Mangrove Establishment in an Artificially Constructed Estuarine Channel, Sungei Api-Api, Singapore

  • Suzanna Ramos
  • Patrick A. HespEmail author
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 25)


The artificial establishment and natural regeneration of mangroves at Sungei Api-Api, a man-made estuarine channel on the north eastern coast of Singapore, is examined. Several environmental factors affecting mangrove growth are briefly detailed, including: (i) slope gradients, (ii) salinity and tidal inundation levels, (iii) substrate type, and other factors such as tidal currents and propagule establishment. An analysis of the environmental factors affecting Sungei Api-Api mangrove growth indicates that successful growth is attained where: (i) fully saline, tidal inundation occurs over low slopes and (ii) the substrate comprises fine sediments. The artificial establishment of mangroves in a man-made channel is shown to be moderately successful in this area. The Sungei Api-Api trial project provides an excellent example of a potentially significant method by which mangroves can be conserved and reintroduced in urban and near urban tropical environments.


Mangrove re-establishment Conservation Singapore Urban canals/channels 



This research was conducted while the authors were at the Dept. of Geography at the National University of Singapore. Thanks to Dr. Mike Hilton (Otago University) who provided the original idea and impetus (including the provision of the magnificent research vessel, the RV Hiltonia) for the study. The authors wish to thank the Dept. of Geography and NUS, the Singapore Housing and Development Board, and the Drainage Dept. within the Ministry of Environment for their support. We also sincerely thank Dr. Chang Chew Hung (Nanyang Technological University) for his invaluable assistance, and Karen Puklowski (Massey University) for cartography.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyCollege of Education and Human Development, Texas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Beach and Dune Systems (BEADS) Laboratory, College of Science and Engineering, Bedford ParkFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

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