Advertisement

The Dynamics of Expanding Mangroves in New Zealand

  • Erik M. Horstman
  • Carolyn J. Lundquist
  • Karin R. Bryan
  • Richard H. Bulmer
  • Julia C. Mullarney
  • Debra J. Stokes
Chapter
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 25)

Abstract

In contrast to the global trend of mangrove decline, New Zealand mangroves are rapidly expanding, facilitated by elevated sediment inputs in coastal waters as a consequence of large-scale land use changes following European settlement. New Zealand mangroves are at the southern limit of the global mangrove extent, which limits the tree height of Avicennia marina var. australasica, the only mangrove species present. Mangroves in New Zealand thrive in the sheltered environments of infilling drowned river valleys with abundant supply of fine terrigenous sediments, showing various stages of mangrove succession and expansion dynamics. Bio-physical interactions and carbon dynamics in these expanding temperate mangrove systems show similarities to, but also differ from those in tropical mangrove forests, for instance due to the limited height and complexity of the mangrove communities. Likewise, ecosystem services provided by New Zealand mangroves deviate from those offered by tropical mangroves. In particular, the association of mangrove expansion with the accumulation of (the increased supply of) fine sediments and the consequent change of estuarine ecosystems, has provoked a negative perception of mangrove expansion and subsequently led to mangrove clearance. Over recent decades, a body of knowledge has been developed regarding the planning and decision making relating to mangrove removal, yet there are still effects that are unknown, for example with respect to the post-clearance recovery of the original sandflat ecosystems. In this chapter we discuss the dynamics of New Zealand’s expanding mangroves from a range of viewpoints, with the aim of elucidating the possible contributions of expanding mangroves to coastal ecosystem services, now and in the future. This chapter also reviews current policies and practice regarding mangrove removal in New Zealand and addresses the (un)known effects of mangrove clearance. These combined insights may contribute to the development of integrated coastal management strategies that recognise the full potential of expanding mangrove ecosystems.

Keywords

Temperate mangroves Avicennia marina Mangrove expansion Bio-physical interactions Carbon dynamics Ecosystem services Mangrove removal Mangrove management 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Contributions by EMH, KRB and JCM and collection of the field data presented in sections “Biophysical Dynamics of Expanding Mangroves” and “Succession of Expanding Mangrove Systems” were supported by the Royal Society of New Zealand’s Marsden Fund (grant number 14-UOW-011). Contributions by CJL and RHB were supported by MBIE Programme C01X1002, and NIWA Freshwater Programme core funding. Contributions by DJS were supported by Waikato Regional Council and Southern Cross University MERC grants.

References

  1. Alfaro AC (2006) Benthic macro-invertebrate community composition within a mangrove/seagrass estuary in northern New Zealand. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 66(1–2):97–110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2005.07.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alfaro AC (2010) Effects of mangrove removal on benthic communities and sediment characteristics at Mangawhai Harbour, northern New Zealand. ICES J Mar Sci 67(6):1087–1104.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsq034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison MA, Nittrouer CA, Ogston AS, Mullarney JC, Nguyen TT (2017) Sedimentation and survival of the Mekong delta: a case study of decreased sediment supply and accelerating rates of relative sea level rise. Oceanography 30(3):98–109.  https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2017.317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alongi DM (2008) Mangrove forests: resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 76(1):1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2007.08.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alongi DM (2009) Paradigm shifts in mangrove biology. In: GME P, Wolanski E, Cahoon DR, Brinson MM (eds) Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 615–640Google Scholar
  6. Alongi DM (2014) Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests. Annu Rev Mar Sci 6(1):195–219.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010213-135020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Augustinus PGEF (1995) Geomorphology and sedimentology of mangroves. In: GME P (ed) Developments in sedimentology, vol 53. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 333–357Google Scholar
  8. Balke T, Bouma TJ, Herman PMJ, Horstman EM, Sudtongkong C, Webb EL (2013) Cross-shore gradients of physical disturbance in mangroves: implications for seedling establishment. Biogeosciences 10(8):5411–5419.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-5411-2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Balke T, Swales A, Lovelock CE, Herman PMJ, Bouma TJ (2015) Limits to seaward expansion of mangroves: translating physical disturbance mechanisms into seedling survival gradients. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 467:16–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2015.02.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barbier EB (2014) A global strategy for protecting vulnerable coastal populations. Science 345(6202):1250–1251.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1254629CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barbier EB, Hacker SD, Kennedy C, Koch EW, Stier AC, Silliman BR (2011) The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecol Monogr 81(2):169–193.  https://doi.org/10.1890/10-1510.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beaglehole JC (1955) The journals of Captain James cook on his voyages of discovery. Hakluyt Society at the University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  13. Borsje BW, van Wesenbeeck BK, Dekker F, Paalvast P, Bouma TJ, van Katwijk MM, de Vries MB (2011) How ecological engineering can serve in coastal protection. Ecol Eng 37(2):113–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.11.027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bosire JO, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Kairo JG, Wartel S, Kazungu J, Koedam N (2006) Success rates of recruited tree species and their contribution to the structural development of reforested mangrove stands. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 325:85–91.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps325085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bosire JO, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Walton M, Crona BI, Lewis RR III, Field C, Kairo JG, Koedam N (2008) Functionality of restored mangroves: a review. Aquat Bot 89(2):251–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bouillon S, Borges AV, Castañeda-Moya E, Diele K, Dittmar T, Duke NC, Kristensen E, Lee SY, Marchand C, Middelburg JJ, Rivera-Monroy VH, Smith TJ III, Twilley RR (2008) Mangrove production and carbon sinks: a revision of global budget estimates. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 22(2):GB2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bouma TJ, Van Duren LA, Temmerman S, Claverie T, Blanco-Garcia A, Ysebaert T, Herman PMJ (2007) Spatial flow and sedimentation patterns within patches of epibenthic structures: combining field, flume and modelling experiments. Cont Shelf Res 27:1020–1045.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2005.12.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bouma TJ, van Belzen J, Balke T, Zhu Z, Airoldi L, Blight AJ, Davies AJ, Galvan C, Hawkins SJ, Hoggart SPG, Lara JL, Losada IJ, Maza M, Ondiviela B, Skov MW, Strain EM, Thompson RC, Yang S, Zanuttigh B, Zhang L, Herman PMJ (2014) Identifying knowledge gaps hampering application of intertidal habitats in coastal protection: opportunities & steps to take. Coast Eng 87:147–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2013.11.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bryan KR, Nardin W, Mullarney JC, Fagherazzi S (2017) The role of cross-shore tidal dynamics in controlling intertidal sediment exchange in mangroves in Cù Lao Dung, Vietnam. Cont Shelf Res 147:128–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.06.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bryce S, Larcombe P, Ridd PV (2003) Hydrodynamic and geomorphological controls on suspended sediment transport in mangrove creek systems, a case study: Cocoa Creek, Townsville, Australia. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 56:415–431.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-7714(02)00192-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bulmer RH, Lundquist CJ (2016) Whangamata mangrove removal monitoring: summary of 36 month post-removal sampling, NIWA Client Report, Waikato Regional Council. National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd., HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  22. Bulmer RH, Lundquist CJ, Schwendenmann L (2015) Sediment properties and CO2 efflux from intact and cleared temperate mangrove forests. Biogeosciences 12(20):6169–6180.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-6169-2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bulmer RH, Schwendenmann L, Lundquist CJ (2016a) Allometric models for estimating aboveground biomass, carbon and nitrogen stocks in temperate Avicennia marina forests. Wetlands:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-016-0793-0
  24. Bulmer RH, Schwendenmann L, Lundquist CJ (2016b) Carbon and nitrogen stocks and below-ground allometry in temperate mangroves. Front Mar Sci 3 (150). doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2016.00150
  25. Bulmer RH, Lewis M, O’Donnell E, Lundquist CJ (2017a) Assessing mangrove clearance methods to minimise adverse impacts and maximise the potential to achieve restoration objectives. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 51(1):110–126.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.2016.1260605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bulmer RH, Schwendenmann L, Lohrer A, Lundquist CJ (2017) Sediment carbon and nutrient fluxes from cleared and intact temperate mangrove ecosystems and adjacent sandflats. Sci Total Environ 599–600:1874–1884.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Burns BR, Ogden J (1985) The demography of the temperate mangrove [Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.] at its southern limit in New Zealand. Aust J Ecol 10(2):125–133.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.1985.tb00874.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cahoon DR, Hensel P, Rybczyk J, McKee KL, Proffitt CE, Perez BC (2003) Mass tree mortality leads to mangrove peat collapse at Bay Islands, Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. J Ecol 91(6):1093–1105.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.2003.00841.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chapman VJ (1976) Mangrove vegetation. Cramer, VaduzGoogle Scholar
  30. Chapman VJ (1977) Introduction. In: Chapman VJ (ed) Ecosystems of the world: wet coastal ecosystems. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  31. Chen Y, Li Y, Cai T, Thompson C, Li Y (2016) A comparison of biohydrodynamic interaction within mangrove and saltmarsh boundaries. Earth Surf Process Landf 41(13):1967–1979.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Clarke PJ (2004) Effects of experimental canopy gaps on mangrove recruitment: lack of habitat partitioning may explain stand dominance. J Ecol 92(2):203–213.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-0477.2004.00861.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Claudino MC, Pessanha ALM, Araújo FG, Garcia AM (2015) Trophic connectivity and basal food sources sustaining tropical aquatic consumers along a mangrove to ocean gradient. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 167(Part A):45–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2015.07.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Crisp P, Daniel L, Tortell P (1990) Mangroves in New Zealand – trees in the tide. GP Books, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  35. Danielsen F, Sørensen MK, Olwig MF, Selvam V, Parish F, Burgess ND, Hiraishi T, Karunagaran VM, Rasmussen MS, Hansen LB, Quarto A, Suryadiputra N (2005) The Asian tsunami: a protective role for coastal vegetation. Science 310(5748):643.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1118387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. de Lange WP, de Lange PJ (1994) An appraisal of factors controlling the latitudinal distribution of mangrove (Avicannia marina var. resinifera) in New Zealand. J Coast Res 10(3):539–548Google Scholar
  37. Dingwall PR (1984) Overcoming problems in the management of New Zealand mangrove forests. In: Teas HJ (ed) Physiology and management of mangroves. Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, pp 97–106.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-6572-0_13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Donato DC, Kauffman JB, Murdiyarso D, Kurnianto S, Stidham M, Kanninen M (2011) Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Nat Geosci 4(5):293–297.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Doyle EJ, Hogg ID (2015) Assessing the diversity of terrestrial invertebrates in the mangrove forests of the Firth of Thames, New Zealand. Genome 58(5):213–213Google Scholar
  40. Duke NC (1990) Phenological trends with latitude in the mangrove tree avicennia marina. J Ecol 78(1):113–133.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2261040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Duke NC (1991) A systematic revision of the mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia. Aust Syst Bot 4:299–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Duke NC, Ball MC, Ellison JC (1998) Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Glob Ecol Biogeogr Lett 7(1):27–47.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2997695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ellis J, Nicholls P, Craggs R, Hofstra D, Hewitt J (2004) Effects of terrigenous sedimentation on mangrove physiology and associated macrobenthic communities. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 270:71–82.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps270071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ellison JC (1999) Impacts of sediment burial on mangroves. Mar Pollut Bull 37(8–12):420–426.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(98)00122-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ellison AM (2002) Macroecology of mangroves: large-scale patterns and processes in tropical coastal forests. Trees 16(2):181–194.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-001-0133-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ewel K, Twilley R, Ong JIN (1998) Different kinds of mangrove forests provide different goods and services. Glob Ecol Biogeogr Lett 7(1):83–94.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.1998.00275.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fricke AT, Nittrouer CA, Ogston AS, Vo-Luong HP (2017) Asymmetric progradation of a coastal mangrove forest controlled by combined fluvial and marine influence, Cù Lao Dung, Vietnam. Cont Shelf Res 147:78–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.07.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Friedrichs CT, Aubrey DG (1988) Non-linear tidal distortion in shallow well-mixed estuaries: a synthesis. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 27(5):521–545.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-7714(88)90082-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Friess DA, Lee SY, Primavera JH (2016a) Turning the tide on mangrove loss. Mar Pollut Bull 109(2):673–675.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.06.085CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Friess DA, Richards DR, Phang VXH (2016b) Mangrove forests store high densities of carbon across the tropical urban landscape of Singapore. Urban Ecosyst 19(2):795–810.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-015-0511-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fromard F, Puig H, Mougin E, Marty G, Betoulle JL, Cadamuro L (1998) Structure, above-ground biomass and dynamics of mangrove ecosystems: new data from French Guiana. Oecologia 115(1):39–53.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420050489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Furukawa K, Wolanski E (1996) Sedimentation in mangrove forests. Mangrove Salt Marshes 1(1):3–10.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1025973426404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Furukawa K, Wolanski E, Mueller H (1997) Currents and sediment transport in mangrove forests. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 44(3):301–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gilman E, Ellison J (2007) Efficacy of alternative low-cost approaches to mangrove restoration, American Samoa. Estuar Coasts 30(4):641–651.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02841961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gilman EL, Ellison J, Jungblut V, van Lavieren H, Wilson L, Areki F, Brighouse G, Bungitak J, Henry M, Kilman M, Matthews E, Sauni I, Teariki-Ruatu N, Tukia S, Yuknavage K (2006) Adapting to Pacific Island mangrove responses to sea level rise and climate change. Clim Res 32(3):161–176.  https://doi.org/10.3354/cr032161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Giri C, Ochieng E, Tieszen LL, Zhu Z, Singh A, Loveland T, Masek J, Duke N (2011) Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 20(1):154–159.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00584.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gladstone-Gallagher RV, Lundquist CJ, Pilditch CA (2014) Mangrove (Avicennia marina subsp. australasica) litter production and decomposition in a temperate estuary. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 48(1):24–37.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.2013.827124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gladstone-Gallagher RV, Lohrer AM, Lundquist CJ, Pilditch CA (2016) Effects of detrital subsidies on soft-sediment ecosystem function are transient and source-dependent. PLoS One 11(5):e0154790.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154790CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Graeme M (2013) Estuarine vegetation survey: Whangapoua Harbour. Waikato Regional Council, HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  60. Green MO, Coco G (2007) Sediment transport on an estuarine intertidal flat: measurements and conceptual model of waves, rainfall and exchanges with a tidal creek. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 72(4):553–569.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2006.11.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Green MO, Black KP, Amos CL (1997) Control of estuarine sediment dynamics by interactions between currents and waves at several scales. Mar Geol 144(1–3):97–116.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(97)00065-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Grellier S, Janeau J-L, Dang Hoai N, Nguyen Thi Kim C, Le Thi PQ, Pham Thi Thu T, Tran-Thi N-T, Marchand C (2017) Changes in soil characteristics and C dynamics after mangrove clearing (Vietnam). Sci Total Environ 593–594:654–663.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Griffiths GA, Glasby GP (1985) Input of river-derived sediment to the New Zealand continental shelf: I. Mass. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 21(6):773–787.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-7714(85)90072-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Harmsworth GR, Awatere S (2013) Indigenous Māori knowledge and perspectives of ecosystems. In: Dymond JR (ed) Ecosystem services in New Zealand – conditions and trends. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln, pp 274–286Google Scholar
  65. Harty C (2009) Mangrove planning and management in New Zealand and South East Australia – a reflection on approaches. Ocean Coast Manag 52(5):278–286.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hashim R, Kamali B, Tamin NM, Zakaria R (2010) An integrated approach to coastal rehabilitation: mangrove restoration in Sungai Haji Dorani, Malaysia. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 86(1):118–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hayden HL, Granek EF (2015) Coastal sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 165:70–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2015.09.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Healy TR (2002) Muddy coasts of mid-latitude oceanic islands on an active plate margin – New Zealand. In: Healy TR, Wang J, Healy J-A (eds) Muddy coasts of the world: processes, deposits and function. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 347–374.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1568-2692(02)80088-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Henderson SM, Norris BK, Mullarney JC, Bryan KR (2017) Wavefrequency flows within a near-bed vegetation canopy. Cont Shelf Res 147:91–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.06.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Horstman EM, Dohmen-Janssen CM, Hulscher SJMH (2013) Flow routing in mangrove forests: a field study in Trang province, Thailand. Cont Shelf Res 71:52–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2013.10.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Horstman EM, Dohmen-Janssen CM, Narra PMF, Van den Berg NJF, Siemerink M, Hulscher SJMH (2014) Wave attenuation in mangroves: a quantitative approach to field observations. Coast Eng 94:47–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2014.08.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Horstman EM, Dohmen-Janssen CM, Bouma TJ, Hulscher SJMH (2015) Tidal-scale flow routing and sedimentation in mangrove forests: combining field data and numerical modelling. Geomorphology 228:244–262.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.08.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Horstman EM, Bryan KR, Mullarney JC, Pilditch CA (2016) Model versus nature: hydrodynamics in mangrove pneumatophores. In: Lynett P (ed) Proceedings of 35th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, vol 35. Coastal Engineering Research Council, Antalya.  https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v35.management.19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Horstman EM, Mullarney JC, Bryan KR, Sandwell DR (2017) Deposition gradients across mangrove fringes. In: Aagaard T, Deigaard R, Fuhrman D (eds) Coastal dynamics 2017. Helsingør, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  75. Horstman EM, Bryan KR, Mullarney JC, Pilditch CA, Eager CA (2018) Are flow-vegetation interactions well represented by mimics? A case study of mangrove pneumatophores. Adv Water Resour 111:360–371.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.11.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hume TM (2003) Estuaries and tidal inlets. In: Goff JR, Nichol SL, Rouse HL (eds) The New Zealand coast: Te Tai O Aotearoa. Dunmore Press, Palmerston North, pp 191–213Google Scholar
  77. Hume TM, Herdendorf CE (1992) Factors controlling tidal inlet characteristics on low drift coasts. J Coast Res 8(2):355–375Google Scholar
  78. Hunt S, Bryan KR, Mullarney JC (2015) The influence of wind and waves on the existence of stable intertidal morphology in meso-tidal estuaries. Geomorphology 228:158–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hunt S, Bryan KR, Mullarney JC (2017) The effect of wind waves on spring-neap variations in sediment transport in two meso-tidal estuarine basins with contrasting fetch. Geomorphology 280:76–88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.12.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Janzen DH (1985) Mangroves: where’s the understory? J Trop Ecol 1(1):89–92.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400000122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jones H (2008) Coastal sedimentation: what we know and the information gaps. Waikato Regional Council, HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  82. Kirwan ML, Megonigal JP (2013) Tidal wetland stability in the face of human impacts and sea-level rise. Nature 504(7478):53–60.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12856CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kirwan ML, Murray AB (2007) A coupled geomorphic and ecological model of tidal marsh evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(15):6118–6122.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0700958104CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Kobashi D, Mazda Y (2005) Tidal flow in riverine-type mangroves. Wetl Ecol Manag 13(6):615–619.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-004-3481-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Krauss KW, Lovelock CE, McKee KL, López-Hoffman L, Ewe SML, Sousa WP (2008) Environmental drivers in mangrove establishment and early development: a review. Aquat Bot 89(2):105–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2007.12.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Krauss KW, McKee KL, Lovelock CE, Cahoon DR, Saintilan N, Reef R, Chen L (2014) How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea level. New Phytol 202(1):19–34.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12605CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lara RJ, Szlafsztein CF, Cohen MCL, Oxmann J, Schmitt BB, Filho PWMS (2009) Geomorphology and sedimentology of mangroves and salt marshes: the formation of geobotanical units. In: GME P, Wolanski E, Cahoon DR, Brinson MM (eds) Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 593–613Google Scholar
  88. Lee SY, Primavera JH, Dahdouh-Guebas F, McKee K, Bosire JO, Cannicci S, Diele K, Fromard F, Koedam N, Marchand C, Mendelssohn I, Mukherjee N, Record S (2014) Ecological role and services of tropical mangrove ecosystems: a reassessment. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 23(7):726–743.  https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lewis RR (2005) Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests. Ecol Eng 24(4):403–418.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2004.10.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Liu JP, DeMaster DJ, Nittrouer CA, Eidam EF, Nguyen TT (2017) A seismic study of the Mekong subaqueous delta: proximal versus distal accumulation. Oceanography 30(3).  https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2017.315
  91. Lovelock CE, Feller IC, Ellis J, Schwarz AM, Hancock N, Nichols P, Sorrell B (2007) Mangrove growth in New Zealand estuaries: the role of nutrient enrichment at sites with contrasting rates of sedimentation. Oecologia 153(3):633–641.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-007-0750-yCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lovelock CE, Sorrell BK, Hancock N, Hua Q, Swales A (2010) Mangrove forest and soil development on a rapidly accreting shore in New Zealand. Ecosystems 13(3):437–451.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-010-9329-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lovelock CE, Ruess RW, Feller IC (2011) CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat. PLoS ONE 6(6):e21279CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Lovelock CE, Cahoon DR, Friess DA, Guntenspergen GR, Krauss KW, Reef R, Rogers K, Saunders ML, Sidik F, Swales A, Saintilan N, Thuyen LX, Triet T (2015) The vulnerability of Indo-Pacific mangrove forests to sea-level rise. Nature 526(7574):559–563.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature15538CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Lowe M (2013) Factors affecting the habitat usage of estuarine juvenile fish in northern New Zealand. The University of Auckland, AuclandGoogle Scholar
  96. Lugo AE (1997) Old-growth mangrove forests in the United States. Conserv Biol 11(1):11–20.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96012.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lundquist CJ, Hailes S, Cartner K, Carter K, Gibbs M (2012) Physical and ecological impacts associated with mangrove removals using in situ mechanical mulching in Tauranga Harbour. NIWA Technical Report No.137. NIWA Technical Report No137Google Scholar
  98. Lundquist CJ, Hailes SF, Carter KR, Burgess TC (2014a) Ecological status of mangrove removal sites in the Auckland region. National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd., HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  99. Lundquist CJ, Morrisey DJ, Gladstone-Gallagher RV, Swales A (2014b) Managing mangrove habitat expansion in New Zealand. In: Mangrove ecosystems of Asia: status, challenges and management strategies. p 415–438. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-8582-7_19Google Scholar
  100. Lundquist CJ, Carter K, Hailes S, Bulmer RH (2017) Guidelines for managing mangrove expansion in New Zealand. National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd., HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  101. Macnae W (1966) Mangroves in eastern and southern Australia. Aust J Bot 14:67–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Martin KC (2007) Interactive effects of salinity and nutrients on mangrove physiology: implications for mangrove forest structure and function. Australian National University, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  103. May JD (1999) Spatial variation in litter production by the mangrove Avicennia marina var. australasica in Rangaunu harbour, Northland, New Zealand. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 33(2):163–172.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.1999.9516866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mazda Y, Magi M, Kogo M, Hong PN (1997) Mangroves as a coastal protection from waves in the Tong King delta, Vietnam. Mangrove Salt Marshes 1(2):127–135.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1009928003700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. McBride G, Reeve G, Pritchard M, Lundquist C, Daigneault A, Bell R, Blackett P, Swales A, Wadhwa S, Tait A, Zammit C (2016) The Firth of Thames and Lower Waihou River. Synthesis report RA2, coastal case study. Climate Changes, Impacts and Implications (CCII) for New Zealand to 2100. National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd., HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  106. Melville F, Pulkownik A (2006) Investigation of mangrove macroalgae as bioindicators of estuarine contamination. Mar Pollut Bull 52(10):1260–1269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.02.021CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Mills M, Leon JX, Saunders MI, Bell J, Liu Y, O'Mara J, Lovelock CE, Mumby PJ, Phinn S, Possingham HP, Tulloch VJD, Mutafoglu K, Morrison T, Callaghan DP, Baldock T, Klein CJ, Hoegh-Guldberg O (2016) Reconciling development and conservation under coastal squeeze from rising sea level. Conserv Lett 9(5):361–368.  https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Morrisey DJ, Beard CM, Morrison MA, Craggs R, Lowe M (2007) The New Zealand mangrove: review of the current state of knowledge. Auckland Regional Council, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  109. Morrisey DJ, Skilleter GA, Ellis JI, Burns BR, Kemp CE, Burt K (2003) Differences in benthic fauna and sediment among mangrove (Avicennia marina var. australasica) stands of different ages in New Zealand. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 56(3–4):581–592.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7714(02)00208-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Morrisey DJ, Swales A, Dittmann S, Morrison MA, Lovelock CE, Beard CM (2010) The ecology and management of temperate mangroves. In: Gibson RN, RJA A, JDM G (eds) Oceanography and marine biology – an annual review, Oceanography and Marine Biology – An Annual Review, vol 48. CRC Press, New York, pp 43–160.  https://doi.org/10.1201/EBK1439821169-c2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mullarney JC, Henderson SM (2018) The effect of marine vegetation on shorelines. In: Pan-Chang V, Kaihatu J (eds) Advances in coastal hydraulics. World Scientific Publishing Ltd (in press)Google Scholar
