Advertisement

Adnexal Torsion

  • Goran Augustin
Chapter

Abstract

Adnexal torsion is one of the most common nonobstetric, but gynecologic, acute abdominal conditions in pregnancy. Due to the growing uterus, adnexa are pushed from pelvic to an abdominal position making them more prone to torsion. Today, with more widespread use of assisted reproductive technologies that result in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, adnexal torsion is even more common. Due to the often nonspecific clinical presentation, differential diagnosis is wide with some differential diagnoses that are side-specific. Sonography has high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis, and abdominal MRI is used in unequivocal cases. The treatment is operative. An additional reason for early operative detorsion is ovarian salvage in early pregnancy which hormonal role is important for the normal advancement of pregnancy.

References

  1. 1.
    Parsons L. Pelvic pain. Postgrad Med. 1958;23:252–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Küstner O. Das Gesetzmäßige in der Torsionsspirale torquierter Ovarialtumorstiele. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1891;11:209.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Green-Armytage V. A case of torsion of a fallopian tube and ovary during pregnancy. BJOG. 1929;36:87–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sheldon D. Complete torsion of tube and ovary complicating pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1936;31:682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nash W. Torsion of parovarian cyst during pregnancy. Proc R Soc Med. 1909;2:224.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fleming C. Large ovarian cyst with twisted pedicle complicating pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1920;1:270–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hibbard L. Adnexal torsion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985;152:456–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anteby SO, Schenker JG, Polishuk W. The value of laparoscopy in acute pelvic pain. Ann Surg. 1974;181:484–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Oelsner G, Shashar D. Adnexal torsion. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2006;49:549–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Georgy FM, Viechnicki M. Absence of ovary and uterine tube. Obstet Gynecol. 1974;44:441–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sebastian JA, Baker RC, Cordray D. Asymptomatic infection and separation of ovary and distal uterine tubes. Obstet Gynecol. 1973;41:531–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zanetta G, Mariani E, Lissoni A, et al. A prospective study of the role of ultrasound in the management of adnexal masses in pregnancy. BJOG. 2003;110:578–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hasiakos D, Papakonstantinou K, Kontoravdis A, et al. Adnexal torsion during pregnancy: report of four cases and review of the literature. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2008;34:683–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hasson J, Tsafrir Z, Azem F, et al. Comparison of adnexal torsion between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202:536.e1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mancuso A, Broccio G, Angio L, et al. Adnexal torsion in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1997;76:83–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kolluru V, Gurumurthy R, Vellanki V, et al. Torsion of ovarian cyst during pregnancy: a case report. Cases J. 2009;2:9405.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Peitsidou A, Peitsidis P, Goumalatsos N, et al. Diagnosis of an autoamputated ovary with dermoid cyst during a cesarean section. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:1294.e9–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pansky M, Smorgick N, Lotan G, et al. Adnexal torsion involving hydatids of Morgagni: a rare cause of acute abdominal pain in adolescents. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108:100–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Whitecar P, Turner S, Higby K. Adnexal masses in pregnancy: a review of 130 cases undergoing surgical management. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;181:19–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cohen SB, Wattiez A, Seidman D, et al. Laparoscopy versus laparotomy for detorsion and sparing of twisted ischemic adnexa. JSLS. 2003;7:295–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Govaerts I, Devreker F, Delbaere A, et al. Short-term medical complications of 1,500 oocyte retrievals for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1998;77:239–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oelsner G, Bider D, Goldenberg M, et al. Long-term follow-up of the twisted ischemic adnexa managed by detorsion. Fertil Steril. 1993;60:976–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Oelsner G, Cohen SB, Soriano D, et al. Minimal surgery for the twisted ischaemic adnexa can preserve ovarian function. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:2599–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yen CF, Lin SL, Murk W, et al. Risk analysis of torsion and malignancy for adnexal mases during pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:1895–902.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mashiach S, Bider D, Moran O, et al. Adnexal torsion of hyperstimulated ovaries in pregnancies after gonadotropin therapy. Fertil Steril. 1990;53:76–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Soriano D, Yefet Y, Seidman D, et al. Laparoscopy versus laparotomy in the management of adnexal masses during pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 1999;71:955–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jubb E. Primary carcinoma in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1963;85:345–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Munnell E. Primary ovarian cancer associated with pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1963;30:983–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Palmer J, Vatish M, Tidya J. Epithelial ovarian cancer in pregnancy: a review of the literature. BJOG. 2009;116:480–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dobashi M, Isonishi S, Morikawa A, et al. Ovarian cancer complicated by pregnancy: analysis of 10 cases. Oncol Lett. 2012;3:577–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sherard GB III, Hodson CA, Williams H, et al. Adnexal masses and pregnancy: a 12-year experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:358–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rackow B, Patrizio P. Successful pregnancy complicated by early and late adnexal torsion after in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:697–702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Weitzman VN, DiLuigi AJ, Maier DB, et al. Prevention of recurrent adnexal torsion. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:2018.e1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pansky M, Feingold M, Maymon R, et al. Maternal adnexal torsion in pregnancy is associated with significant risk of recurrence. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2009;16:551–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hill LM, Connors-Beatty DJ, Nowak A, et al. The role of ultrasonography in the detection and management of adnexal masses during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179:703–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bernhard LM, Klebba PK, Gray D, et al. Predictors of persistence of adnexal masses in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93:585–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nelson MJ, Cavalieri R, Sanders R. Cysts in pregnancy discovered by sonography. J Clin Ultrasound. 1986;14:509–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Smith LH, Dalrymple JL, Leiserowitz G, et al. Obstetrical deliveries associated with maternal malignancy in California, 1992 through 1997. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184:1504–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Grimes WH, Bartholomew RA, Colvin E, et al. Ovarian cyst complicating pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1954;68:594–603.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Suprasert P, Khunamornpong S, Siriaunkgul S, et al. Ruptured mature cystic teratomas mimicking advanced stage ovarian cancer: a report of 2 cases study. J Med Assoc Thail. 2004;87:1522–5.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Peterson WF, Prevost EC, Edmunds F, et al. Benign cystic teratomas of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1955;70:368–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pansky M, Smorgick N, Herman A, et al. Torsion of normal adnexa in postmenarchal women and risk of recurrence. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109:355–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smorgick N, Pansky M, Feingold M, et al. The clinical characteristics and sonographic findings of maternal ovarian torsion in pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:1983–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bider D, Mashiach S, Dulitzky M, et al. Clinical, surgical and pathologic findings of adnexal torsion in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1991;173:363–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Silja A, Gowri V. Torsion of a normal ovary in the third trimester of pregnancy: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2008;2:378.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Karaalp E, Yucel N, Demirci F, et al. Adnexal torsion in a first-trimester pregnant patient without any predisposing factor: a case report. Göztepe Tıp Derg. 2013;28:58–60.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tanaka Y, Koyama S, Shiki Y. Torsion of a normal ovary during the early postpartum period. CRSLS. 2013;e2013.00250.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wang YQ, Yang J. Xu W et al. ovarian torsion after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation: 5 cases report and clinical analysis. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2012;47:612–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Al Omari W, Ghazal-Aswad S, Sidky IH, et al. Ovarian salvage in bilaterally complicated severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:e77–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Goshen R, Lavy Y, Hochner-Celnikier H, et al. Third trimester torsion of persistent ovarian cyst following ovarian hyperstimulation—an unusual cause of preterm labor. Gynecol Obstet Investig. 1992;33:244–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Aydin T, Yucel B. Laparoscopic management of adnexal torsion in a twin, in vitro fertilization pregnancy at 23 weeks. Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne. 2014;9:655–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sauer M. Defining the incidence of serious complications experienced by oocyte donors: a review of 1,000 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184:277–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Maxwell KN, Cholst IN, Rosenwaks Z. The incidence of both serious and minor complications in young women undergoing oocyte donation. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:2165–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gorkemli H, Camus M, Clasen K. Adnexal torsion after gonadotropin ovulation induction for IVF or ICSI and its conservative treatment. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2002;267:4–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wiser A, Levron J, Kreizer D, et al. Outcome of pregnancies complicated by severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS): a follow-up beyond the second trimester. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:910.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Spitzer D, Wirleitner B, Steiner H, et al. Adnexal torsion in pregnancy after assisted reproduction—case study and review of the literature. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2012;72:716–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ekin M, Kaya C, Cengiz H, et al. A rare case: ruptured ectopic pregnancy with contralateral adnexal torsion. Bakırköy Tıp Derg. 2015;11:29–32.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Markova D, Milchev N, Gurova A, Batashki I. Adnexal torsion and concomitant appendicitis during third trimester of pregnancy—a case report. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2009;48:59–61.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hermes W, Puylaert JB, de Groot C, et al. Acute abdominal pain in the third trimester of pregnancy caused by adnexal torsion based on a small cystic adenoma. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007;151:1994–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Born C, Wirth S, Stäbler A, Reiser M. Diagnosis of adnexal torsion in the third trimester of pregnancy: a case report. Abdom Imaging. 2004;29:123–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Aksoy H, Ozyurt S, Aksoy U, et al. Ovarian torsion in puerperium: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2014;5:1074–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shadinger LL, Andretti RF, Kurian R. Preoperative sonographic and clinical characteristics as predictors of ovarian torsion. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27:7–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Priyadharisini K. Torsion of ovarian cyst in first trimester of pregnancy: a case report. J Reprod Infertil. 2014;5:76–7.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Smorgick N, Barel O, Halperin R, et al. Laparoscopic removal of adnexal cysts: is it possible to decrease inadvertent intraoperative rupture rate? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:237.e1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Arena S, Canonico S, Luzi G, et al. Ovarian torsion in in vitro fertilization induced twin pregnancy: combination of Doppler ultrasound and laparoscopy in diagnosis and treatment can quickly solve the case. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:1496.e9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pinto AB, Ratts VS, Williams D, et al. Reduction of ovarian torsion 1 week after embryo transfer in a patient with bilateral hyperstimulated ovaries. Fertil Steril. 2001;76:403–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bar-On S, Mashiach R, Stockheim D, et al. Emergency laparoscopy for suspected ovarian torsion: are we too hasty to operate? Fertil Steril. 2010;93:2012–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mathew M, Mubarak SA, Jesrani S. Conservative management of twisted ischemic adnexa in early pregnancy. Ann Med Heal Sci Res. 2015;5:142–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Djakovic A, Hönig A, Gross M, et al. Adnexal torsion in a patient with bichorial twin pregnancy in the 21st week of gestation treated by open laparoscopy: a case report. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2006;274:248–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Thornton JG, Wells M. Ovarian cysts in pregnancy: does ultrasound make traditional management inappropriate? Obstet Gynecol. 1987;69:717–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Graif M, Shalev J, Strauss S, et al. Torsion of the ovary: sonographic features. Am J Roentgenol. 1984;143:1331–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Varras M, Tsikini A, Polyzos D, et al. Uterine adnexal torsion: pathologic and gray-scale ultrasonographic findings. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2004;31:34–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Albayram F, Hamper U. Ovarian and adnexal torsion: spectrum of sonographic findings with pathologic correlation. J Ultrasound Med. 2001;20:1083–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gordon JD, Hopkins KL, Jeffrey RB, et al. Adnexal torsion: color Doppler diagnosis and laparoscopic treatment. Fertil Steril. 1994;61:383–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Villalba ML, Huynh B, So M, et al. An ovary with a twist: a case of interesting sonographic findings of ovarian torsion. J Emerg Med. 2005;29:443–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cornfeld D, Scoutt L. Torsion of a hyperstimulated ovary during pregnancy: a potentially difficult diagnosis. Emerg Radiol. 2007;14:331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bassil S, Steinhart U, Donnez J. Successful laparoscopic management of adnexal torsion during week 25 of a twin pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 1999;14:855–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pena JE, Ufberg D, Cooney N, et al. Usefulness of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of ovarian torsion. Fertil Steril. 2000;73:1047–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lee EJ, Kwon HC, Joo H, et al. Diagnosis of ovarian torsion with color Doppler sonography: depiction of twisted vascular pedicle. J Ultrasound Med. 1998;17:83–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Fleischer A. Ultrasound imaging—2000: assessment of utero-ovarian blood flow with transvaginal color Doppler sonography; potential clinical applications in infertility. Fertil Steril. 1991;55:684–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rakow BW, Patrizio P. Successful pregnancy complicated by early and late adnexal torsion after in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:e9–12.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hiller N, Appelbaum L, Simanovsky N, et al. CT features of adnexal torsion. Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189:124–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Duigenan S, Pliva E, Lee S. Ovarian torsion: diagnostic features on CT and MRI with pathologic correlation. Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198:W122–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Eskandar O, Eckford S, Watkinson T. Safety of diagnostic imaging in pregnancy. Part 2: magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound scanning and doppler assessment. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;12:171–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rha SE, Byun JY, Jung S, et al. CT and MR imaging features of adnexal torsion. Radiographics. 2002;22:283–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chang SD, Yen CF, Lo L, et al. Surgical intervention for maternal ovarian torsion in pregnancy. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;50:458–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Birchard KR, Brown MA, Hyslop W, et al. MRI of acute abdominal and pelvic pain in pregnant patients. Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184:452–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hess LW, Peaceman A, O’Brien W, et al. Adnexal mass occurring with intrauterine pregnancy: report of fifty-four patients requiring laparotomy for definitive management. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988;158:1029–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yen ML, Chen CA, Huang SC, et al. Laparoscopic cystectomy of a twisted, benign, ovarian teratoma in the first trimester of pregnancy. J Formos Med Assoc. 2000;99:345–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schmidt T, Nawroth F, Foth D, et al. Gasless laparoscopy as an option for conservative therapy of adnexal pedical torsion with twin pregnancy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 2001;8:621–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Römer T, Bojahr B, Schwesinger G. Treatment of a torqued hematosalpinx in the thirteenth week of pregnancy using gasless laparoscopy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 2002;9:89–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kalchman GG, Meltzer R. Interstitial pregnancy following homolateral salpingectomy: report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1966;96:1139–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Powell JL, Foley FP, Llorens A. Torsion of the fallopian tube in postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1972;113:115–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mage G, Canis M. Laparoscopic management of adnexal torsion. J Reprod Med. 1989;34:520–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ben-Rafael Z, Bider D, Mashiach S. Laparoscopic unwinding of twisted ischemic hemorrhagic adnexum after in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 1990;53:569–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Taskin O, Birincioglu M, Aydin A, et al. The effects of twisted ischaemic adnexa managed by detorsion on ovarian viability and histology: an ischaemia- reperfusion rodent model. Hum Reprod. 1998;13:2823–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zweizig S, Perron J, Grubb D, et al. Conservative management of adnexal torsion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;168:1791–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Levy T, Dicker D, Shalev J, et al. Laparoscopic unwinding of hyperstimulated ischaemic ovaries during the second trimester of pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:1478–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Pryor RA, Wiczyk HP, O’Shea D. Adnexal infarction after conservative surgical management of torsion of a hyperstimulated ovary. Fertil Steril. 1995;63:1344.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rody A, Jackisch C, Klockenbusch W, et al. The conservative management of adnexal torsion—a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002;101:83–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    DeCherney AH, Eichhorn J. Weekly clinicopathological exercises: case 3-1996: severe abdominal pain during early pregnancy in women with previous infertility. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:255–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    DiLuigi AJ, Maier DB, Benadiva C. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy with contralateral adnexal torsion after spontaneous conception. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:2007.e1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Al-Badawi IA, Alshankiti H, Ahmad S. Single incision laparoscopic surgery in pregnancy. CRSLS. 2014;e2014.00404.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dursun P, Gülümser C, Cağlar M, et al. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for acute adnexal pathology during pregnancy: preliminary experience. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013;26:1282–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Germain M, Rarick T, Robins E. Management of intermittent ovarian torsion by laparoscopic oophoropexy. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;88:715–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Child TJ, Watson NR, Ledger W. Sequential bilateral adnexal torsion after a single cycle of gonadotropin ovulation induction with intrauterine insemination. Fertil Steril. 1997;67:573–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Crouch NS, Gyampoh B, Cutner AS, Creighton S. Ovarian torsion: to pex or not to pex? Case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2003;16:381–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Djavadian D, Braendle W, Jaenicke F. Laparoscopic oophoropexy for the treatment of recurrent torsion of the adnexa in pregnancy: case report and review. Fertil Steril. 2004;82:933–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ventolini G, Hunter L, Drollinger D, et al. Ovarian torsion during pregnancy. Resid Staff Physician. 2007;53.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vergote I, De Brabanter J, Fyles A, et al. Prognostic importance of degree of differentiation and cyst rupture in stage I invasive epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Lancet. 2001;357:176–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hurd WW, Himebaugh KS, Cofer K, et al. Etiology of closure related adhesion formation after wedge resection of the rabbit ovary. J Reprod Med. 1993;38:465–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Rabinerson D, Tohar M, Pomerantz M, et al. Persistence of a normal pregnancy after an early luteectomy. A report of two cases. J Reprod Med. 1992;37:749–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Park JI, Chang CL, Hsu S. New insights into biological roles of relaxin and relaxin-related peptides. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2005;6:291–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Soh YM, Tiwari A, Mahendroo M, et al. Relaxin regulates hyaluronan synthesis and aquaporins in the cervix of late pregnant mice. Endocrinology. 2012;153:6054–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Smith LP, Oskowitz SP, Barrett B, et al. IVF and embryo development subsequent to ovarian torsion occurring during the resumption of meiosis. Reprod Biomed Online. 2010;21:418–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Morice P, Louis-Sylvestre C, Chapron C, et al. Laparoscopy for adnexal torsion in pregnant women. J Reprod Med. 1997;42:435–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Goran Augustin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Medicine University of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity Hospital Centre ZagrebZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations