Interaction of Mangroves, Coastal Hydrodynamics, and Morphodynamics Along the Coastal Fringes of the Guianas

  • Erik A. ToormanEmail author
  • Edward Anthony
  • Pieter G. E. F. Augustinus
  • Antoine Gardel
  • Nicolas Gratiot
  • Oudho Homenauth
  • Nicolas Huybrechts
  • Jaak Monbaliu
  • Kene Moseley
  • Sieuwnath Naipal
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 25)


The mangrove belt along the coast of the three Guianas, South America, forms a unique ecosystem and acts efficiently as a natural soft coastal defence structure. The general mechanisms have been studied for over four decades and the processes governing the coastal morphodynamics are now understood, at least qualitatively. They consist of an interaction between mangroves, hydrodynamics and sediment mechanics. Twenty percent of the mud discharged by the Amazon in the Atlantic Ocean is transported to the west along the coast by waves and currents in discrete mud banks of a few 10 s of km length, which travel at a speed of the order of 2 km/year. During the presence of a mud bank waves are damped, mud is trapped and colonized by mangroves. Once a mud bank has passed, the waves can attack the shore again. This results in a cycle of land accretion and erosion, with an average net gain of 1 m coast per cycle of roughly 30 years. However, in locations where too many mangroves have been removed, the coast has lost its natural resilience and the settlements and fields are prone to flooding, a concern that increases with climate change and predicted sea-level rise (SLR). Hard coastal defence structures, such as those in Guyana, are expensive and not sustainable. Based on many lessons learnt, pilot projects on mangrove rehabilitation have started. At the same time research efforts are undertaken to allow making quantitative estimates of the potential risks for the coastal communities. For this purpose, numerical prediction models are developed which can compute currents, wave action and sediment transport along the coast of the Guianas. Different climate change scenarios can be investigated. These models can serve in the near future as decision support tool for the local authorities for the management of the coastal zone.


Black mangroves Amazon river mud Sea level rise Morphodynamic response Mangrove rehabilitation Guianas coast 


  1. Adams R (2014) Time 0 monitoring lima, Region No.2. Report. NAREI, Mon ReposGoogle Scholar
  2. Allersma E (1971) Mud on the oceanic shelf off Guiana. Symposium on investigation and research of the Caribbean and adjacent regions (Curaçao). UNESCO-FAO, Paris, pp 193–203Google Scholar
  3. Allison MA (2000) Origin of Amazon mud banks along the northeastern coast of South America. Mar Geol 163:241–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison MA, Lee MT (2004) Sediment exchange between Amazon mud banks and shore-fringing mangroves in French Guiana. Mar Geol 208:169–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alongi DM (2008) Mangrove forests: resilience, protection from tsunamis, and response to global climate change. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 76(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anthony EJ, Gratiot N (2012) Coastal engineering and large-scale mangrove destruction in Guyana, South America: averting an environmental catastrophe in the making. Ecol Eng 47:268–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anthony EJ, Dolique F, Gardel A, Gratiot N, Proisy C, Polidori L (2008) Nearshore intertidal topography and topographic-forcing mechanisms of an Amazon-derived mud bank in French Guiana. Cont Shelf Res 28:813–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Augustinus PGEF (1978) The changing shoreline of Surinam (South America). PhD dissertation, Universiteit Utrecht, Uitgave No.95, Natuurwetenschappelijke Studiekring voor Suriname en de Nederlandse Antillen, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  9. Augustinus PGEF (2004) The influence of the trade winds on the coastal development of the Guianas at various scale levels: a synthesis. In: F. Baltzer, M.A. Allison and F. Fromard, (eds) Material exchange between the upper continental shelf and mangrove fringed coasts with special reference to the N. Amazon-Guianas Coast. Mar Geol 208(SI):145–151Google Scholar
  10. Baghdadi N, Gratiot N, Lefebvre JP, Oliveros C, Bourguignon A (2004) Coastline and mud bank monitoring in French Guiana: contributions of radar and optical satellite imagery. Can J Remote Sens 30:109–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benoit M, Marcos F, Becq F (1996) Development of a third generation shallow water wave model with unstructured spatial meshing. Proc. 25th Int. Conf. on Coastal Eng. (ICCE 1996, 2–6 September 1996, Orlando, Florida, USA), pp 465–478Google Scholar
  12. Booij N, Ris RC, Holthuijsen LH (1999) A third-generation wave model for coastal regions, Part I, Model description and validation. J Geophys Res 104(C4):7649–7666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bourret A, Devenon J-L, Chevalier C (2005) Investigation on passive open boundary conditions adapted to the conjunction of strong currents, standing tidal wave and high stratification: application to the French Guiana Continental Shelf. Cont Shelf Res 25(11):1353–1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bourret A, Devenon J-L, Chevalier C (2008) Tidal influence on the hydrodynamics of the French Guiana continental shelf. Cont Shelf Res 28(7):951–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Callede J, Ronchail J, Guyot JL, De Oliveira E (2008) Amazonian deforestation: its influence on the Amazon discharge at Óbidos (Brazil). Revue des Sciences de l'Eau 21(1):59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. CEREMA (2011) VAG: code de propagation de la houle (in French). Accessed Apr 2017
  17. Chevalier C, Baklouti L, Ramanonjiarisoa A (2004) Modelling the influence of wind and rivers on current, salinity and temperature over the French Guiana continental shelf during the rainy season. J Coast Res 20(4):1183–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chevalier C, Froidefond JM, Devenon JL (2008) Numerical analysis of the combined action of littoral current, tide and waves on the suspended mud transport and on turbid plumes around French Guiana mud banks. Cont Shelf Res 28:545–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daniel JRK (1989) The chenier plain coastal system of Guyana. Mar Geol 90:283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Danielsen F, Sørensen MK, Olwig MF, Selvam V, Parish F, Burgess ND, Hiraishi T, Karunagaran VM, Rasmussen MS, Hansen LB, Quarto A, Suryadiputra N (2005) The Asian tsunami: a protective role for coastal vegetation. Science 310:643. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. De Graaff RF, Bijlsma AC (2005) Institutional capacity building activities on Guyana sea defences: modelling report, volume 2: flow modelling. WL Delft HydraulicsGoogle Scholar
  22. De Graaff RF, Winterwerp JC, Luijendijk AP (2005) Institutional capacity building activities on Guyana sea defences: modelling report, volume 3: wave modelling. WL Delft HydraulicsGoogle Scholar
  23. Delft Hydraulics Laboratory (1962) Demerara coastal investigation. Report on siltation of Demerara bar channel and coastal erosion in British Guiana, DelftGoogle Scholar
  24. Dewaelheyns Ph, Etneo L (2007) Modellering van de stromingen voor de kust van Suriname. MSc thesis, Dept. of Civil Engineering, KU Leuven (in Dutch)Google Scholar
  25. Dirkx B, Fockedey B (2008) Modellering van de stromingen voor de kust van Suriname. MSc thesis, Dept. of Civil Engineering, KU Leuven (in Dutch)Google Scholar
  26. Duke NC (2001) Gap creation and regenerative processes driving diversity and structure of mangrove ecosystems. Wetl Ecol Manag 9:257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ellison AM (2000) Mangrove restoration: do we know enough? Restor Ecol 8(3):219–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Erftemeijer P, Teunissen P (2009) ICZM plan Suriname – mangrove report. Analysis of problems and solutions for the management of mangrove forests along Suriname’s wild coast. Final Report, ParamariboGoogle Scholar
  29. Escobar Ramos JS (2017) Hydrodynamic and cohesive sediments 2D modelling in Buenaventura Bay, Colombia. MSc thesis, IUPWARE program, KU LeuvenGoogle Scholar
  30. Feagin RA, Mukherjee N, Shanker K, Baird AH, Cinner J, Kerr AM, Koedam N, Sridhar A, Arthur R, Jayatissa LP, Lo Seen D, Menon M, Rodriguez S, Shamsuddoha M, Dahdouh-Guebas F (2010) Shelter from the storm? Use and misuse of coastal vegetation bioshields for managing natural disasters. Conserv Lett 3:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Field CD (1999) Rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems: an overview. Mar Pollut Bull 37(8–12):383–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Filizola N, Guyot JL (2009) Suspended sediment yields in the Amazon basin: an assessment using the Brazilian national data set. Hydrol Process 23:3207–3215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fiot J, Gratiot N (2006) Structural effects of tidal exposures on mudflats along the French Guiana coast. Mar Geol 228(1–4):25–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Froidefond JM, Pujos M, Andre X (1988) Migration of mud banks and changing coastline in French Guiana. Mar Geol 84:19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Froidefond J, Gardel L, Guiral D, Parra M, Ternon J-F (2002) Spectral remote sensing reflectances of coastal waters in French Guiana under the Amazon influence. Remote Sens Environ 80(2):225–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Froidefond J, Lahet F, Hu C, Doxaran D, Guiral D, Prost M, Ternon J-F (2004) Mudflats and mud suspension observed from satellite data in French Guiana. Mar Geol 208(2–4):153–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fromard F, Puig H, Mougin E, Marty G, Betoull JL, Cadamuro L (1998) Structure, above-ground biomass and dynamics of mangrove ecosystems: new data from French Guiana. Oecologia 115:39–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fromard F, Vega C, Proisy C (2004) Half a century of dynamic coastal change affecting mangrove shorelines of French Guiana. A case study based on remote sensing data analyses and field surveys. Mar Geol 208:265–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gardel A, Gratiot N (2005) A satellite image-based method for estimating rates of mud bank migration, French Guiana, South America. J Coast Res 21:720–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gardel A, Gratiot N (2006) Monitoring of coastal dynamics in French Guiana from 16 years of SPOT images. J Coast Res 39(SI):1502–1505Google Scholar
  41. Gardel A, Proisy C, Lesourd S, Philippe S, Caillaud J, Gontharet S, Anthony EJ, Brutier L (2009) A better understanding of mud cracking processes gained from in situ measurements on an intertidal mudflat in French Guiana. J Coast Res 56(SI):424–428Google Scholar
  42. Gardel A, Gensac E, Anthony EJ, Lesourd S, Loisel H (2011) Wave-formed mud bars: their morphodynamics and role in opportunistic mangrove colonization. J Coast Res 64(SI):384–387Google Scholar
  43. Gensac E, Gardel A, Lesourd S, Anthony EJ, Proisy C, Loisel H (2011) Short-term prediction of the evolution of mangrove surface areas: the example of the mud banks of Kourou and Sinnamary, French Guiana. J Coast Res 64(SI):388–392Google Scholar
  44. Gensac E, Gardel A, Lesourd S, Brutier L (2015) Morphodynamic evolution of an intertidal mudflat under the influence of Amazon supply – Kourou mud bank, French Guiana, South America. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 158:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gensac E, Martinez JM, Vantrepotte V, Anthony EJ (2016) Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of suspended sediment at the mouth of the Amazon River: the role of continental and oceanic forcing, and implications for coastal geomorphology and mud bank formation. Cont Shelf Res 118:49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grabowski RC, Droppo IG, Wharton G (2011) Erodibility of cohesive sediment: the importance of sediment properties. Earth Sci Rev 105(3–4):101–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gratiot N (2011) Coastal erosion along the coast of Guiana final report, EuropeAid/124705/D/SER/GY project: technical assistance for capacity building and institutional strengthening of the Sea Defences, Guyana. Works Services Group, GeorgetownGoogle Scholar
  48. Gratiot N, Anthony EJ (2016) The role of flocculation and settling processes in geological development of the mangrove-colonized, Amazon-influenced mud bank coast of South America. Mar Geol 373:1–10.91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gratiot N, Gardel A, Anthony EJ (2007) Trade-wind waves and mud dynamics on the French Guiana coast, South America: input from ERA-40 wave data and field investigations. Mar Geol 236:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gratiot N, Anthony EJ, Gardel A, Gaucherel C, Proisy C, Wells JT (2008) Significant contribution of the 18.6 year tidal cycle to regional coastal changes. Nat Geosci 1:169–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Guyana Government Information Agency (2016) EU presents coastal engineering design manual to MPI. Retrieved May 2017
  52. Guyana Ministry of Finance (1996) Water management and flood control policies. National Development Strategy, Chapter 40. Retrieved May 2017
  53. Gyssels T, Van der Zype N (2006) Hydrodynamisch model voor Suriname: voorlopige versie. MSc thesis, Dept. of Civil Engineering, KU Leuven (in Dutch)Google Scholar
  54. Hawkes DD (1962) Erosion of tidal flats near Georgetown, British Guiana. Nature 196:128–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hermans P, Kroeders M (2012) Modellering van sedimenttransport langs de kust van Suriname. MSc thesis, Dept. of Civil Engineering, KU Leuven (in Dutch)Google Scholar
  56. Hervouet JM (2007) Hydrodynamics of free surface flows: modelling with the finite element method. Wiley, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kranenburg WM, Winterwerp JC, de Boer GJ, Cornelisse JM, Zijlema M (2011) SWAN-mud: engineering model for mud-induced wave damping. J Hydraul Eng 137:959–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lakhan VC, Pepper DA (1997) Relationship between concavity and convexity of a coast and erosion accretion patterns. J Coast Res 13(1):226–232Google Scholar
  59. Lakhan VC, Cabana K, LaValle PD (2002) Heavy metal concentrations in surficial sediments from accreting and eroding areas along the coast of Guyana. Environ Ecol 42:73–80Google Scholar
  60. Lakhan VC, Ahmad SR, Pariznganeh (2006) A Investigating shifting mud banks along a coast subject to cycles of accretion and erosion. Proc Littoral Conf 2006:90–97Google Scholar
  61. Landell Mills Limited (2013) Technical assistance for mangrove rehabilitation: final report. Government of Guyana, GeorgetownGoogle Scholar
  62. Lefebvre JP, Dolique F, Gratiot N (2004) Geomorphic evolution of a coastal mudflat under oceanic influences: an example from the dynamic shoreline of French Guiana. Mar Geol 208:191–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Les BAJ, Westra MR (2004) Institutional capacity building activities on Guyana sea defences: bathymetric survey report. Royal Haskoning, NijmegenGoogle Scholar
  64. Lewis IIIRR (2004) Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests. Ecol Eng 24(4):403–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lewis IIIRR (2009) Methods and criteria for successful mangrove forest restoration. Chapter 28. In: Perillo GME, Wolanski E, Cahoon DR, Brinson MM (eds) Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 787–800Google Scholar
  66. Lovelock CE, Cahoon DR, Friess DA, Guntenspergen GR, Krauss KW, Reef R, Rogers K, Saunders ML, Sidik F, Swales A, Saintilan N, Thuyen LX, Triet T (2015) The vulnerability of Indo-Pacific mangrove forests to sea-level rise. Nature.
  67. Machin J (2012) Technical note: trial of planting coastal grasses to stabilise mud banks and facilitate natural recruitment of mangroves in Guyana. Guyana Mangrove Restoration Project, Mon ReposGoogle Scholar
  68. Machin J, Lewis III RR (2013) Mangrove forest management and restoration in Guyana. Report. Guyana Mangrove Restoration Project, Mon ReposGoogle Scholar
  69. Martinez JM, Guyot JL, Filizola N, Sondag F (2009) Increase in suspended sediment discharge of the Amazon River assessed by monitoring network and satellite data. Catena 79:257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Maza M, Lara JL, Losada IJ (2015) Tsunami wave interaction with mangrove forests: a 3-D numerical approach. Coast Eng 98:33–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mazda Y, Magi M, Kogo M, Hong PN (1997) Mangroves as a coastal protection from waves in the Tong King delta, Vietnam. Mangrove Salt Marshes 1:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McIvor AL, Möller I, Spencer T, Spalding M (2012) Reduction of wind and swell waves by mangroves. Natural coastal protection series: Report 1. Cambridge coastal research unit working paper 40. The nature conservancy and wetlands internationalGoogle Scholar
  73. McIvor AL, Spencer T, Möller I, Spalding M (2013) The response of mangrove soil surface elevation to sea level rise. Natural coastal protection series: report 3. Cambridge coastal research unit working paper 42. The Nature Conservancy and Wetlands InternationalGoogle Scholar
  74. Mehta AJ (2014) An introduction to hydraulics of fine sediment transport. Advanced series on ocean engineering, vol 38. World Scientific Publishing Co., SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  75. Mehta AJ, Lee SC, Li Y (1994) Fluid mud and water waves: a brief review of interactive processes and simple modeling approaches. Dredging Research Program Report DRP-94-4, US Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg (MS)Google Scholar
  76. Morelock J (1972) Guiana-Orinoco continental shelf sediments. Bol Inst Oceanogr Univ Oriente 11(1):57–61Google Scholar
  77. NAREI (2014) Mangrove department annual report 2013. National Agricultural Research and Extension Institute, Mon ReposGoogle Scholar
  78. Nedeco (1968) Surinam transportation study: report on hydraulic investigation. Netherlands Engineering Consultants, The Hague, p 293Google Scholar
  79. Nedeco (1972) Report on sea defence studies. Netherlands Engineering Consultants, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  80. Nota DJG (1958) Sediments of the Western Guiana Shelf, reports of the Orinoco Shelf Expedition, vol II. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen/Nederland 58(2):1–98Google Scholar
  81. Odle MA, Arjoon PR (1971) A benefit/cost analysis of sea defence expenditure in Guyana. Soc Econ Stud 20(1):83–98Google Scholar
  82. Orseaux S (2016) Dynamique sédimentaire d’un fleuve tropical sous influence amazonienne: le cas du Mahury, Guyane Française. PhD dissertation, Université du Littoral Côte D’Opale (in French)Google Scholar
  83. Pelckmans A (2014) Modellering van golven en sedimenttransport langs de kust van Suriname. MSc thesis, Dept. of Civil Engineering, KU Leuven (in Dutch)Google Scholar
  84. Pelling M (1999) The political ecology of flood hazard in urban Guyana. Geoforum 30:249–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Proisy C, Gratiot N, Anthony EJ, Gardel A, Fromard F, Heuret P (2009) Mud bank colonization by opportunistic mangroves: a case study from French Guiana using lidar data. Cont Shelf Res 29:632–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Proisy C, Degenne P, Anthony EJ, Berger U, Blanchard E, Fromard F, Gardel A, Olagoke A, Santos VF, Walcker R, Lo Seen D (2016) A multiscale simulation approach for linking mangrove dynamics to coastal processes using remote sensing observations. In: Vila-Concejo A, Bruce E, Kennedy DM, McCarroll RJ (eds), Proc 14th Int Coastal Symp (Sydney, Australia). J Coastal Research, SI75:810–814Google Scholar
  87. Rine JM (1980) Depositional environments and holocene reconstruction of an argillaceous mud belt – Suriname, South America. PhD dissertation, University of Miami, Coral Gables (FL)Google Scholar
  88. Rine JM, Ginsburg RN (1985) Depositional facies of a mud shoreface in Suriname, South America. A mud analogue to sandy shallow-marine deposits. J Sediment Petrol 55:633–652Google Scholar
  89. Robertson R (2014) Importance of Avicennia Germinans (Black mangroves) at Chateau Margot, East Coast Demerara, Georgetown, Guyana. MSc Thesis, University of West IndiesGoogle Scholar
  90. Rodriguez HN, Mehta AJ (2001) Modeling muddy coast response to waves. J Coast Res SI 27:137–148Google Scholar
  91. Sakakiyama T, Bijker EW (1989) Mass transport velocity in mud layer due to progressive waves. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 115(5):614–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tol S (2016) Construction of permeable dam structures as sediment traps and basis for mangrove rehabilitation. Wetlands International. Retrieved May 2017
  93. Tonneijck F (2013) Building with nature Indonesia. Opportunities for CC adaptation and Mitigation. Wetlands International/Mangrove Capital. UNFCCC Bonn 2013Google Scholar
  94. Toorman EA (1996) Sedimentation and self-weight consolidation: general unifying theory. Géotechnique 46(1):103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Toorman EA (1997) Modelling the thixotropic behaviour of dense cohesive sediment suspensions. Rheol Acta 36(1):56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Toorman EA (2008) An investigation into the thixotropic wave dissipation potential of fluid mud. AGU Chapman Conference on Physics of Wave-Mud Interaction (Amelia Island, Florida, November 2008). Book of Abstracts, p 24Google Scholar
  97. Topper E (2012) Assessment of the sustainable coastal zone protection through mangrove management project. Ministry of public works and communications. Works Services Group, GeorgetownGoogle Scholar
