Urban Mangrove Biology and Ecology: Emergent Patterns and Management Implications

  • Benjamin BranoffEmail author
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 25)


Tropical coastlines will see some of the greatest urbanization rates of the twenty first century, presenting a particular threat to the management of mangrove ecosystems. This is compounded by a significant void in our understanding of how urban mangroves function. Although mangrove responses to urban environments around the world have been recorded for roughly 35 years, there remains no model describing these systems. Collectively, these studies suggest urban mangroves are characterized by patchy and mixed vegetation forests within expanding suburban fringes, but more stable and expanding forests in older city centers. Where municipal sewage is disposed, a significant body of evidence suggests enrichment of anthropogenically derived nitrogen in mangrove plant tissues. Further, benthic faunal communities in these systems are influenced by sewage effluent. Much of this is likely due to changes in nutrient inputs in these systems; however, it is also due to toxicity from heavy metals and hydrocarbons. These contaminants may also be influencing mangrove physiology and growth, although this has yet to be shown in situ. Urban faunal communities of fin-fish and birds also respond to differences in habitat and resource availability of urban mangroves. This chapter reviews the literature on urban mangroves, revealing emergent patterns that are at times confirmed by empirical evidence. These patterns are then synthesized in an urban mangrove model. Through continuing studies and the development of this model, future mangrove management along urbanizing coasts will be much more effective at optimizing ecosystem services and creating more sustainable social-ecological mangrove systems.


Urban mangroves Anthropocene Social-ecological systems Novel mangroves 


  1. Alongi DM (2012) Carbon sequestration in mangrove forests. Carbon Manag 3:313–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baird RC (2009) Coastal urbanization: the challenge of management lag. Manag Environ Qual Int J 20:371–382. Scholar
  3. Barbier EB, Hacker SD, Kennedy C, Koch EW, Stier AC, Silliman BR (2011) The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecol Monogr 81:169–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartolini F, Penha-Lopes G, Limbu S, Paula J, Cannicci S (2009) Behavioural responses of the mangrove fiddler crabs (Ucaannulipes and U. inversa) to urban sewage loadings: results of a mesocosm approach. Mar Pollut Bull 58:1860–1867CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartolini F, Cimò F, Fusi M, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Lopes GP, Cannicci S (2011) The effect of sewage discharge on the ecosystem engineering activities of two East African fiddler crab species: consequences for mangrove ecosystem functioning. Mar Environ Res 71:53–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Benfield SL, Guzman HM, Mair JM (2005) Temporal mangrove dynamics in relation to coastal development in Pacific Panama. J Environ Manag 76:263–276. Scholar
  7. Bhattacharya R, Roy R (2013) Habitat wise distributions of local birds in the vicinity of Krishnanagar. In: Proceeding of the National Confrence on Challenges in Biodiversity and Resource Management, pp 179–187Google Scholar
  8. Bolund P, Hunhammar S (1999) Ecosystem services in urban areas. Ecol Econ 29:293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Branoff BL (2017) Quantifying the influence of urban land-use on mangrove biology and ecology: a meta-analysis. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 26:1339–1356Google Scholar
  10. Brito EMS, Duran R, Guyoneaud R, Goni-Urriza M, de Oteyza TG, Crapez MAC, Aleluia I, Wasserman JCA (2009) A case study of in situ oil contamination in a mangrove swamp (Rio De Janeiro, Brazil). Mar Pollut Bull 58:418–423. Scholar
  11. Burford MA, Alongi DM, McKinnon AD, Trott LA (2008) Primary production and nutrients in a tropical macrotidal estuary, Darwin Harbour, Australia. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 79:440–448. Scholar
  12. Burt JA (2014) The environmental costs of coastal urbanization in the Arabian Gulf. City 18:760–770Google Scholar
  13. Burt JA, Feary DA, Cavalcante G, Bauman AG, Usseglio P (2013) Urban breakwaters as reef fish habitat in the Persian Gulf. Mar Pollut Bull 72:342–350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cavalcante RM, Sousa FW, Nascimento RF, Silveira ER, Freire GSS (2009) The impact of urbanization on tropical mangroves (Fortaleza, Brazil): evidence from PAH distribution in sediments. J Environ Manag 91:328–335. Scholar
  15. Chace JF, Walsh JJ (2006) Urban effects on native avifauna: a review. Landsc Urban Plan 74:46–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cifuentes LA, Coffin RB, Solorzano L, Cardenas W, Espinoza J, Twilley RR (1996) Isotopic and elemental variations of carbon and nitrogen in a mangrove estuary. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 43:781–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cintrón G, Lugo AE, Pool DJ, Morris G (1978) Mangroves of arid environments in Puerto Rico and adjacent islands. Biotropica:110–121Google Scholar
  18. Clough BF, Sim RG (1989) Changes in gas exchange characteristics and water use efficiency of mangroves in response to salinity and vapour pressure deficit. Oecologia 79:38–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Clough BF, Boto KG, Attiwill PM (1983) Mangroves and sewage: a re-evaluation. In: Teas H (ed) Biology and ecology of mangroves. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clynick B, Chapman MG (2002) Assemblages of small fish in patchy mangrove forests in Sydney Harbour. Mar Freshw Res 53:669–677. Scholar
  21. Conole LE, Kirkpatrick JB (2011) Functional and spatial differentiation of urban bird assemblages at the landscape scale. Landsc Urban Plan 100:11–23. Scholar
  22. Cullis-Suzuki S (2016) Singing fish in an ocean of noise: effects of boat noise on the plainfin midshipman (porichthys notatus) in a natural ecosystem. In: The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Springer, pp 171–179Google Scholar
  23. Dahdouh-Guebas F, Jayatissa LP, Di Nitto D, Bosire JO, Lo SD, Koedam N (2005) How effective were mangroves as a defence against the recent tsunami? Curr Biol 15:R443–R447CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Das S, Vincent JR (2009) Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106:7357–7360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. DasGupta R, Shaw R (2013) Changing perspectives of mangrove management in India–an analytical overview. Ocean Coast Manag 80:107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Angelo JA (2010) Mangrove shoreline fish assemblages of Oleta River State Park: Baseline Conditions in an Urban System. Masters thesis, Department of Marine Affairs and Policy, University of MiamiGoogle Scholar
  27. de Groot R, Brander L, van der Ploeg S, Costanza R, Bernard F, Braat L, Christie M, Crossman N, Ghermandi A, Hein L, Hussain S, Kumar P, McVittie A, Portela R, Rodriguez LC, ten Brink P, van Beukering P (2012) Global estimates of the value of ecosystems and their services in monetary units. Ecosyst Serv 1:50–61. Scholar
  28. de Souza CLR, da Costa VB, Pereira S de FP, da Silva DCM, Sarpedonti V (2016) Impacts of urban life on water quality and fish larvae communities in two creeks of the Brazilian Amazon. Rev Ambient Água 11:13–23Google Scholar
  29. Defew LH, Mair JM, Guzman HM (2005) An assessment of metal contamination in mangrove sediments and leaves from Punta Mala Bay, Pacific Panama. Mar Pollut Bull 50:547–552CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dehairs F, Rao RG, Mohan PC, Raman AV, Marguillier S, Hellings L (2000) Tracing mangrove carbon in suspended matter and aquatic fauna of the Gautami-Godavari Delta, Bay of Bengal (India). Hydrobiologia 431:225–241. Scholar
  31. Dellapenna T, Fielder B, Noll CIV, Savarese M (2015) Geological responses to urbanization of the Naples Bay estuarine system, Southwestern Florida, USA. Estuar Coasts 38:81–96. Scholar
  32. Donato DC, Kauffman JB, Murdiyarso D, Kurnianto S, Stidham M, Kanninen M (2011) Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Nat Geosci 4:293–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dsikowitzky L, Nordhaus I, Jennerjahn TC, Khrycheva P, Sivatharshan Y, Yuwono E, Schwarzbauer J (2011) Anthropogenic organic contaminants in water, sediments and benthic organisms of the mangrove-fringed Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia. Mar Pollut Bull 62:851–862. Scholar
  34. Dwivedi SN, Padmakumar KG (1983) Ecology of a mangrove swamp near Juhu Beach, Bombay with reference to sewage pollution. In: Biology and ecology of mangroves. Springer, pp 163–170Google Scholar
  35. Ellison AM, Farnsworth EJ (1996) Anthropogenic disturbance of Caribbean mangrove ecosystems: past impacts, present trends, and future predictions. Biotropica 28:549–565. Scholar
  36. Farquhar GD, Hubick KT, Condon AG, Richards RA (1989) Carbon isotope fractionation and plant water-use efficiency. In: Stable isotopes in ecological research. Springer, pp 21–40Google Scholar
  37. Fontana LF, da Silva FS, de Figueiredo NG, Brum DM, Netto ADP, de Figueiredo AG, Crapez MAC (2010) Superficial distribution of aromatic compounds and geomicrobiology of sediments from Surui Mangrove, Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil. An Acad Bras Cienc 82:1013–1030. Scholar
  38. Fontana LF, Crapez MAC, de Figueiredo AG, Santos ES, da Silva FS, Ribeiro AM, da Rocha CCM, Netto ADP (2012) Characterization and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from Surui Mangrove, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Coast Res 28:156–162. Scholar
  39. Fowler SW (1990) Critical review of selected heavy metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in the marine environment. Mar Environ Res 29:1–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Friess D, Richards D, Phang VH (2015) Mangrove forests store high densities of carbon across the tropical urban landscape of Singapore. Urban Ecosyst:1–16.
  41. Fry B, Cormier N (2011) Chemical Ecology of Red Mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, in the Hawaiian Islands 1. Pac Sci 65:219–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Giri C, Ochieng E, Tieszen LL, Zhu Z, Singh A, Loveland T, Masek J, Duke N (2011) Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 20:154–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gomes NCM, Borges LR, Paranhos R, Pinto FN, Krögerrecklenfort E, Mendonça-Hagler LCS, Smalla K (2007) Diversity of ndo genes in mangrove sediments exposed to different sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:7392–7399CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Gomes NC, Borges LR, Paranhos R, Pinto FN, Mendonça-Hagler LCS, Smalla K (2008) Exploring the diversity of bacterial communities in sediments of urban mangrove forests. Fed Eur Microbiol Soc 66:96–109. Scholar
  45. Gómez-Baggethun E, Gren Å, Barton DN, Langemeyer J, McPhearson T, O’Farrell P, Andersson E, Hamstead Z, Kremer P (2013) Urban ecosystem services. In: Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services: challenges and opportunities. Springer, p 175–251Google Scholar
  46. Gong C, Yu S, Joesting H, Chen J (2013) Determining socioeconomic drivers of urban forest fragmentation with historical remote sensing images. Landsc Urban Plan 117:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, Redman CL, Wu J, Bai X, Briggs JM (2008) Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319:756–760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Guruprasad RPM, Basavarajappa S (2016) Checklist of avifauna of rourkela urban area of Sundargarh District, Odisha, India. Res J Life Sci Bioinform Pharm Chem Sci 2:34–43Google Scholar
  49. Hamilton S, Casey D (2014) Creation of a high spatiotemporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st Century (CGMFC-21). Glob Ecol Biogeogr 25:729–738Google Scholar
  50. Harbison P (1986) Mangrove muds – a sink and a source for trace metals. Mar Pollut Bull 17:246–250. Scholar
  51. Heatherington C, Bishop MJ (2012) Spatial variation in the structure of mangrove forests with respect to seawalls. Mar Freshw Res 63:926–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hermansen TD, Roberts DG, Toben M, Minchinton TE, Ayre DJ (2015) Small urban stands of the mangrove Avicennia marina are genetically diverse but experience elevated inbreeding. Estuar Coasts 1–10Google Scholar
  53. Holguin G, Gonzalez-Zamorano P, de Bashan LE, Mendoza R, Amador E, Bashan Y (2006) Mangrove health in an arid environment encroached by urban development – a case study. Sci Total Environ 363:260–274. Scholar
  54. Honour SL, Bell JNB, Ashenden TW, Cape JN, Power SA (2009) Responses of herbaceous plants to urban air pollution: effects on growth, phenology and leaf surface characteristics. Environ Pollut 157:1279–1286. Scholar
  55. Horasan Ö, Güner ED, Güllü G, Tipirdamaz R (2015) Effects of air pollution on urban plants: Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanical Garden. In: Öztürk M, Ashraf M, Aksoy A, Ahmad MSA, Hakeem KR (eds) Plants, pollutants and remediation. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 391–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Huang G-Y, Wang Y-S (2009) Expression analysis of type 2 metallothionein gene in mangrove species (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) under heavy metal stress. Chemosphere 77:1026–1029CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Inglis GJ, Kross JE (2000) Evidence for systemic changes in the Benthic Fauna of tropical estuaries as a result of urbanization. Mar Pollut Bull 41:367–376. Scholar
  58. Jones AB, O’Donohue MJ, Udy J, Dennison WC (2001) Assessing ecological impacts of shrimp and sewage effluent: biological indicators with standard water quality analyses. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 52:91–109. Scholar
  59. Kathiresan K, Rajendran N (2005) Coastal mangrove forests mitigated tsunami. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 65:601–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kelaher BP, Chapman MG, Underwood AJ (1998) Changes in benthic assemblages near boardwalks in temperate urban mangrove forests. J Exp Mar Bio Ecol 228:291–307. Scholar
  61. Krebs JM, Bell SS, McIvor CC (2014a) Assessing the link between coastal urbanization and the quality of nekton habitat in mangrove tidal tributaries. Estuar Coasts 37:832–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Krebs JM, McIvor CC, Bell SS (2014b) Nekton community structure varies in response to coastal urbanization near mangrove tidal tributaries. Estuar Coasts 37:815–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kruitwagen G, Hecht T, Pratap HB, Bonga SEW (2006) Changes in morphology and growth of the mudskipper (Periophthalmus argentilineatus) associated with coastal pollution. Mar Biol 149:201–211. Scholar
  64. Kushwaha Shubhda C, Kulkarni Neelima S (2013) Bird diversity of Betawade, Thane, a natural urban habitat. National Conference on Biodiversity : Status and Challenges in ConservationGoogle Scholar
  65. Kwon M (2015) Examination of anthropogenic nutrient additions to coastal mangrove communities: a multiple isotope approach. Masters thesis, Department of Environmental Science, American UniversityGoogle Scholar
  66. Lai D-S, Lin J-B, Liu W-S, Pan L-K, Chu K-H, Chen C-Y, Lin D-B (2010) Metal concentrations in sediments of the Tamsui River, flows through central metropolitan Taipei. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84:628–634CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lai S, Loke LHL, Hilton MJ, Bouma TJ, Todd PA (2015) The effects of urbanisation on coastal habitats and the potential for ecological engineering: a Singapore case study. Ocean Coast Manag 103:78–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lee SY, Primavera JH, Dahdouh-Guebas F, McKee K, Bosire JO, Cannicci S, Diele K, Fromard F, Koedam N, Marchand C (2014) Ecological role and services of tropical mangrove ecosystems: a reassessment. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 23:726–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Li R, Xu H, Chai M, Qiu GY (2016) Distribution and accumulation of mercury and copper in mangrove sediments in Shenzhen, the world’s most rapid urbanized city. Environ Monit Assess 188:1–11. Scholar
  70. Lichtfouse É, Lichtfouse M, Jaffrezic A (2003) δ 13 C values of grasses as a novel indicator of pollution by fossil-fuel-derived greenhouse gas CO2 in urban areas. Environ Sci Technol 37:87–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lim HC, Sodhi NS (2004) Responses of avian guilds to urbanisation in a tropical city. Landsc Urban Plan 66:199–215. Scholar
  72. Lima JMT, Staudhammer CL, Brandeis TJ, Escobedo FJ, Zipperer W (2013) Temporal dynamics of a subtropical urban forest in San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2001–2010. Landsc Urban Plan 120:96–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lindegarth M, Hoskin M (2001) Patterns of distribution of macro-fauna in different types of estuarine, soft sediment habitats adjacent to urban and non-urban areas. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 52:237–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Liu Y, Tam NFY, Yang JX, Pi N, Wong MH, Ye ZH (2009) Mixed heavy metals tolerance and radial oxygen loss in mangrove seedlings. Mar Pollut Bull 58:1843–1849CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lugo AE (1990) Fringe wetlands. In: Lugo AE, Brown S, Brinson MM (eds) Forested wetlands. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. Lugo AE, Medina E, McGinley K (2014) Issues and challenges of mangrove conservation in the anthropocene. Madera y Bosques 20:11–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. MacFarlane GR (2003) Chlorophyll a fluorescence as a potential biomarker of zinc stress in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 70:90–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. MacFarlane GR, Burchett MD (2001) Photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity as indicators of heavy metal stress in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. Mar Pollut Bull 42:233–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. MacFarlane GR, Koller CE, Blomberg SP (2007) Accumulation and partitioning of heavy metals in mangroves: a synthesis of field-based studies. Chemosphere 69:1454–1464. Scholar
  80. Mandura AS (1997) A mangrove stand under sewage pollution stress: Red Sea. Mangroves Salt Marshes 1:255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Marchand C, Lallier-Vergès E, Baltzer F, Albéric P, Cossa D, Baillif P (2006) Heavy metals distribution in mangrove sediments along the mobile coastline of French Guiana. Mar Chem 98:1–17. Scholar
  82. Martinuzzi S, Gould WA, Lugo AE, Medina E (2009) Conversion and recovery of Puerto Rican mangroves: 200 years of change. For Ecol Manag 257:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mazerolle MJ, Villard M-A (1999) Patch characteristics and landscape context as predictors of species presence and abundance: a review. Ecoscience:117–124Google Scholar
  84. McDonald RI (2008) Global urbanization: can ecologists identify a sustainable way forward? Front Ecol Environ 6:99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McGranahan G, Balk D, Anderson B (2007) The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones. Environ Urban 19:17–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McKinney ML (2006) Urbanization as a major cause of biotic homogenization. Biol Conserv 127:247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mestre LAM, Krul R, Moraes V dos S (2007) Mangrove bird community of Paranaguá Bay – Paraná, Brazil. Braz Arch Biol Technol 50:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Metcalfe KN, Glasby CJ (2008) Diversity of Polychaeta (Annelida) and other worm taxa in mangrove habitats of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia. J Sea Res 59:70–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: wetlands and water synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  90. Mohamed MOS, Mangion P, Mwangi S, Kairo J, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N (2008) Productivity in a peri-urban mangrove: does sewage exposure have an impact? Doctoral thesis, Free University BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  91. Mohamed MOS, Neukermans G, Kairo JG, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N (2009) Mangrove forests in a peri-urban setting: the case of Mombasa (Kenya). Wetl Ecol Manag 17:243–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mohd-Azlan J, Lawes MJ (2011) The effect of the surrounding landscape matrix on mangrove bird community assembly in north Australia. Biol Conserv 144:2134–2141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Msangameno DJ, Jiddawi NS, Yahya SA (2017) An update on the status of mangrove forests in the western coast of Unguja Island, Tanzania: a rural vs peri-urban comparison. Trop Ecol 58:57–69Google Scholar
  94. Mumby PJ, Edwards AJ, Ernesto Arias-Gonzalez J, Lindeman KC, Blackwell PG, Gall A, Gorczynska MI, Harborne AR, Pescod CL, Renken H, Wabnitz CCC, Llewellyn G (2004) Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature 427:533–536. doi:
  95. Nagelkerken I, Roberts CM, Van Der Velde G, Dorenbosch M, Van Riel MC, De La Moriniere EC, Nienhuis PH (2002) How important are mangroves and seagrass beds for coral-reef fish? The nursery hypothesis tested on an island scale. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 244:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nagendra H, Sudhira HS, Katti M, Schewenius M (2013) Sub-regional assessment of India: effects of urbanization on land use, biodiversity and ecosystem services. In: Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services: challenges and opportunities. Springer, pp 65–74Google Scholar
  97. Nfotabong-Atheull A, Din N, Dahdouh-Guebas F (2013) Qualitative and quantitative characterization of mangrove vegetation structure and dynamics in a peri-urban setting of Douala (Cameroon): an approach using air-borne imagery. Estuar Coasts 36:1181–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Nogueira VLR, Rocha LL, Colares GB, Angelim AL, Normando LRO, Cantão ME, Agnez-Lima LF, Andreote FD, Melo VMM (2015) Microbiomes and potential metabolic pathways of pristine and anthropized Brazilian mangroves. Reg Stud Mar Sci 2:56–64. Scholar
  99. Noske RA (1995) The ecology of mangrove forest birds in Peninsular Malaysia. Ibis (Lond 1859) 137:250–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Noske RA (1996) Abundance, zonation and foraging ecology of birds in mangroves of Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory. Wildl Res 23:443–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Obiefuna JN, Nwilo PC, Atagbaza AO, Okolie CJ (2012) Land cover dynamics associated with the spatial changes in the wetlands of Lagos/Lekki Lagoon System of Lagos, Nigeria. J Coast Res 29:671–679Google Scholar
  102. Odum HT, Arding JE (1991) Emergy analysis of shrimp mariculture in Ecuador. The centerGoogle Scholar
  103. Odum WE, Johannes RE (1975) The response of mangroves to man-induced environmental stress. Elsevier Oceanogr Ser 12:52–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Olagoke A, Mwihaki L, Bosire J, Berger U (2013) Stand structure and spatial pattern of mangrove regeneration in a degraded peri-urban coastal forestGoogle Scholar
  105. Olds AD, Albert S, Maxwell PS, Pitt KA, Connolly RM (2013) Mangrove-reef connectivity promotes the effectiveness of marine reserves across the western Pacific. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 22:1040–1049. Scholar
  106. Oliveira DD, Souza-Santos LP, Silva HKP, Macedo SJ (2014) Toxicity of sediments from a mangrove forest patch in an urban area in Pernambuco (Brazil). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 104:373–378CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Oribhabor BJ, Ogbeibu AE (2010) The ecological impact of anthropogenic activities on the predatory fish assemblage of a tidal creek in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Res J Environ Sci 4:271–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pagliosa PR, Barbosa FAR (2006) Assessing the environment–benthic fauna coupling in protected and urban areas of southern Brazil. Biol Conserv 129:408–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Penha-Lopes G, Torres P, Narciso L, Cannicci S, Paula J (2009) Comparison of fecundity, embryo loss and fatty acid composition of mangrove crab species in sewage contaminated and pristine mangrove habitats in Mozambique. J Exp Mar Bio Ecol 381:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Penha-Lopes G, Xavier S, Okondo J, Cannicci S, Fondo E, Ferreira S, Macamo C, Macia A, Mwangi S, Paula J (2010) Effects of urban wastewater loading on macro-and meioinfauna assemblages in subtropical and equatorial East African mangroves. West Indian Ocean J Mar Sci 9:195–212Google Scholar
  111. Penha-Lopes G, Torres P, Cannicci S, Narciso L, Paula J (2011) Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: a test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator. Environ Pollut 159:636–645CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Pereira HH, Neves LM, Costa MR, Araújo FG (2015) Fish assemblage structure on sandy beaches with different anthropogenic influences and proximity of spawning grounds. Mar Ecol 36:16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Peters JR, Yeager LA, Layman CA (2015) Comparison of fish assemblages in restored and natural mangrove habitats along an urban shoreline. Bull Mar Sci 91:125–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pham TD, Yoshino K (2016) Impacts of mangrove management systems on mangrove changes in the Northern Coast of Vietnam. Tropics 24:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pickett STA, Cadenasso ML, Grove JM, Nilon CH, Pouyat R V, Zipperer WC, Costanza R (2008) Urban ecological systems: linking terrestrial ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas. In: Urban ecology. Springer, pp 99–122Google Scholar
  116. Proffitt CE, Travis S (2014) Red mangrove life history variables along latitudinal and anthropogenic stress gradients. Ecol Evol 4:2352–2359CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Reef R, Feller IC, Lovelock CE (2010) Nutrition of mangroves. Tree Physiol 30:1148–1160. Scholar
  118. Seto KC, Güneralp B, Hutyra LR (2012) Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:16083–16088. Scholar
  119. Shriadah MMA (1999) Heavy metals in mangrove sediments of the United Arab Emirates shoreline (Arabian Gulf). Water Air Soil Pollut 116:523–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sindern S, Lima RFS, Schwarzbauer J, Petta RA (2007) Anthropogenic heavy metal signatures for the fast growing urban area of Natal (NE-Brazil). Environ Geol 52:731–737. Scholar
  121. Skilleter GA (1996) Validation of rapid assessment of damage in urban mangrove forests and relationships with molluscan assemblages. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 76:701–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Skilleter GA, Warren S (2000) Effects of habitat modification in mangroves on the structure of mollusc and crab assemblages. J Exp Mar Bio Ecol 244:107–129. Scholar
  123. Sodhi NS, Briffett C, Kong L, Yuen B (1999) Bird use of linear areas of a tropical city: implications for park connector design and management. Landsc Urban Plan 45:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Syphard AD, Clarke KC, Franklin J, Regan HM, Mcginnis M (2011) Forecasts of habitat loss and fragmentation due to urban growth are sensitive to source of input data. J Environ Manag 92:1882–1893. Scholar
  125. Tam NFY, Wong YS (2000) Spatial variation of heavy metals in surface sediments of Hong Kong mangrove swamps. Environ Pollut 110:195–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Taylor B, Andrews D, Fraser GS (2011) Double-crested cormorants and urban wilderness: conflicts and management. Urban Ecosyst 14:377–394. Scholar
  127. Tian-Hong L, Peng H, Zhi-Jie Z (2008) Impact analysis of coastal engineering projects on mangrove wetland area change with remote sensing. China Ocean Eng 22:347–358Google Scholar
  128. Traut AH, Hostetler ME (2004) Urban lakes and waterbirds: effects of shoreline development on avian distribution. Landsc Urban Plan 69:69–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. United Nations Environment Program U (2006) World urbanization prospects: the 2005 revisionGoogle Scholar
  130. Vasconcelos RO, Amorim MCP, Ladich F (2007) Effects of ship noise on the detectability of communication signals in the Lusitanian toadfish. J Exp Biol 210:2104–2112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Vaz E (2014) Managing urban coastal areas through landscape metrics: an assessment of Mumbai’s mangrove system. Ocean Coast Manag 98:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Viana AP, Lucena Frédou F, Frédou T, Torres MF, Bordalo AO (2010) Fish fauna as an indicator of environmental quality in an urbanised region of the Amazon estuary. J Fish Biol 76:467–486CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Waltham NJ, Connolly RM (2006) Trophic strategies of garfish, Arrhamphus sclerolepis, in natural coastal wetlands and artificial urban waterways. Mar Biol 148:1135–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wasserman JC, Freitas-Pinto AAP, Amouroux D (2000) Mercury concentrations in sediment profiles of a degraded tropical coastal environment. Environ Technol 21:297–305. Scholar
  135. Wayland M, Hobson KA (2001) Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios in riparian food webs on rivers receiving sewage and pulp-mill effluents. Can J Zool 79:5–15. Scholar
  136. Wee AKS, Low SY, Webb EL (2015) Pollen limitation affects reproductive outcome in the bird-pollinated mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Lam.) in a highly urbanized environment. Aquat Bot 120, Part:240–243.
  137. Widmer A, Lexer C, Cozzolino S (2009) Evolution of reproductive isolation in plants. Heredity (Edinb) 102:31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wolters J, Gillis LG, Bouma TJ, Katwijk MM, Ziegler AD (2016) Land use effects on mangrove nutrient status in Phang Nga Bay, Thailand. L Degrad Dev 27:68–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wong YS, Tam NFY, Lan CY (1997) Mangrove wetlands as wastewater treatment facility: a field trial. In: Wong Y-S, Tam N-Y (eds) Asia-Pacific conference on science and management of coastal environment. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Yan ZZ, Ke L, Tam NFY (2010) Lead stress in seedlings of Avicennia marina, a common mangrove species in South China, with and without cotyledons. Aquat Bot 92:112–118. Scholar
  141. Yim MW, Tam NFY (1999) Effects of wastewater-borne heavy metals on mangrove plants and soil microbial activities. Mar Pollut Bull 39:179–186. Scholar
  142. Young RF, Wolf SA (2006) Goal attainment in urban ecology research: a bibliometric review 1975–2004. Urban Ecosyst 9:179–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Yu R-Q, Chen GZ, Wong YS, Tam NFY, Lan CY (1997) Benthic macrofauna of the mangrove swamp treated with municipal wastewater. Hydrobiologia 347:127–137. Scholar
  144. Yusuf DN, Prasetyo LB, Kusmana C (2017) Geospatial approach in determining anthropogenic factors contributed to deforestation of mangrove: a case study in Konawe Selatan, Southeast Sulawesi. In: IOP conference series: Earth and Environmental Science. IOP Publishing, p 12049Google Scholar
  145. Zhang F-Q, Wang Y-S, Lou Z-P, Dong J-D (2007) Effect of heavy metal stress on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of two mangrove plant seedlings (Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). Chemosphere 67:44–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Puerto Rico-Río PiedrasSan JuanPuerto Rico

Personalised recommendations