Advertisement

Evolution of Avian Brood Parasitism and Phylogenetic History of Brood Parasites

  • Oliver Krüger
  • Martina Pauli
Chapter
Part of the Fascinating Life Sciences book series (FLS)

Abstract

The fascination with avian brood parasitism has spawned a wealth of research into breeding strategies and their evolutionary consequences. Yet until today, there is no clear consensus how brood parasitism has evolved. On current evidence, it is more likely that interspecific brood parasitism evolved directly from an ancestral species with parental care, rather than via the stepping stone of conspecific brood parasitism. Interspecific brood parasitism has evolved independently seven times in birds, but only about 1% of all bird species are interspecific brood parasites. The evolution of this breeding strategy was accompanied by profound changes in both ecology and life history. In cuckoos, it is more likely to be a later adaptation, possibly reducing the cost of raising chicks, whereas the reduction of egg size is a direct adaptation in the coevolutionary interaction with host species. The study of the evolution of brood parasitism and its phylogenetic history is likely to further advance rapidly in the near future as genomic approaches become feasible in non-model species and phylogenetic analyses techniques are developed at an equally breath-taking rate.

Keywords

Coevolution Comparative analysis Cuckoos Evolutionary pathway analysis Trait evolution 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful for the constructive and very helpful comments made by Bruce Lyon and Manuel Soler which significantly improved this chapter. O. K. and M. P. were both funded by the Marie Curie programme of the EU. O.K. also received funding via a Royal Society University Research Fellowship, a Churchill College Junior Research Fellowship and a Heisenberg-Professorship of the German Research Foundation (DFG, KR 2089/2-1).

References

  1. Andersson M (1984) Brood parasitism within species. In: Barnard CJ (ed) Producers and scroungers: strategies of exploitation and parasitism. Croom Helm, London, pp 195–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson M (2001) Relatedness and the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism. Am Nat 158:599–614CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson M (2017) Helping relatives survive and reproduce: inclusive fitness and reproductive value in brood parasitism. Am Nat 189:138–152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersson M, Åhlund M (2000) Host-parasite relatedness shown by protein fingerprinting in a brood parasitic bird. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:13188–13193CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersson M, Åhlund M (2012) Don’t put all your eggs in one nest: spread them and cut time at risk. Am Nat 180:354–363CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersson M, Waldeck P, Hanssen SA, Moe B (2015) Female sociality and kin discrimination in brood parasitism: unrelated females fight over egg laying. Behav Ecol 26:755–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Armstrong E, Bergeron R (1985) Relative brain size and metabolism in birds. Brain Behav Evol 53:271–276Google Scholar
  8. Baran NM, Reeve HK (2015) Coevolution of parental care, parasitic, and resistance efforts in facultative parasitism. Am Nat 186:594–609CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beauchamp G (1997) Determinants of intraspecific brood amalgamation in waterfowl. Auk 114:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boerner M, Krüger O (2008) Why do parasitic cuckoos have small brains? Insights from evolutionary sequence analyses. Evolution 62:3157–3169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Broom M, Ruxton GD (2004) A framework for modelling and analysing conspecific brood parasitism. J Math Biol 48:529–544CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bulmer MG (1984) Risk avoidance and nesting strategies. J Theor Biol 106:529–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Canestrari D, Bolopo D, Turlings TC, Röder G, Marcos JM, Baglione V (2014) From parasitism to mutualism: unexpected interactions between a cuckoo and its host. Science 343:1350–1352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cichon M (1996) The evolution of brood parasitism: the role of facultative parasitism. Behav Ecol 7:137–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Darwin C (1859) The origin of species by means of natural selection. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Davies NB (2000) Cuckoos, cowbirds and other cheats. T and AD Poyser, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Dearborn DC, MacDade LS, Robinson S, Fink ADD, Fink ML (2009) Offspring development mode and the evolution of brood parasitism. Behav Ecol 20:517–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eadie JMA, Kehoe FP, Nudds TD (1988) Pre-hatch and post-hatch brood amalgamation in North American Anatidae: a review of hypotheses. Can J Zool 66:1709–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Feeney WE, Welbergen JA, Langmore NE (2014) Advances in the study of coevolution between avian brood parasites and their hosts. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 45:227–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Felsenstein J (1985) Phylogenies and the comparative method. Am Nat 125:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fleischer RC, Murphy MT, Hunt LE (1985) Clutch size increase and intraspecific brood parasitism in the yellow-billed cuckoo. Wilson Bull 97:125–127Google Scholar
  22. Fulmer AG, Hauber ME (2016) A siblicidal origin for avian brood parasitism? J Ornithol 157:219–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garamszegi LZ, Avilés JM (2005) Brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds and the expression of sexual characters in their hosts. Oecologia 143:167–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gill F, Donsker D (2017) IOC World bird list (v 7.1).  https://doi.org/10.14344/IOC.ML.7.1
  25. Gluckman TL, Mundy NI (2013) Cuckoos in raptors’ clothing: barred plumage illuminates a fundamental principle of Batesian mimicry. Anim Behav 86:1165–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hamilton WD (1964) The genetical evolution of social behaviour, II. J Theor Biol 7:17–52CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hamilton WJ, Orians GH (1965) Evolution of brood parasitism in altricial birds. Condor 67:361–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Irwin RE (1994) The evolution of plumage dichromatism in the new-world blackbirds: social selection on female brightness. Am Nat 144:890–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jaatinen K, Öst M, Gienapp P, Merilä J (2011a) Differential responses to related hosts by nesting and non-nesting parasites in a brood-parasitic duck. Mol Ecol 20:5328–5336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Jaatinen K, Lehtonen J, Kokko H (2011b) Strategy selection under conspecific brood parasitism: an integrative modeling approach. Behav Ecol 22:144–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johnson KP, Lanyon SM (1999) Molecular systematics of the grackles and allies, and the effect of additional sequence (cyt b and ND2). Auk 116:759–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Krüger O (2007) Cuckoos, cowbirds and hosts: adaptations, trade-offs and constraints. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 362:1873–1886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Krüger O (2011) Brood parasitism selects for no defence in a cuckoo host. Proc R Soc Lond B 278:2777–2783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Krüger O, Davies NB (2002) The evolution of cuckoo parasitism: a comparative analysis. Proc R Soc Lond B 269:375–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Krüger O, Davies NB (2004) The evolution of egg size in the brood parasitic cuckoos. Behav Ecol 15:210–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Krüger O, Kolss M (2013) Modelling the evolution of common cuckoo host-races: speciation or genetic swamping? J Evol Biol 26:2447–2457CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Krüger O, Davies NB, Sorenson MD (2007) The evolution of sexual dimorphism in parasitic cuckoos: sexual selection or coevolution? Proc R Soc Lond B 274:1553–1560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Krüger O, Sorenson MD, Davies NB (2009) Does coevolution promote species richness in parasitic cuckoos? Proc R Soc Lond B 276:3871–3879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Krüger O, Korsten P, Hoffman JI (2017) The rise of behavioral genetics and the transition to behavioral genomics and beyond. In: Call J (ed) APA handbook of comparative psychology. Academic Press, Washington, pp 365–379Google Scholar
  40. Lyon BE, Eadie JM (1991) Mode of development and interspecific avian brood parasitism. Behav Ecol 2:309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lyon BE, Eadie JM (2008) Conspecific brood parasitism in birds: a life-history perspective. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 39:343–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lyon BE, Eadie JM (2013) Patterns of host use by a precocial obligate brood parasite, the Black-headed Duck: ecological and evolutionary considerations. Chin Birds 4:71–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McCracken KG, Harshmann J, McClellan DA, Afton AD (1999) Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: an example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks. Syst Biol 48:683–714CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. McRae SB, Burke TA (1996) Intraspecific brood parasitism in the moorhen: parentage and parasite-host relationships determined by DNA fingerprinting. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 38:115–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Medina I, Langmore NE (2015) Coevolution is linked with phenotypic diversification but not speciation in avian brood parasites. Proc R Soc B 282:20152056CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Medina I, Langmore NE (2016) The evolution of host specialisation in avian brood parasites. Ecol Lett 19:1110–1118CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Mermoz ME, Ornelas JF (2004) Phylogenetic analysis of life-history adaptations in parasitic cowbirds. Behav Ecol 15:109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nielsen CR, Semel B, Sherman PW, Westneat DF, Parker PG (2006) Host-parasite relatedness in wood ducks: patterns of kinship and parasite success. Behav Ecol 17:491–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ortega CP (1998) Cowbirds and other brood parasites. University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  50. Owens IPF, Hartley IR (1998) Sexual dimorphism in birds: why are there so many different forms of dimorphism? Proc R Soc Lond B 265:397–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pagel MD (1994) Detecting correlated evolution on phylogenies: a general method for the comparative analysis of discrete characters. Proc R Soc Lond B 255:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Payne RB (1974) The evolution of clutch size and reproductive rates in parasitic cuckoos. Evolution 28:169–181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Payne RB (1977) The ecology of brood parasitism in birds. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 8:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Payne RB (2005) The cuckoos. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  55. Pöysä H (2004) Relatedness and the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism: parameterizing a model with data for a precocial species. Anim Behav 67:673–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pöysä H, Pesonen M (2007) Nest predation and the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism: from risk spreading to risk assessment. Am Nat 169:94–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Prum RO, Berv JS, Dornburg A, Field DJ, Townsend JP, Moriarty Lemmon E, Lemmon AR (2015) A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature 526:569–573CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Robert M, Sorci G (2001) The evolution of obligate interspecific brood parasitism in birds. Behav Ecol 12:128–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rohwer FC, Freeman S (1989) The distribution of conspecific nest parasitism in birds. Can J Zool Rev 67:239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rothstein SI (1975) An experimental and teleonomic investigation of avian brood parasitism. Condor 77:250–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rothstein SI, Robinson SK (1998) Parasitic birds and their hosts: studies in coevolution. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  62. Rothstein SI, Patten MA, Fleischer RC (2002) Phylogeny, specialization, and brood parasite-host coevolution: some possible pitfalls of parsimony. Behav Ecol 13:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shaw RC, Feeney WE, Hauber ME (2014) Nest destruction elicits indiscriminate con- versus heterospecific brood parasitism in a captive bird. Ecol Evol 4:4500–4504CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Slagsvold T (1998) On the origin and rarity of interspecific nest parasitism in birds. Am Nat 152:264–272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Slagsvold T, Hansen BT (2001) Sexual imprinting and the origin of obligate brood parasitism in birds. Am Nat 158:354–367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Soler M (1990) Relationship between the great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius and its corvid hosts in a recently colonized area. Ornis Scand 21:212–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Soler JJ, Soler M (2017) Evolutionary change: facultative virulence by brood parasites and tolerance and plastic resistance by hosts. Anim Behav 125:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Soler M, Perez-Contreras T, de Neve L (2014) Great spotted cuckoos frequently lay their eggs while their magpie host is incubating. Ethology 120:965–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Soler M, de Neve L, Roldan M, Perez-Contreras T, Soler JJ (2017) Great spotted cuckoo nestlings have no antipredatory effect on magpie or carrion crow host nests in southern Spain. PLoS One 12:e0173080CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Soler M, Soler JJ, Martinez JG, Perez-Contreras T, Møller AP (1998) Micro-evolutionary change and population dynamics of a brood parasite and its primary host: the intermittent arms race hypothesis. Oecologia 117:381–390CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Sorenson MD (1991) The functional-significance of parasitic egg-laying and typical nesting in redhead ducks – an analysis of individual behavior. Anim Behav 42:771–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sorenson MD (1992) Comment: why is conspecific nest parasitism more common in waterfowl than in other birds? Can J Zool Rev 70:1856–1858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sorenson MD, Payne RB (2001) A single, ancient origin of obligate brood parasitism in African finches: implications for host-parasite coevolution. Evolution 55:2550–2567CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Sorenson MD, Payne RB (2002) Molecular genetic perspectives on avian brood parasitism. Integr Comp Biol 42:388–400CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Sorenson MD, Payne RB (2005) A molecular genetic analysis of cuckoo phylogeny. In: Payne RB (ed) The cuckoos. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 68–94Google Scholar
  76. Sorenson MD, Sefc KM, Payne RB (2003) Speciation by host switch in brood parasitic indigobirds. Nature 424:928–931CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Sorenson MD, Balakrishnan CN, Payne RB (2004) Clade-limited colonization in brood parasitic finches (Vidua spp.). Syst Biol 53:140–153CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Spottiswoode CN, Colebrook-Robjent JFR (2007) Egg puncturing by the brood parasitic greater Honeyguide and potential host counteradaptations. Behav Ecol 18:792–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Spottiswoode CN, Koorevaar J (2011) A stab in the dark: chick killing by brood parasitic honeyguides. Biol Lett 8:241–244CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Spottiswoode CN, Stryjewski KF, Quader S, Colebrook-Robjent JFR, Sorenson MD (2011) Ancient host specificity within a single species of brood parasitic bird. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:17738–17742CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Weller MW (1968) The breeding biology of the parasitic black-headed duck. Living Bird 7:169–208Google Scholar
  82. White G (1789) The natural history of selborne. Project Gutenberg Etext 1998. www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/1408/pg1408.txt
  83. Yamauchi A (1995) Theory of evolution of nest parasitism in birds. Am Nat 145:434–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yom-Tov Y (1980) Intraspecific nest parasitism in birds. Biol Rev 55:93–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yom-Tov Y (2001) An updated list and some comments on the occurrence of intraspecific nest parasitism in birds. Ibis 143:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yom-Tov Y, Geffen E (2006) On the origin of brood parasitism in altricial birds. Behav Ecol 17:196–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zink AG (2000) The evolution of intraspecific brood parasitism in birds and insects. Am Nat 155:395–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Zink AG, Lyon BE (2016) Evolution of conspecific brood parasitism versus cooperative breeding as alternative reproductive tactics. Am Nat 187:35–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal BehaviourBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany

Personalised recommendations