  98. Van Ledden M, Vaughn G, Lansen J, Wiersma F, Amsterdam M (2009) Extreme wave event along the Guyana coastline in October 2005. Cont Shelf Res 29(1):352–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Vantrepotte V, Gensac E, Loisel H, Gardel A, Dessailly D, Mériaux X (2013) Satellite assessment of the coupling between in water suspended particulate matter and mud banks dynamics over the French Guiana coastal domain. J S Am Earth Sci 44:25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Villarroel A (2009) Stroming van vloeibaar slib. MSc thesis, Dept. of Civil Engineering, KU Leuven (in Dutch)Google Scholar
  101. Walcker R, Anthony EJ, Cassou C, Aller RC, Gardel A, Proisy C, Martinez JM, Fromard F (2015) Fluctuations in the extent of mangroves driven by multi-decadal changes in North Atlantic waves. J Biogeogr 42:2209–2219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Welage SJ (2005) Coastal evolution Guyana: modelling and a historical investigation. MSc. Thesis, Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  103. Wells JT, Coleman JM (1981) Physical processes and fine-grained sediment dynamics, coast of Surinam, South America. J Sediment Petrol 31(4):1053–1068Google Scholar
  104. Wells JT, Coleman JM, Wiseman WJ (1981) Suspension and transportation of fluid mud by solitary-like waves. Coastal Studies Institute, Louisiana State University, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  105. Westra MR (2004) Institutional capacity building activities on Guyana sea defences: morphological survey and oceanographic monitoring report. Royal Haskoning, NijmegenGoogle Scholar
  106. Winterwerp JC, de Graaff RF, Luijendijk AP (2005) Institutional capacity building activities on Guyana sea defences: modelling report, Volume 4: Morphology modelling. WL Delft HydraulicsGoogle Scholar
  107. Winterwerp JC, de Graaff RF, Groeneweg J, Luijendijk AP (2007) Modelling of wave damping at Guyana mud coast. Coast Eng 54(3):249–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Winterwerp JC, Erftemeijer PLA, Suryadiputra N, van Eijk P, Zhang L (2013) Defining eco-morphodynamic requirements for rehabilitating eroding mangrove-mud coasts. Wetlands 33(3):515–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wong PP, Losada IJ, Gattuso J-P, Hinkel J, Khattabi A, KL MI, Saito Y, Sallenger A (2014) Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AS, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 361–409Google Scholar
  110. Wong T, Kroonenberg S, Augustinus P (2017). Geologie en landschap van Suriname. Stichting LM Publishers, Volendam, the Netherlands, 198p (in Dutch)Google Scholar
  111. Wongsoredjo S (2017) Numerical modelling of sediment transport along a mud dominated coast. MSc in Earth Sciences Internship Report, Utrecht University (the Netherlands) and KU Leuven (Belgium)Google Scholar
  112. Zhang K, Liu H, Li Y, Xu H, Shen J, Rhome J, Smith TJ III (2012) The role of mangroves in attenuating storm surges. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 102–103:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik A. Toorman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Edward Anthony
    • 2
  • Pieter G. E. F. Augustinus
    • 3
  • Antoine Gardel
    • 4
  • Nicolas Gratiot
    • 5
    • 6
  • Oudho Homenauth
    • 7
  • Nicolas Huybrechts
    • 8
    • 9
  • Jaak Monbaliu
    • 1
  • Kene Moseley
    • 10
  • Sieuwnath Naipal
    • 11
  1. 1.Hydraulics Division, Department of Civil EngineeringKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Université Aix-Marseille, CEREGE UMR CNRSAix-en-ProvenceFrance
  3. 3.Faculty of GeosciencesUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.CNRS LEEISA USR 3456CayenneFrance
  5. 5.Centre Asiatique de Recherche sur l’Eau CAREBach Khoa University, VNU-HCMHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  6. 6.Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRDGrenobleFrance
  7. 7.National Agricultural Research and Extension Institute (NAREI)Mon ReposGuyana
  8. 8.Direction Technique Eau, Mer et FleuvesCEREMAMargny Lès CompiègneFrance
  9. 9.Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS, UMR 7337 Roberval, Centre de Recherche RoyallieuCompiègneFrance
  10. 10.Mangrove Restoration and Management DepartmentNAREIMon ReposGuyana
  11. 11.Land and Water Management, Department of InfrastructureAnton de Kom University of Suriname (AdeKUS)ParamariboSuriname

Personalised recommendations