Life Course: Developmental and Transitional Events

Chapter

Abstract

Older adults often face many complex life transitions, such as retirement, bereavement, and relocation. Though each older adult may cope with these transitions uniquely, such life transitions can often be disruptive and serve as psychosocial stressors. In this section, we will review the literature regarding retirement and its relationship to physical and mental health. We will also review the various courses of bereavement, as well as management of grief-related disorders.

Keywords

Life course Development Transition Bereavement Grief Retirement 

Notes

Disclosures.

I have no financial interests/arrangements to disclose that could be perceived as a real or apparent conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Schumacher KL, Jones PS, Meleis AI. Helping elderly persons in transition: a framework for research and practice. In: Swanson A, Tripp-Reimer T, editors. Life transitions in the older adult: issues for nurses and other health professionals. New York: Springer; 1999. p. 1–26.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arean PA, Reynolds CF. The impact of psychosocial factors on late-life depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58:277–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Feldman DC. The decision to retire early: a review and conceptualization. Academy of 6. Manag Rev. 1994;19:285–311.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ritzer, George (ed). Blackwell encyclopedia of sociology. New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing. 2007. http://www.blackwellreference.com/public/book.html?id=g9781405124331_9781405124331. Accessed 20 Mar 2016.
  5. 5.
    Wang M, Shultz KS. Employee retirement: a review and recommendations for future investigation. J Manag. 2010;36(1):172–206.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Van der Heide I, van Rijn RM, Robroek SJW, Burdorf A, Proper KI. Is retirement good for your health? A systematic review of longitudinal studies. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1180.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Taylor AW, Pilkington R, Feist H, Dal Grande E, Graeme H. A survey of retirement intentions of baby boomers: an overview on health, social and economic determinants. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:355.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim JE, Moen P. Retirement transitions, gender, and psychological well-being: a life-course, ecological model. J Gerontol. 2002;57B(3):212–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    West LA, Cole S, Goodkind D, He W. 65+ in the United States: 2010. In: U.S. Census Bureau, editor. Special studies: current population reports. U.S. government printing office. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014. p. 23–212.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Szinovacz ME, Martin L, Davey A. Recession and expected retirement age: another look at the evidence. The Gerontologist. 2014;54(2):245–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ekerdt DJ. Frontiers of research on work and retirement. J Gerontol. 2010;65B(1):69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oksanen T, Vahtera J, Westerlund H, et al. Is retirement beneficial for mental health? Antidepressant use before and after retirement. Epidemiology. 2011;22:553–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mein G, Martikainen P, Hemingway H, Stansfeld S, Marmot M. Is retirement good or bad for mental and physical health functioning? Whitehall II longitudinal study of civil servants. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003;57:46–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Latif E. The impact of retirement on psychological well-being in Canada. J Socio-Econ. 2011;40:373–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mojon-Azzi S, Sousa-Poza A, Widmer R. The effect of retirement on health: a panel analysis using data from the Swiss Household Panel. Swiss Med Wkly. 2007;137:581–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vahtera J, Westerlund H, Hall M, Sjosten N, Kivimaki M, Salo P. Effect of retirement on sleep disturbances: the GAZEL prospective cohort study. Sleep. 2009;32(11):1459–66.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nuttman-Shwartz O. Like a high wave: adjustment to retirement. The Gerontologist. 2004;44(2):229–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reitzes DC, Mutran EJ, Fernandez ME. Does retirement hurt well-being? Factors influencing self-esteem and depression among retirees and workers. The Gerontologist. 1996;35(5):649–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Westerlund H, Vahtera J, Ferrie JE, Singh-Manoux A, Pentti J, Melchior M, et al. Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study. BMJ. 2010;341:c6149.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sjosten N, Nabi H, Westerlund H, Singh-Manoux A, Dartigues JF, Goldberg M, et al. Influence of Retirement and work stress on headache prevalence: a longitudinal Modelling study from the GAZEL cohort. Cephalagia. 2011;31(6):696–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sjosten N, Kivimaki M, Singh-Manoux A, Ferrie JE, Goldberg M, Zins M, et al. Change in physical activity and weight in relation to retirement: the French GAZEL cohort study. BMJ Open. 2012;2:e000522.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Westerlund H, Kivikami M, Singh-Manoux A, Melchior M, Ferrie JE, Pentti J, et al. Self-rated health before and after retirement in France (GAZEL): a cohort study. Lancet. 2009;374(5):1889–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ekerdt DJ, Bosse R, Goldie C. The effect of retirement on somatic complaints. J Psychosom Res. 1983;27(1):61–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ekerdt DJ, Baden L, Bosse R, Dibbs E. The effect of retirement on physical health. Am J Public Health. 1983;73(7):779–83.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Buxton JW, Singleton N, Melzer D. The mental health of early retirees—national interview survey in Britain. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2005;40(2):99–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zins M, Gueguen A, Kivimaki M, Singh-Manoux A, Leclerc A, Vahtera J, et al. Effect of retirement on alcohol consumption: longitudinal evidence from the French Gazel cohort study. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e26531.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Slingerland AS, van Lenthe FJ, Jukema JW, Kamphuis CB, Looman C, Giskes K, et al. Aging, retirement, and changes in physical activity: prospective cohort findings from the GLOBE study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165(12):1356–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Airagnes G, Lemogne C, Consoli SM, Schuster JP, Zins M, Limosin F. Personality moderates the improvement of depressive symptoms after retirement: evidence from the GAZEL cohort. Am J Geriatr Psychiatr. 2015;23(9):941–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Virtanen M, Ferrie JE, Batty GD, Elovainio M, Jokela M, Vahtera J. Socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity in midlife and depressive symptoms post retirement: a 21-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatr. 2015;23(1):99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stevens-Roseman ES. Older mentors for newer workers: impact of a worker-driven intervention on later life satisfaction. J Workplace Behav Health. 2009;24(4):419–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Saltz R. Research evaluation of a Foster-grandparent program. J Child Contemp Soc. 1989;20:205–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. Older Americans 2012: key indicators of well-being. Federal Interagency Forum on aging-related statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Freud S. Mourning and melancholia. In: The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, volume XIV (1914–1916): on the history of the psycho-analytic movement, papers on metapsychology and other works. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis; 1917. p. 237–58.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kernberg O. Some observations on the process of mourning. Int J Psychoanal. 2010;91:601–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2015.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hart CL, Hole DJ, Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Lever TF. Effect of conjugal bereavement on mortality of the bereaved spouse in participants of the Renfrew/paisley study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007;61(5):455–60.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Buckley T, Sunari D, Marshall A, Bartrop R, McKinley S, Tofler G. Physiological correlates of bereavement and the impact of bereavement interventions. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2012;14(2):129–39.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bartrop RW, Luckhurst E, Lazarus L, Kiloh LG, Penny R. Depressed lymphocyte function after bereavement. Lancet. 1977;1:834–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gerra G, Monti D, Panerai AE, Sacerdote P, Anderlini R, Avanzini P, et al. Long-term immune-endocrine effects of bereavement: relationships with anxiety levels and mood. Psychiatry Res. 2003;121:145–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Buckley T, Morel-Kopp MC, Ward C, Bartrop R, McKinley S, Mihailidou AS, et al. Inflammatory and thrombotic changes in early bereavement: a prospective evaluation. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2012;19(5):1145–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Buckley T, Bartrop R, McKinley S, Ward C, Bramwell M, Roche D, et al. Prospective study of early bereavement on psychological and behavioural cardiac risk factors. Intern Med J. 2009;39(6):370–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Buckley T, Mihaildou A, Bartrop R, McKinley S, Ward C, Morel-Kopp MC, et al. Haemodynamic changes during early bereavement: potential contribution to increased cardiovascular risk. Heart Lung Circ. 2011;20(2):91–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zisook S, Shear K. Grief and bereavement: what psychiatrists need to know. World Psychiatry. 2009;6:67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mojitbai R. Bereavement-related depressive episodes: characteristics, 3-year course, and implications for the DSM-5. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(9):920–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fujisawa D, Miyashita M, Nakajima S, Ito M, Kato M, Kim Y. Prevalence and determinants of complicated grief in general population. J Affect Disord. 2010;127:352–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Newson RS, Boelen PA, Hek K, Hofman A, Tiemeier H. The prevalence and characteristics of complicated grief in older adults. J Affect Disord. 2011;132:231–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bonanno GA, Wortman CB, Nesse RM. Prospective patterns of resilience and maladjustment during widowhood. Psychol Aging. 2004;19(2):260–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hensley PL, Slonimski CK, Uhlenhuth EH, Clayton PJ. Escitalopram: an open-label study of bereavement-related depression and grief. J Affect Disord. 2009;113:142–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reynolds CF 3rd, Miller MD, Pasternak RE, Frank E, Perel JM, Cornes C, et al. Treatment of bereavement-related major depressive episodes in later life: a controlled study of acute and continuation treatment with nortriptyline and interpersonal therapy. Am J Psychiatr. 1999;156:202–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Simon NM. Treating complicated grief. JAMA. 2013;310:416–23.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Boelen PA, de Keijser J, van den Hout MA, van den Bout J. Treatment of complicated grief: a comparison between cognitive-behavioral therapy and supportive counseling. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2007;75:277–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shear K, Frank E, Houck PR, Reynolds CF. Treatment of complicated grief: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005;293:2601–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Papa A, Sewell MT, Garrison-Diehn C, Rummel C. A randomized open trial assessing the feasibility of behavioral activation for pathological grief responding. Behav Ther. 2013;44:639–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shear K, Wang Y, Skritskaya N, Duan N, Mauro C, Ghesquiere A. Treatment of complicated grief in elderly persons: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiat. 2014;71:1287–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stroebe M, Stroebe W, Abakoumkin G. The broken heart: suicidal ideation in bereavement. Am J Psychiatr. 2005;162:2178–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Szanto K, Shear MK, Houck PR, Reynolds CF III, Frank E, Caroff K, et al. Indirect self-destructive behavior and overt Suicidality in patients with complicated grief. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(2):233–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryNew York Presbyterian-Weill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations