Advertisement

Acute Appendicitis

  • Goran Augustin
Chapter

Abstract

Acute appendicitis is the most common nonobstetric operative emergency during pregnancy. It amounts to 25% of operative indications for the acute abdomen during pregnancy and puerperium. Pain in the right lower quadrant is the most reliable symptom, and abdominal tenderness is almost always present. Fever and tachycardia are not sensitive signs. Leukocytosis is not diagnostic because elevated levels are found during pregnancy and especially in the early labor in normal pregnancy. Neutrophil granulocytosis is diagnostic as it is a sign of bacterial infection. Graded abdominal ultrasound is the diagnostic procedure of choice with less accuracy in the third trimester with no guidelines about the use of transvaginal ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic procedure of choice in cases when abdominal ultrasound is not diagnostic. Management is always surgical, either by open approach or laparoscopy. Fetal mortality in uncomplicated appendicitis is low and rises several times when perforation and diffuse peritonitis develop. Maternal mortality is almost 0% and rises with the delay in surgery for more than 24 h which is the most common situation in the third trimester when the diagnosis is the most difficult.

References

  1. 1.
    Hancock H. Disease of the appendix caeci cured by operation. Lancet. 1848;52:380–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Peterson R, Peterson R. Med News, Philadelphia. 1893;42:515–7.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mundé P. Premature delivery of a dead child, induced by acute appendicitis, with remarks on appendicitis in women. Med Rec. 1894;46:678–9.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Paddock C. Pregnancy complicated by appendicitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1913;68:401–19.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mussey R. Operations of necessity during pregnancy. Mayo Clin Proc. 1927;2:729–36.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Douglas CA, McKinlay P, editors. Report on maternal morbidity and mortality in Scotland. London: HMSO; 1935. 73 p.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Child CG, Douglas R. Surgical problems arising during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1944;47:213–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sprong DH, Pollock W. Acute appendicitis complicating pregnancy. Calif Med. 1959;91:258–60.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Taylor J. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy and the puerperium. A N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1972;12:202–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aird I, editor. Companion in surgical studies. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone; 1958. 51 p.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wei PI, Keller JJ, Liang HH, et al. Acute appendicitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a nationwide population-based study. J Gastrointest Surg. 2012;16:1204–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Agholor K, Omo-Aghoja L, Okonofua F. Rate of negative appendectomy in pregnant women in Benin city, Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2011;37:1540–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eryilmaz R, Sahin M, Bas G, et al. Acute appendicitis during pregnancy. Dig Surg. 2002;19:40–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Al-Qudah MS, Amr M, Sroujieh A, et al. Appendectomy in pregnancy: the experience of a university hospital. J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999;19:362–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Unal A, Sayharman SE, Ozel L, et al. Acute abdomen in pregnancy requiring surgical management: a 20-case series. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;159:87–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Retzke U, Graf H, Schmidt M. Appendizitis in graviditate. Zentralbl Chir. 1998;123:61–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bailey LE, Finley RK Jr, Miller SF, et al. Acute appendicitis during pregnancy. Am Surg. 1986;52:218–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gomez A, Wood M. Acute appendicitis during pregnancy. Am J Surg. 1979;137:180–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Horowitz MD, Gomez GA, Santiesteban R, et al. Acute appendicitis during pregnancy. Diagnosis and management. Arch Surg. 1985;120:1362–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mazze RI, Kallen B. Appendectomy during pregnancy: a Swedish registry study of 778 cases. Obstet Gynecol. 1991;77:835–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sivanesaratnam V. The acute abdomen and the obstetrician. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2000;14:89–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ueberrueck T, Koch A, Meyer L, et al. Ninety-four appendectomies for suspected acute appendicitis during pregnancy. World J Surg. 2004;28:508–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kazim SF, Pal K. Appendicitis in pregnancy: experience of thirty-eight patients diagnosed and managed at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Int J Surg. 2009;7:365–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mourad J, Elliott JP, Erickson L, et al. Appendicitis in pregnancy: new information that contradicts long-held clinical beliefs. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182:1027–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hee P, Viktrup L. The diagnosis of appendicitis during pregnancy and maternal and fetal outcome after appendectomy. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1999;65:129–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Al-Mulhim A. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy. A review of 52 cases. Int Surg. 1996;81:295–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Andersen B, Nielsen T. Appendicitis in pregnancy: diagnosis, management and complications. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999;78:758–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bonfante Ramírez E, Estrada Altamirano A, Bolaños Ancona R, et al. Appendicitis during pregnancy. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 1998;66:126–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Duqoum W. Appendicitis in pregnancy. East Mediterr Health J. 2001;7:642–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Barros Fde C, Kunzle JR, Ribeiro Filho Jdo A. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy. Rev Paul Med. 1991;109:9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zingone F, Sultan AA, Humes DJ, et al. Risk of acute appendicitis in and around pregnancy: a population-based cohort study from England. Ann Surg. 2015;261:332–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Abbasi N, Patenaude V, Abenhaim H. Management and outcomes of acute appendicitis in pregnancy—population-based study of over 7000 cases. BJOG. 2014;121:1509–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brennan DF, Harwood-Nuss A. Postpartum abdominal pain. Ann Emerg Med. 1989;18:83–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Black W. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy. BMJ. 1960;1:1938–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Raja KS, Janjua NB, Iqbal J. Appendicitis in pregnancy. Rawal Med J. 2003;28:52–5.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Butte JM, Bellolio MF, Fernández F, et al. Appendectomies for suspected acute appendicitis during pregnancy: experience at a Chilean public hospital. Rev Med Chil. 2006;134:145–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Maslovitz SG, Gutman G, Lessing J, et al. The significance of clinical signs and blood indices for the diagnosis of appendicitis during pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2003;56:188–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Babaknia A, Parsa H, Woodruff J. Appendicitis during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1977;50:40–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Addiss DG, Shaffer N, Fowler BSTR. The epidemiology of appendicitis and appendectomy in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;132:910–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cunningham FG, McCubbin J. Appendicitis complicating pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1975;45:415–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tamir IL, Bongard FS, Klein S. Acute appendicitis in the pregnant patient. Am J Surg. 1990;160:571–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tracey M, Fletcher H. Appendicitis in pregnancy. Am Surg. 2000;66:555–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Andersson RE, Lambe M. Incidence of appendicitis during pregnancy. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30:1281–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Findley P. Appendicitis complicating pregnancy. JAMA. 1912;59:612–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lehner R, Tringler B, Stengg K, et al. Premature labor in a women with perforating appendicitis at 36 weeks of gestation. A case report. J Reprod Med. 2002;47:327–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Munro A, Jones P. Abdominal surgical emergencies in the puerperium. BMJ. 1975;20:691–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    DeLee J. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy with at term. Surg Clin North Am. 1921;1:1003–12.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Erbes J. Appendicitis complicating pregnancy. Omaha: University of Nebraska; 1939.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Heaton G. Some peculiarities of appendicitis in the female sex, with special reference to appendicitis occurring during pregnancy. BMJ. 1905;1:463–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Goedecke. Zentralbl Gynäkol. 1912;15.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Maes U. A surgical consideration of appendicitis in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1934;27:214–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Barker D. Acute appendicitis and dietary fibre: an alternative hypothesis. BMJ. 1985;290:1125–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Burkitt D. Aetiology of the appendicitis. Br J Surg. 1971;58:695–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wegman TG, Lin H, Guilbert L, et al. Bidirectional cytokine interactions in the maternal-fetal relationship: is successful pregnancy a TH2 phenomenon? Immunol Today. 1993;14:353–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    McCracken SA, Hadfield K, Rahimi Z, et al. NF-kappaB-regulated suppression of T-bet in T cells represses Th1 immune responses in pregnancy. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:1386–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schaible A, Koeberle A, Northoff H, et al. High capacity for leukotriene biosynthesis in peripheral blood during pregnancy. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2013;86:245–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Konstantinov SR, van der Woude CJ, Peppelenbosch M. Do pregnancyrelated changes in the microbiome stimulate innate immunity? Trends Mol Med. 2013;19:454–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Confavreux C, Hutchingson M, Hours M, et al. Rate of pregnancy-related relapses in multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:285–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Denney JM, Nelson EL, Wadhwa P, et al. Longitudinal modulation of immune system cytokine profile during pregnancy. Cytokine. 2011;53:170–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rom O, Avezov K, Aizenbud D, et al. Cigarette smoking and inflammation revisited. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013;187:5–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Oldmeadow C, Wood I, Mengersen K, et al. Investigation of the relationship between smoking and appendicitis in Australian twins. Ann Epidemiol. 2008;18:631–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schneider S, Huy C, Schuetz J, et al. Smoking cessation during pregnancy: a systematic literature review. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2010;29:81–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Xu H, Wen LM, Rissel C, et al. Smoking status and factors associated with smoking of first-time mothers during pregnancy and postpartum: findings from the healthy beginnings trial. Matern Child Health J. 2012;17:1151–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bakhru A, Erlinger T. Smoking cessation and cardiovascular disease risk factors: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PLoS Med. 2005;2:e160.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hoffman ES, Suzuki M. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy; a ten-year survey. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1954;67:1338–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ciado. Rend la Soc Biol Paris. 1892;4.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Arnbjörnson E. Acute appendicitis risk in various phases of the menstrual cycle. Acta Chir Scand. 1983;149:603–5.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Elder S, Faraggi D, Abrahamson J, et al. The menstrual cycle and acute appendicitis. Eur J Surg. 1995;161:897–900.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Easterling WE, Herbert W. The puerperium. In: Danforth DN, Scott J, editors. Obstetrics and gynecology. Philadelphia: JP Lippincott; 1986. p. 755–66.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Crawley LQ, Malfetti JL, Stewart EI, et al. http://english.htu.cn/MARRYSEX/chapt02.htm
  71. 71.
    Onder A, Kapan M, Arikanoglu Z, et al. Acute appendicits in pregnancy: evaluation of 129 patients during 20 years. J Curr Surg. 2012;2:4–10.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sharma AK, Sharma RK, Sharma S. Appendicitis in pregnancy: a novel approach for diagnostic dilemma. Sri Lanka J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012;34:6–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Townsend JM, Greiss F. Appendicitis in pregnancy. South Med J. 1976;69:1161–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lebeau R, Diané B, Koffi E, et al. Appendicite aiguë et grossesse: a propos de 21 case. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod. 2005;34:600–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    King RM, Anderson G. Appendicitis and pregnancy. Calif Med. 1962;97:158–62.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Füth H. Ueber die verlagerung des Coecums während der Gravidität in Rücksicht auf das Zusammentreffen derselben mit Appendicitis. Arch Gynäkol. 1905;76:527–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Füth H. Weitere Beiträge zur Verschiebung des Coecums während der Schwangerschaft. Arch Gynäkol. 1913;101:362–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hoffmann K. Zur Frage der Appendicitis in graviditate. Arch Gynäkol. 1920;112:230–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Baer JL, Reis RA, Arens R. Appendicitis in pregnancy: with changes in position and axis of the normal appendix in pregnancy. JAMA. 1932;98:1359–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Meharg JG, Loop F. Acute appendicitis during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1953;1:460–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Pankow O. Die urashen für die schlechte prognose der appendizitis in der schwangerschaft und ihre bedeutung für die therapie. Arch Gynäkol. 1928;133:5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Twyman RA, Mussey RD, Stalker L. Appendicitis in pregnancy: a review of seventy-five cases. Mayo Clin Proc. 1940;15:484.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Fink K. Die Diagnose und Differentialdiagnose der Appendizitis bei Frauen. Monatschr Gerburtsch Gynäkol. 1925;71:328–38.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hodjati H, Kazerooni T. Location of the appendix in the gravid patient: a re-evaluation of the established concept. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003;81:245–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Zhang Y, Zhao YY, Qiao J, et al. Diagnosis of appendicitis during pregnancy and perinatal outcome in the late pregnancy. Chin Med J. 2009;122:521–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
  87. 87.
    Oto A, Srinivasan PN, Ernst R, et al. Revisiting MRI for appendix location during pregnancy. Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186:883–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pates JA, Avendiano TC, Zaretsky M, et al. The appendix in pregnancy: confirming historical observations with a contemporary modality. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:805–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Marbury W. Appendicitis in pregnancy. Am J Surg. 1933;19:437–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jerlov E. Appendicitis during pregnancy and puerperium. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1925;4:6.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Richards C, Daya S. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnancy. Can J Surg. 1989;32:358–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Auguste T, Murphy B, Oyelese Y. Appendicitis in pregnancy masquerading as recurrent preterm labor. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002;76:181–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Herczeg J, Kovács L, Keserü T. Premature labor and coincident acute appendicitis not resolved by betamimetic but surgical treatment. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1983;62:373–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Dasari P, Maurya D. The consequences of missing appendicitis during pregnancy. BMJ Case Rep. 2011;2011.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Munde. Med Rec New York. 1984;46.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hirst. Trans Obstet Soc Philadelphia. 1890.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mixter. Bost Med Surg J. 1891.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cappell M. Colon cancer during pregnancy: the gastroenterologist’s perspective. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1998;27:225–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Smith JA, Bartlett M. Acute surgical emergencies of the abdomen in pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 1940;223:529–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Masters K, Levine BA, Gaskill HV, et al. Diagnosing appendicitis during pregnancy. Am J Surg. 1984;148:768–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Chen CF, Yen SJ, Tan K, et al. Acute appendicitis during pregnancy. J Med Sci. 1999;19:256–62.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    DeVore G. Acute abdominal pain in the pregnant patient due to pancreatitis, acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, or peptic ulcer disease. Clin Perinatol. 1980;7:349–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hinshaw J. The acute abdomen complication pregnancy. J Oklahoma Med Assoc. 1963;56:4–7.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ali H. Ectopic pregnancy presenting with obturator nerve pain. J Accid Emerg Med. 1998;15:192–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Alders N. A sign for differentiating uterine from extrauterine complications of pregnancy and puerperium. BMJ. 1951;2:1194–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Aaron C. A sign indicative of chronic appendicitis. JAMA. 1913;60:350–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kurtz GR, Davis RS, Sproul J. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy and labor, a report of 41 cases. Obstet Gynecol. 1964;23:528–32.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Nunnelee JD, Musselman R, Spaner S. Appendectomy in pregnancy and postpartum: analysis of data from a large private hospital. Clin Excell Nurse Pract. 1999;3:298–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hoshino T, Ihara Y, Suzuki T. Appendicitis during pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2000;69:271–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Pastore PA, Loomis DM, Sauret J. Appendicitis in pregnancy. J Am Board Fam Med. 2006;19:621–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    IJpma FFA, Boddeus KM, de Haan HH, et al. Bilateral round ligament varicosities mimicking inguinal hernia during pregnancy. Hernia. 2009;13:85–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Apostolidis S, Michalopoulos A, Papavramidis T, et al. Inguinal endometriosis: three cases and literature review. South Med J. 2009;102:206–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tokue H, Tsushima Y, Endo K. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of extrapelvic endometriosis of the round ligament. Jpn J Radiol. 