  112. Mullarney JC, Henderson SM, Norris BK, Bryan KR, Fricke AT, Sandwell DR, Culling DP (2017a) A question of scale: how turbulence around aerial roots shapes the seabed morphology in mangrove forests of the Mekong Delta. Oceanography 30(3):20–33.  https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2017.312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Mullarney JC, Henderson SM, Reyns JAH, Norris BK, Bryan KR (2017) Spatially varying drag within a wave-exposed mangrove forest and on the adjacent tidal flat. Cont Shelf Res 147:102–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.06.19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Nagelkerken I, Blaber SJM, Bouillon S, Green P, Haywood M, Kirton LG, Meynecke JO, Pawlik J, Penrose HM, Sasekumar A, Somerfield PJ (2008) The habitat function of mangroves for terrestrial and marine fauna: a review. Aquat Bot 89(2):155–185.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2007.12.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nichol SL, Augustinus PC, Gregory MR, Creese R, Horrocks M (2000) Geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of human impact on the New Zealand coastal landscape. Phys Geogr 21(2):109–132.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.2000.10642702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Nittrouer CA, Sternberg RW, Carpenter R, Bennett JT (1979) The use of Pb-210 geochronology as a sedimentological tool: application to the Washington continental shelf. Mar Geol 31(3):297–316.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-3227(79)90039-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Nittrouer CA, DeMaster DJ, Eidam EF, Nguyen TT, Liu JP, Ogston AS, Phung PV (2017) The Mekong continental shelf: primary sink for deltaic sediment particles and their passengers. Oceanography 30(3):60–70.  https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2017.314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Norris BK, Mullarney JC, Bryan KR, Henderson SM (2017) The effect of pneumatophore density on turbulence: a field study in a Sonneratia-dominated mangrove forest, Vietnam. Cont Shelf Res 147:114–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.06.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Osborne K, Smith TJ (1990) Differential predation on mangrove propagules in open and closed canopy forest habitats. Vegetatio 89(1):1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00134429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Pérez A, Machado W, Gutierrez D, Stokes D, Sanders L, Smoak JM, Santos I, Sanders CJ (2017) Changes in soil organic carbon accumulation driven by mangrove expansion and deforestation in a New Zealand estuary. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2017.05.009
  121. Pocknall DT, Gregory MR, Greig DA (1989) Palynology of core 80/20 and its implications for understanding Holocene sea level changes in the Firth of Thames, New Zealand. J R Soc N Z 19(2):171–179.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03036758.1989.10426446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Quartel S, Kroon A, Augustinus PGEF, Van Santen P, Tri NH (2007) Wave attenuation in coastal mangroves in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. J Asian Earth Sci 29(4):576–584.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2006.05.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Robertson BP, Gardner JPA, Savage C (2015) Macrobenthic–mud relations strengthen the foundation for benthic index development: a case study from shallow, temperate New Zealand estuaries. Ecol Indic 58:161–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.05.039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rogers K, Saintilan N, Copeland C (2014) Managed retreat of saline coastal wetlands: challenges and opportunities identified from the Hunter River Estuary, Australia. Estuar Coasts 37(1):67–78.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-013-9664-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Roy PS, Williams RJ, Jones AR, Yassini I, Gibbs PJ, Coates B, West RJ, Scanes PR, Hudson JP, Nichol S (2001) Structure and function of South-east Australian estuaries. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 53(3):351–384.  https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.2001.0796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Saenger P, Snedaker SC (1993) Pantropical trends in mangrove above-ground biomass and annual litterfall. Oecologia 96(3):293–299.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00317496CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Saintilan N (2004) Relationships between estuarine geomorphology, wetland extent and fish landings in New South Wales estuaries. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 61(4):591–601.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2004.07.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Saintilan N, Rogers K (2013) The significance and vulnerability of Australian saltmarshes: implications for management in a changing climate. Mar Freshw Res 64(1):66–79.  https://doi.org/10.1071/MF12212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Saintilan N, Rogers K, McKee KL (2009) Salt marsh-mangrove interactions in Australasia and the Americas. In: Perillo GME, Wolanski E, Cahoon DR, Brinson MM (eds) Coastal wetlands an integrated ecosystem approach. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 855–884Google Scholar
