have been produced with the financial support of the Daphne program of the European Union. European Daphne III Program (Project JUST/2011/DAP/AG/3259) Tabby in Internet. Threat Assessment of Bullying Behaviour in Youth. Transferring Internet Preventive procedures in Europe. The contents of this article are the sole responsibility of the authors and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Commission. No conflict of interest is present.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Calmaestra
    • 1
  • Tatiana García-Vélez
    • 2
  • Antonio Maldonado
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversidad de CórdobaCórdobaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Developmental and Educational PsychologyUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

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