2009;27:45–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Al-Qudah M. Postpartum pain due to thrombosed varicose veins of the round ligament of the uterus. Postgrad Med J. 1993;69:820–1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Chi C, Taylor A, Munjuluri N, et al. A diagnostic dilemma: round ligament varicosities in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005;84:1126–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Baumgardner L. Rupture of appendiceal stump three months after uneventful appendectomy with repair and recovery. Ohio State Med J. 1949;45:476–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Subramanian A, Liang M. A 60-year literature review of stump appendicitis: the need for a critical view. Am J Surg. 2012;203:503–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Bellı S, Yalçinkaya C, Ezer A, et al. Stump appendicitis and chorioamnionitis due to incomplete appendectomy: a case report. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2011;22:540–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wenzl M. Perforation eines Meckelschen Divertikels bei Schwangerschaft. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1949;61:249–50.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Alaily A. Gangrene of Meckel’s diverticulum in pregnancy due to iron tablet. BMJ. 1974;1:103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Pandeva I, Kumar S, Alvi A, et al. Meckel’s diverticulitis as a cause of an acute abdomen in the second trimester of pregnancy: laparoscopic management. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2015;2015:835609.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ahmed Z, Chhabra S, Kankaria J, et al. Meckel’s diverticular perforation presenting as acute abdomen in the second trimester of pregnancy. BMJ Case Rep. 2016;2016.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Rudloff U, Jobanputra S, Smith-Levitin M, et al. Meckel’s diverticulum complicating pregnancy. Case report and review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2005;271:89–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Huerta S, Barleben A, Peck M, et al. Meckel’s diverticulitis: a rare etiology of an acute abdomen during pregnancy. Curr Surg. 2006;63:290–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Wong YS, Liu SY, Ng S, et al. Giant Meckel’s diverticulitis: a rare condition complicating pregnancy. Am J Surg. 2010;200:184–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Cullen JJ, Kelly K. Current management of Meckel’s diverticulum. Adv Surg. 1996;29:207–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Yahchouchy EK, Marano AF, Etienne JCF, et al. Meckel’s diverticulum. J Am Coll Surg. 2001;192:658–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Matsagas MI, Fatouros M, Kouburos B, et al. Incidence, complications, and management of Meckel’s diverticulum. Arch Surg. 1995;130:143–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    St-Vil D, Brandt ML, Panic S, et al. Meckel’s diverticulum in children: a 20-year review. J Pediatr Surg. 1991;26:1289–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Yamaguchi M, Takeuchi S, Awazu S. Meckel’s diverticulum. Investigation of 600 patients in Japanese literature. Am J Surg. 1978;136:247–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Reichert JA, Valle R. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. JAMA. 1976;236:266–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Dunnihoo DR, Gallaspy JW, Wise RB, et al. Postpartum ovarian vein thrombophlebitis: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1991;46:415–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kominiarek MA, Hibbard J. Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis: an update. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2006;61:337–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hakim FA, Khan NN, Qushmaq KA, et al. An unusual presentation of postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis. Saudi Med J. 2007;28:273–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Prieto-Nieto MI, Perez-Robledo JP, Rodriguez-Montes JA, et al. Acute appendicitis-like symptoms as initial presentation of ovarian vein thrombosis. Ann Vasc Surg. 2004;18:481–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Twickler DM, Setiawan AT, Evans R, et al. Imaging of puerperal septic thrombophlebitis: prospective comparison of MR imaging, CT and sonography. Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169:1039–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Arkadopoulos N, Dellaportas D, Yiallourou A, et al. Ovarian vein thrombosis mimicking acute abdomen: a case report and literature review. World J Emerg Surg. 2011;6:45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Witlin AG, Sibia B. Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis after vaginal delivery: a report of 11 cases. Obstet Gynecol. 1995;85:775–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Schwartz RE, Johnson R. Septic ovarian vein thrombophlebitis: a surgical disease should be treated without operation. Eur J Surg. 1996;162:287–8.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Thomas JT, Roberto DC, Igor D. Ovarian and caval thrombosis: case reports. Tex Heart Inst J. 2005;32:579–82.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Salomon O, Apter S, Shaham D, et al. Risk factors associated with postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis. Thromb Haemost. 1999;82:1015–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Committee on Practice Bulletins--Gynecology AC of O and G. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 84: Prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:429–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Sadot E, Telem DA, Arora M, et al. Laparoscopy: a safe approach to appendicitis during pregnancy. Surg Endosc. 2010;24:383–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Silvestri MT, Pettker CM, Brousseau E, et al. Morbidity of appendectomy and cholecystectomy in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118:1261–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Gaba P, Tolcher M. Where should pregnant women with suspected nonobstetric issues be evaluated? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;125:19S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    AC of Radiology. ACR-SPR practice parameter for imaging pregnant or potentially pregnant adolescents and women with ionizing radiation. 2013.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    NC on RP and Measurements. Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women. Bethesda; 1997.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    AC of O and GC on O Practice. Committee Opinion No. 656: guidelines for diagnostic imaging during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;127:e75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Brent RL, Mettler F. Pregnancy policy. Am J Roentgenol. 2004;182:819–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Amos JD, Schorr SJ, Norman P, et al. Laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy. Am J Surg. 1996;171:435–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Sarason EL, Bauman S. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy: difficulties in diagnosis. Obstet Gynecol. 1963;22:382–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Priddle HD, Hesseltine H. Acute appendicitis in the obstetric patient. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1951;62:150–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Melnick DM, Wahl WL, Dalton V. Management of general surgical problems in the pregnant patient. Am J Surg. 2004;187:170–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Cicarelli LM, Perroni AG, Zugaib M, et al. Maternal and cord blood levels of serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-8 during and after delivery. Mediators Inflamm. 2005;2:96–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Mojibian M, Soheilykhah S, Rahimi-Saghand S, et al. Maternal serum C-reactive protein concentration in gestational diabetes. Iran J Diab Obes. 2011;3:54–9.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Omkara Murthy K, Rathod Vasantkumar R, Dhananjaya B, et al. Pattern of C-reactive protein in pre-eclampsia and normal pregnancy. Int J Biol Med Res. 2012;3:2616–21.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Kashanian M, Aghbali F, Mahali N. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of the first-trimester maternal serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level for prediction of pre-eclampsia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013;39:1549–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Shaikh H, Shaikh Y, Shaikh GS, et al. Elevated serum C-reactive protein level in obese pregnant women. JLUMHS. 2012;11:7–10.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Picklesimer AH, Jared HL, Moss K, et al. Racial differences in C-reactive protein levels during normal pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:523.e1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Van den Broe NR, Letsky E. Pregnancy and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. BJOG. 2001;108:1164–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Alvarado A. A practical score for the early diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ann Emerg Med. 1986;15:557–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Kapan S, Bozkurt MA, Turhan A, et al. Management of acute appendicitis in pregnancy. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2013;19:20–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Saddique M, Oqbal P, Ghazi A. Appendicitis in pregnancy; does modified Alvarado score have a predictive value. Pak J Surg. 2009;25:25–8.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Rosen MP, Ding A, Blake M, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria right lower quadrant pain-suspected appendicitis. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011;8:749–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Barloon TJ, Brown BP, Abu-Yousef M, et al. Sonography of acute appendicitis in pregnancy. Abdom Imaging. 1995;20:149–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Lim HK, Bae SH, Seo G. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women: value of sonography. Am J Roentgenol. 1992;159:539–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Abu-Yousef MM, Bleichen JJ, Maher J, et al. High-resolution sonography of acute appendicitis. Am J Radiol. 1987;149:53–8.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Jeffrey RB Jr, Laing FC, Lewis F. Acute appendicitis: high-resolution real-time US findings. Radiology. 1987;163:11–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Puylaert J. Acute appendicitis. US evaluation using graded compression. Radiology. 1986;158:355–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Puylaert JBCM, Rutgers PH, Lalisang R, et al. A prospective study of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of appendicitis. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:666–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Wallace CA, Petrov MS, Soybel D, et al. Influence of imaging on the negative appendectomy rate in pregnancy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12:46–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Yilmaz HG, Akgun Y, Bac B, et al. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy—risk factors associated with principal outcomes: a case control study. Int J Surg. 2007;5:192–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Freeland M, King E, Safcsak K, et al. Diagnosis of appendicitis in pregnancy. Am J Surg. 2009;198:753–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Barnett S. Routine ultrasound scanning in first trimester: what are the risks? Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2002;23:387–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Caspi B, Zbar AP, Mavor E, et al. The contribution of transvaginal ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: an observational study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2003;21:273–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Bramante R, Radomski M, Nelson M, et al. Appendicitis diagnosed by emergency physician performed point-of-care transvaginal ultrasound: case series. West J Emerg Med. 2013;14:415–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Abramowicz JS, Kossoff G, Marsal K, et al. Safety Statement, 2000 (reconfirmed 2003). International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISUOG). Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2003;21:100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Expert Panel on MR Safety, Kanal E, Barkovich AJ, Bell C, et al. ACR guidance document on MR safe practices: 2013. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013;37:501–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Singh A, Danrad R, Hahn P, et al. MR imaging of the acute abdomen and pelvis: acute appendicitis and beyond. Radiographics. 2007;27:1419–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Vu L, Ambrose D, Vos P, et al. Evaluation of MRI for the diagnosis of appendicitis during pregnancy when ultrasound is inconclusive. J Surg Res. 2009;156:145–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Oto A, Ernst RD, Shah R, et al. Right-lower-quadrant pain and suspected appendicitis in pregnant women: evaluation with MR imaging—initial experience. Radiology. 2005;234:445–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Birchard KR, Brown MA, Hyslop W, et al. MRI of acute abdominal and pelvic pain in pregnant patients. Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184:452–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Woodfield CA, Lazarus E, Chen K, et al. Abdominal pain in pregnancy: diagnoses and imaging unique to pregnancy—review. Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194:WS14–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Long SS, Long C, Lai H, et al. Imaging strategies for right lower quadrant pain in pregnancy. Am J Roentgenol. 