  130. Schaeffer-Novelli Y, Cintron-Molero G, Soares MLG (2002) Chapter nine angroves as indicators of sea level change in the muddy coasts of the world. Proc Marine Sci 4:245–262.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1568-2692(02)80083-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Sheaves M, Johnston R, Baker R (2016) Use of mangroves by fish: new insights from in-forest videos. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 549:167–182.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps11690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sidik F, Neil D, Lovelock CE (2016) Effect of high sedimentation rates on surface sediment dynamics and mangrove growth in the Porong River, Indonesia. Mar Pollut Bull 107(1):355–363.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.02.048CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Spalding M, Kainuma M, Collins L (2010) World atlas of mangroves (version 1.1), A collaborative project of ITTO, ISME, FAO, UNEP-WCMC, UNESCO-MAB, UNU-INWEH and TNC. Earthscan, London. http://data.unep-wcmc.org/datasets/5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Spalding MD, Ruffo S, Lacambra C, Meliane I, Hale LZ, Shepard CC, Beck MW (2014) The role of ecosystems in coastal protection: adapting to climate change and coastal hazards. Ocean Coast Manag 90:50–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.09.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Stagg CL, Krauss KW, Cahoon DR, Cormier N, Conner WH, Swarzenski CM (2016) Processes contributing to resilience of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise. Ecosystems 19(8):1445–1459.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-016-0015-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Stern MK, Day JW, Teague KG (1986) Seasonality of materials transport through a coastal freshwater marsh: riverine versus tidal forcing. Estuaries 9(4):301–308.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1352102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Stokes DJ (2008) Assessment of physical changes after mangrove removal: Whangamata 2008. Report prepared for Environment Waikato TR 2009/13. Hamilton, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  138. Stokes DJ, Harris RJ (2015) Sediment properties and surface erodibility following a large-scale mangrove (Avicennia marina) removal. Cont Shelf Res 107:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2015.07.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Stokes DJ, Healy TR, Cooke PJ (2010) Expansion dynamics of monospecific, temperate mangroves and sedimentation in two embayments of a barrier-enclosed lagoon, Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand. J Coast Res 26(1):113–122.  https://doi.org/10.2112/08-1043.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Stokes DJ, Bulmer RH, Lundquist CJ (2016) Addressing the mismatch between restoration objectives and monitoring needs to support mangrove management. Ocean Coast Manag 134:69–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2016.09.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Stuart SA, Choat B, Holbrook NM, Ball MC (2007) The role of freezing in setting the latitudinal limits of mangrove forests. New Phytol 173:576–583.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01938.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sutherland JI (2003) Miocene petrified wood and associated borings and termite faecal pellets from Hukatere Peninsula, Kaipara Harbour, North Auckland, New Zealand. J R Soc N Z 33(1):395–414.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03014223.2003.9517736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Swales A, Williamson RB, van Dam LF, Stroud MJ, McGlone MS (2002) Reconstruction of urban stormwater contamination of an estuary using catchment history and sediment profile dating. Estuaries 25(1):43–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Swales A, Bentley S, Lovelock C, Bell R (2007) Sediment processes and mangrove-habitat expansion on a rapidly-prograding muddy coast, New Zealand. In: Coastal Sediments ‘07: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Coastal Engineering and Science of Coastal Sediment Processes, New Orleans. American Society of Civil Engineers, p 1441–1454. doi:10.1061/40926(239)111Google Scholar
  145. Swales A, Bell RG, Gorman R, Oldman JW, Altenberger A, Hart C, Claydon L, Wadwha S, Ovenden R (2009) Potential future changes in mangrove-habitat in Auckland’s east-coast estuaries. Auckland Regional Council, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  146. Swales A, Bentley SJ, Lovelock CE (2015) Mangrove-forest evolution in a sediment-rich estuarine system: opportunists or agents of geomorphic change? Earth Surf Process Landf 40(12):1672–1687.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Swales A, Denys P, Pickett VI, Lovelock CE (2016) Evaluating deep subsidence in a rapidly-accreting mangrove forest using GPS monitoring of surface-elevation benchmarks and sedimentary records. Mar Geol 380:205–218.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2016.04.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Syvitski JPM, Vörösmarty CJ, Kettner AJ, Green P (2005) Impact of humans on the flux of terrestrial sediment to the global coastal ocean. Science 308(5720):376–380.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1109454CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Temmerman S, Bouma TJ, Govers G, Wang ZB, De Vries MB, Herman PMJ (2005) Impact of vegetation on flow routing and sedimentation patterns: three-dimensional modeling for a tidal marsh. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 110:F04019.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005jf000301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Temmerman S, Meire P, Bouma TJ, Herman PMJ, Ysebaert T, De Vriend HJ (2013) Ecosystem-based coastal defence in the face of global change. Nature 504(7478):79–83.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12859CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Thom BG (1982) Mangrove ecology: a geomorphological perspective. In: Clough BF (ed) Mangrove ecosystems in Australia; structure, function and management. Australian National University Press, Canberra, pp 3–17Google Scholar
  152. Thrush SF, Hewitt JE, Cummings VJ, Ellis JI, Hatton C, Lohrer A, Norkko A (2004) Muddy waters: elevating sediment input to coastal and estuarine habitats. Front Ecol Environ 2(6):299–306.  https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0299:MWESIT]2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Tomlinson PB (1986) The botany of mangroves, Cambridge tropical biology series. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  154. Twilley RR, Rivera-Monroy VH (2009) Ecogeomorphic models of nutrient biogeochemistry for mangrove wetlands. In: GME P, Wolanski E, Cahoon DR, Brinson MM (eds) Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approac. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 641–683Google Scholar
