Mangrove Establishment in an Artificially Constructed Estuarine Channel, Sungei Api-Api, Singapore
The artificial establishment and natural regeneration of mangroves at Sungei Api-Api, a man-made estuarine channel on the north eastern coast of Singapore, is examined. Several environmental factors affecting mangrove growth are briefly detailed, including: (i) slope gradients, (ii) salinity and tidal inundation levels, (iii) substrate type, and other factors such as tidal currents and propagule establishment. An analysis of the environmental factors affecting Sungei Api-Api mangrove growth indicates that successful growth is attained where: (i) fully saline, tidal inundation occurs over low slopes and (ii) the substrate comprises fine sediments. The artificial establishment of mangroves in a man-made channel is shown to be moderately successful in this area. The Sungei Api-Api trial project provides an excellent example of a potentially significant method by which mangroves can be conserved and reintroduced in urban and near urban tropical environments.
KeywordsMangrove re-establishment Conservation Singapore Urban canals/channels
This research was conducted while the authors were at the Dept. of Geography at the National University of Singapore. Thanks to Dr. Mike Hilton (Otago University) who provided the original idea and impetus (including the provision of the magnificent research vessel, the RV Hiltonia) for the study. The authors wish to thank the Dept. of Geography and NUS, the Singapore Housing and Development Board, and the Drainage Dept. within the Ministry of Environment for their support. We also sincerely thank Dr. Chang Chew Hung (Nanyang Technological University) for his invaluable assistance, and Karen Puklowski (Massey University) for cartography.
- Chew SY; Ho SK; Wong PP, Leong YY (1987) Beach development between headland breakwaters in a low wave energy environment, Pasir Ris, Singapore. In: Proceedings of the 20th coastal engineering conference:1016–1031Google Scholar
- Chou LM, Lee SK (1994) Conservation of marine coastal ecosystems in Singapore, ASAIHL seminar on Sustainable Development of Tropical Marine and Coastal Ecosystems, PenangGoogle Scholar
- English S, Wilkinson C, Baker V (eds) (1994) Survey manual for tropical marine resources. ASEAN-Australia marine Science Project, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
- Gupta A, Pitts J (eds) (1992) Physical adjustments in a changing landscape: the Singapore story. Singapore University Press, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
- Karim A, Hossain Z, White KJ (1984) Study of the growth of mangrove plants in relation to edaphic factors in coastal afforestation plantation of Chittagong. In: Soepadmo E, Rao AN, Macintosh DJ (eds) Proceedings of the Asian symposium on mangrove environment research and management. University of Malaya, Malaysia, pp 195–198Google Scholar
- Keng G (1986) Estuarine systems: a systems approach, vol 1. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Lear R, Turner T (1977) Mangroves of Australia. University of Queensland Press, St. LuciaGoogle Scholar
- Lee SK (1976) Problems of tree growth on reclaimed land in Singapore. In: Proceedings of symposium on our environment, Singapore, Institute of Natural Science, Nayang University, pp 76–80Google Scholar
- Lee SK, Chua SE (1985) Creation of parks on reclaimed land in Singapore. In: Proceedings of 3rd symposium on our environment, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore: 43–51Google Scholar
- Raj SJ (1995) The management of mangroves in an urban environment: a case study of Sungei Api-Api. Unpublished honours thesis, Department of Geography, National University of SingaporeGoogle Scholar
- Siddiq NZ, Khan MAS (1990) Growth performance of mangrove trees along the coastal belt of Bangladesh (Part I). In: Field CD (ed) Mangrove ecosystems occasional papers, No. 8. United Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, New Delhi, pp 5–14Google Scholar
- Ward RD, Friess DA, Day RH, MacKenzie RA (2016) Impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems: a region by region overview. Ecosyst Health Sustain 2(4)Google Scholar