  155. Twilley RR, Chen RH, Hargis T (1992) Carbon sinks in mangroves and their implications to carbon budget of tropical coastal ecosystems. Water Air Soil Pollut 64(1):265–288.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00477106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Twilley RR, Rivera-Monroy VH, Chen R, Botero L (1999) Adapting an ecological mangrove model to simulate trajectories in restoration ecology. Mar Pollut Bull 37(8–12):404–419.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(99)00137-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. UNEP (2014) The importance of mangroves to people: a call to action. United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  158. van de Koppel J, Bouma TJ, Herman PMJ (2012) The influence of local-and landscape-scale processes on spatial self-organization in estuarine ecosystems. J Exp Biol 215(6):962–967CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. van Katwijk MM, Bos AR, Hermus DCR, Suykerbuyk W (2010) Sediment modification by seagrass beds: muddification and sandification induced by plant cover and environmental conditions. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 89(2):175–181.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2010.06.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. van Maanen B, Coco G, Bryan KR (2015) On the ecogeomorphological feedbacks that control tidal channel network evolution in a sandy mangrove setting. Proc Royal Soc Lond A: Math Phys Eng Sci 471(2180):1–24.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2015.0115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. van Santen P, Augustinus PGEF, Janssen-Stelder BM, Quartel S, Tri NH (2007) Sedimentation in an estuarine mangrove system. J Asian Earth Sci 29(4):566–575.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2006.05.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Vo-Luong HP, Massel SR (2008) Energy dissipation in non-uniform mangrove forests of arbitrary depth. J Mar Syst 74:603–622.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.05.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Ward RD, Friess DA, Day RH, MacKenzie RA (2016) Impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems: a region by region overview. Ecosyst Health Sustain 2(4):e01211.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ehs2.1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wassilieff M (2006) Estuaries – plants of the estuary. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/interactive/4623/vegetation-profile. Accessed 1 May 2017
  165. Watson JG (1928) Mangrove forests of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan forest records No. 6. Federated Malay States Government, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  166. Webb EL, Friess DA, Krauss KW, Cahoon DR, Guntenspergen GR, Phelps J (2013) A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise. Nat Clim Chang 3(5):458–465.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Widdows J, Blauw A, Heip CHR, Herman PMJ, Lucas CH, Middelburg JJ, Schmidt S, Brinsley MD, Twisk F, Verbeek H (2004) Role of physical and biological processes in sediment dynamics of a tidal flat in Westerschelde Estuary, SW Netherlands. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 274:41–56.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps274041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Wildlands (2014) Monitoring of banded rail and other avifauna before and after mangrove clearance at Whangamata Harbour – Annual report (Mar 2013–2014)Google Scholar
  169. Willemsen PWJM, Horstman EM, Borsje BW, Friess DA, Dohmen-Janssen CM (2016) Sensitivity of the sediment trapping capacity of an estuarine mangrove forest. Geomorphology 273:189–201.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.07.038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Winterwerp JC, Borst WG, de Vries MB (2005) Pilot study on the erosion and rehabilitation of a mangrove mud coast. J Coast Res 21(2):223–230.  https://doi.org/10.2112/03-832a.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Winterwerp JC, Erftemeijer PLA, Suryadiputra N, Eijk P, Zhang L (2013) Defining eco-morphodynamic requirements for rehabilitating eroding mangrove-mud coasts. Wetlands 33(3):515–526.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-013-0409-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Wolanski E (1995) Transport of sediment in mangrove swamps. Hydrobiologia 295(1–3):31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Wolanski E (2007) Tidal wetlands. In: Wolanski E (ed) Estuarine ecohydrology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 71–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-044453066-0.50005-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Wolanski E, Moore K, Spagnol S, D’Adamo N, Pattiaratchi C (2001) Rapid, human-induced siltation of the macro-tidal ord river estuary, Western Australia. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 53(5):717–732.  https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.2001.0799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Woodroffe CD (1982) Litter production and decomposition in the New Zealand mangrove, Avicennia marina var. resinifera. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 16(2):179–188.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.1982.9515961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Woodroffe CD (1992) Mangrove sediments and geomorphology. In: Robertson AI, Alongi DM (eds) Tropical mangrove ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 7–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Young BM, Harvey EL (1996) A spatial analysis of the relationship between mangrove (Avicennia marina var. australasica) physiognomy and sediment accretion in the Hauraki Plains, New Zealand. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 42(2):231–246.  https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.1996.0017CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik M. Horstman
    • 1
  • Carolyn J. Lundquist
    • 2
    • 3
  • Karin R. Bryan
    • 1
  • Richard H. Bulmer
    • 2
  • Julia C. Mullarney
    • 1
  • Debra J. Stokes
    • 4
  1. 1.Coastal Marine Group, Faculty of Science and EngineeringThe University of WaikatoHamiltonNew Zealand
  2. 2.National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd.HamiltonNew Zealand
  3. 3.Institute of Marine ScienceThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  4. 4.Marine Ecology Research CentreSouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia

Personalised recommendations