2011;196:4–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Fonseca AL, Schuster KM, Kaplan L, et al. The use of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of suspected appendicitis in pregnancy: shortened length of stay without increase in hospital charges. JAMA Surg. 2014;149:687–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Oto A, Ernst R, Ghulmiyyah L, et al. MR imaging in the triage of pregnant patients with acute abdominal and pelvic pain. Abdom Imaging. 2008;34:243–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Cobben LP, Groot I, Haans L, et al. MRI for clinically suspected appendicitis during pregnancy. Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183:671–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Israel G, Malguria N, McCarthy S, et al. MRI vs. ultrasound for suspected appendicitis during pregnancy. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;28:428–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Pedrosa I, Levine D, Eyvazzadeh A, et al. MR imaging evaluation of acute appendicitis in pregnancy. Radiology. 2006;238:891–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Pedrosa I, Lafornara M, Pandharipande P, et al. Pregnant patients suspected of having acute appendicitis: effect of MR imaging on negative laparotomy rate and appendiceal perforation rate. Radiology. 2009;250:749–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Nikolaidis P, Hwang CM, Miller F, et al. The nonvisualized appendix: incidence of acute appendicitis when secondary inflammatory changes are absent. Am J Roentgenol. 2004;83:889–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Baron KT, Arleo EK, Robinson C, et al. Comparing the diagnostic performance of MRI versus CT in the evaluation of acute nontraumatic abdominal pain during pregnancy. Emerg Radiol. 2012;19:519–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Chen MM, Coakley FV, Kaimal A, et al. Guidelines for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging use during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:333–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Brown M. Imaging acute appendicitis. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2008;29:293–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Kennedy A. Assessment of acute abdominal pain in the pregnant patient. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2000;21:64–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Rathnapalan S, Bona N, Chandra K, et al. Physicians perception of teratogenic risk associated with radiography and CT during early pregnancy. Am J Roentgenol. 2004;182:1107–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Shetty MK, Garrett NM, Carpenter W, et al. Abdominal computed tomography during pregnancy for suspected appendicitis: a 5-year experience at a maternity hospital. Semin Ultrasound CT MRI. 2010;31:8–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Mettler F, Brent R, Streffer C, et al. Pregnancy and medical radiation. Ann ICRP. 2000;30:1–42.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Doll R, Wakeford T. Risk of childhood cancer from fetal irradiation. Br J Radiol. 1997;70:130–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Ames Castro M, Shipp TCE, et al. The use of helical computed tomography in pregnancy for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184:954–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Lazarus E, Mayo-Smith WW, Mainier M, et al. CT in the evaluation of nontraumatic abdominal pain in pregnant women. Radiology. 2007;244:784–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Dupuis O, Audra P, Mellier G. Is helical computed tomography 100% sensitive to diagnose acute appendicitis during pregnancy? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186:336.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Cheng HT, Wang YC, Lo H, et al. Laparoscopic appendectomy versus open appendectomy in pregnancy: a population-based analysis of maternal outcome. Surg Endosc. 2015;29:1394–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Young BC, Hamar BD, Levine D, et al. Medical management of ruptured appendicitis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:453–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Fulton MB, Fontenot B, Leon S. Drainage with antibiotics is effective therapy for appendicitis in pregnancy. JAAPA. 2010;23:29–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Ito K, Ito H, Whang EE, et al. Appendectomy in pregnancy: evaluation of the risks of a negative appendectomy. Am J Surg. 2012;203:145–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Sharp H. The acute abdomen during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2002;45:405–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Stone K. Acute abdominal emergencies associated with pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2002;45:553–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Warfield C. Acute appendicitis complicating pregnancy. Postgrad Med. 1950;8:10–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Abbasi N, Patenaude V, Abenhaim H. Evaluation of obstetrical and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by acute appendicitis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014;290:661–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    McGory ML, Zingmond DS, Tillou A, et al. Negative appendectomy in pregnant women is associated with a substantial risk of fetal loss. J Am Coll Surg. 2007;205:534–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Hiersch L, Yogev Y, Ashwal E, et al. The impact of pregnancy on the accuracy and delay in diagnosis of acute appendicitis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014;27:1357–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Popkin CA, Lopez PP, Cohn S, et al. The incision of choice for pregnant women with appendicitis is through McBurney’s point. Am J Surg. 2002;183:20–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Danso D, Dimitry E. Perforated 26 weeks pregnant uterus at appendicectomy. BJOG. 2004;111:628–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Friedman JD, Ramsey PS, Ramin KD, et al. Pneumoamnion and pregnancy loss after second-trimester laparoscopic surgery. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99:512–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Reedy MB, Gallan HL, Richards W, et al. Laparoscopy during pregnancy: a study of laparoendoscopic surgeons. J Reprod Med. 1997;42:33–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Barnett MB, Liu D. Complication of laparoscopy during early pregnancy. BMJ. 1974;1:328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Ofir K, Sheiner E, Levy A, et al. Uterine rupture: risk factors and pregnancy outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:1042–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Donoghue F. Appendicitis complicating pregnancy, with report of case; removal of gangrenous appendix at three and one-half months, delivery at term. Bost Med Surg J. 1902;147:272–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    McCorriston C. Nonobstetrical abdominal surgery during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1963;86:593–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Kirshtein B, Perry ZH, Avinoach E, et al. Safety of laparoscopic appendectomy during pregnancy. World J Surg. 2009;33:475–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Gurbuz AT, Peetz M. The acute abdomen in the pregnant patient. Surg Endosc. 1997;11:98–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Schreiber J. Laparoscopic appendectomy in pregnancy. Surg Endosc. 1990;4:100–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Upadhyay A, Stanten S, Kazantsev G, et al. Laparoscopic management of a nonobstetric emergency in the third trimester of pregnancy. Surg Endosc. 2007;21:1344–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Hale DA, Molloy M, Pearl R, et al. Appendectomy: a contemporary appraisal. Ann Surg. 1997;225:252–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Lachman E, Schienfeld A, Voss E, et al. Pregnancy and laparoscopic surgery. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 1999;6:347–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Kocael PC, Simsek O, Saribeyoglu K, et al. Laparoscopic surgery in pregnant patients with acute abdomen. Ann Ital Chir. 2015;86:137–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Walsh CA, Tang T, Walsh S. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy in pregnancy: a systematic review. Int J Surg. 2008;6:339–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Eom JM, Hong JH, Jeon S, et al. Safety and clinical efficacy of laparoscopic appendectomy for pregnant women with acute appendicitis. Ann Acad Med Singap. 2012;41:82–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Jackson H, Granger S, Price R, et al. Diagnosis and laparoscopic treatment of surgical diseases during pregnancy: an evidence-based review. Surg Endosc. 2008;22:1917–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Bennett TL, Estes N. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the second trimester of pregnancy: a case report. J Reprod Med. 1993;38:833–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Lyass S, Pikarsky A, Eisenberg V, et al. Is laparoscopic appendicectomy safe in pregnant women? Surg Endosc. 2001;15:377–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    de Perrot MD, Jenny A, Morales M, et al. Laparoscopic appendicectomy during pregnancy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2000;10:368–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Machado NO, Grant C. Laparoscopic appendicectomy in all trimesters of pregnancy. JSLS. 2009;13:384–90.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Curet M. Special problems in laparoscopic surgery. Previous abdominal surgery, obesity, and pregnancy. Surg Clin North Am. 2000;80:1093–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Moreno-Sanz C, Pascual-Pedreno A, Picazo-Yeste JS, et al. Laparoscopic appendectomy during pregnancy: between personal experiences and scientific evidence. J Am Coll Surg. 2007;205:37–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Peled Y, Hiersch L, Khalpari O, et al. Appendectomy during pregnancy—is pregnancy outcome depending by operation technique? J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014;27:365–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Reedy MB, Kallen B, Kuehl T. Laparoscopy during pregnancy: a study of five fetal outcome parameters with use of the Swedish Health Registry. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;177:673–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Wilasrusmee C, Sukrat B, McEvoy M, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of safety of laparoscopic versus open appendicectomy for suspected appendicitis in pregnancy. Br J Surg. 2012;99:1470–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Sesti F, Pietropolli A, Sesti FF, et al. Gasless laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy: evaluation of its role and usefulness. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013;170:8–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Chung JC, Cho GS, Shin E, et al. Clinical outcomes compared between laparoscopic and open appendectomy in pregnant women. Can J Surg. 2013;56:341–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Barnes SL, Shane MD, Schoemann M, et al. Laparoscopic appendectomy after 30 weeks pregnancy: report of two cases and description of technique. Am Surg. 2004;70:733–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Fylstra DL, Toussaint WN, Anis M. Intussusception of the appendix mimicking appendicitis during pregnancy: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2009;54:327–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Pigne A, Faguer C, Giorgi H, et al. Appendiceal endometriosis disclosed by pregnancy. Med Chir Dig. 1980;9:721–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Perez CM, Minimo C, Margolin G, et al. Appendiceal endometriosis presenting as acute appendicitis during pregnancy. Int J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;98:164–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Rollins MD, Chan KJ, Price R. Laparoscopy for appendicitis and cholelithiasis during pregnancy: a new standard of care. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:237–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Lemieux P, Rheaume P, Levesque I, et al. Laparoscopic appendectomy in pregnant patients: a review of 45 cases. Surg Endosc. 2009;23:1701–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Bryan WJ. Surgical emergencies in pregnancy and in the puerperium. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1955;70:1204–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Saunders P, Milton P. Laparotomy during pregnancy: an assessment of diagnostic accuracy and fetal wastage. BMJ. 1973;3:165–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Shnider SM, Webster G. Maternal and fetal hazards of surgery during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1965;92:891–900.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Di Saverio S, Tugnoli G, Sofia S, et al. Re: Appendectomy in pregnancy: evaluation of the risks of a negative appendectomy. Am J Surg. 2012;204:560–1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    El-Amin Ali M, Yahia Al-Shehri M, Zaki Z, et al. Acute abdomen in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1998;62:31–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Wheeler R, Malone P. Use of the appendix in reconstructive surgery. A case against incidental appendectomy. Br J Surg. 1991;78:1283–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    van den Broek WT, Bijnen AB, de Ruiter PG, DJ. A normal appendix found during diagnostic laparoscopy should not be removed. Br J Surg. 2001;88:251–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Hussain A, Mahmood H, Singhal T, et al. What is positive appendicitis? A new answer to an old question. Clinical, macroscopical and microscopical findings in 200 consecutive appendectomies. Singapore Med J. 2009;50:1145–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Wang Y, Reen DJ, Puri P. Is a histologically normal appendix following emergency appendicectomy always normal. Lancet. 1996;347:1076–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Phillips AW, Jones AE, Sargen K. Should the macroscopically normal appendix be removed during laparoscopy for acute right iliac fossa pain when no other explanatory pathology is found? Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2009;19:392–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Halvorsen AC, Brandt B, Andreasen J. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy: complications and subsequent management. Eur J Surg. 1992;158:603–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Cullen JJ, Kelly KA, Moir C, et al. Surgical management of Meckel’s diverticulum. An epidemiologic, population-based study. Ann Surg. 1994;220:564–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Nguyen H, Le K, Le C, et al. Concurrent ruptured ectopic pregnancy and appendicitis. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2005;18:63–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Riggs JC, Schiavello HJ, Fixler R. Concurrent appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy. A case report. J Reprod Med. 2002;47:510–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Ankouz A, Ousadden A, Majdoub K, et al. Simultaneous acute appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2009;2:46–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Hazebroek EJ, Boonstra O, van der Harst E. Concurrent tubal ectopic pregnancy and acute appendicitis. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2008;15:97–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Pelosi MA, Apuzzio J, Iffy L. Ectopic pregnancy as an etiologic agent in appendicitis. Obstet Gynecol. 1979;53:4S–6S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Radwan M, Maciolek-Blewniewska G, Malinowski A. Spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy and acute appendicitis treated by laparoscopy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007;96:129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Akman MA, Katz E, Damewood M, et al. Perforated appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:3325–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Barnett A, Chipchase J, Hewitt J. Simultaneous rupturing heterotopic pregnancy and acute appendicitis in an in-vitro fertilization twin pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 1999;14:850–1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Allen VM, Wilson RD, Cheung A. Pregnancy outcomes after assisted reproductive technology. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2006;28:220–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Jackson RA, Gibson KA, Wu YW, et al. Perinatal outcomes in singletons following in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103:551–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Romundstad LB, Romundstad PR, Sunde AE, et al. Effects of technology or maternal factors on perinatal outcome after assisted fertilisation: a population-based cohort study. Lancet. 2008;372:737–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Nelson SM, Lawlor D. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1000386.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Karande VC, Flood JT, Heard N, et al. Analysis of ectopic pregnancies resulting from in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Hum Reprod. 1991;6:446–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Rizsk B, Tan SL, Morcos S. Heterotopic pregnancy after IVF and ET. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;164:161–4.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Rabbani I, Polson D. Heterotopic pregnancy is not rare: a case report and literature review. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;25:204–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Dimitry ES, Subak-Sharpe R. Nine cases of heterotopic pregnancy in 4 years of in-vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 1990;53:107–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Daponte A, Spyridakis M, Ioannou M, et al. Live birth after laparotomy for concurrent heterotopic pregnancy and appendicitis in a 6 weeks IVF pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;275:397–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Roest J, Mous HV, Zeilmaker GH, et al. The incidence of major clinical complications in a Dutch transport IVF programme. Hum Reprod Update. 1996;2:345–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Van Hoorde GJ, Verhoeff A, Zeilmaker G. Perforated appendicitis following transvaginal oocyte retrieval for in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Hum Reprod. 1992;7:850–1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    David P, Rosso E, Pessaux P, et al. Acute appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy? Which came first? J Visc Surg. 2011;4:e323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Fujimoto A, Osuga Y, Yano T, et al. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome complicated by peritonitis due to perforated appendicitis. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:966–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Abramov Y, Elchalal U, Schenker J. Febrile morbidity in severe and critical ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a multicentre study. Hum Reprod. 1998;13:3128–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Fabregues F, Balasch J, Manau D, et al. Haematocrit, leukocyte and platelet counts and the severity of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Hum Reprod. 1998;13:2406–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Laroche M, Harding G. Primary and secondary peritonitis: an update. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1998;17:542–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Al-Mulhim A. Appendectomy during pregnancy in sickle cell disease patients. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:114–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Al-Nazer MA, Al-Saeed HH, Al-Salem A. Acute appendicitis in patients with sickle cell disease. Saudi Med J. 2003;24:974–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Antal P, Gauderer M, Koshy M, et al. Is the incidence of appendicitis reduced in patients with sickle cell disease? Pediatrics. 1998;101:E7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Brant H. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1967;29:130–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Farquharson R. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy. Scott Med J. 1980;25:36–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Al-Mulhim K. Pregnancy in sickle cell disease in the Al Hassa region of Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2000;20:471–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Howard RJ, Tuck SM, Pearson T. Pregnancy in sickle cell disease in the UK: result of a multicentre survey of the effect of prophylactic blood transfusion on maternal and fetal outcome. BJOG. 1995;102:947–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Leborgne-Samuel Y, Janky E, Venditelli F, et al. Sickle cell anemia and pregnancy: review of 68 cases in Guadeloupe. Gynecol Obstet Boil Rep. 2000;29:86–93.Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    von Rokitansky C. Ueber Uterusdrusen-Neubildung in Uterus- und Ovarial-Sarcomen. Ztschr kk Gesselsh Aerzte Wien. 1860;16:577.Google Scholar
  293. 293.
    Hirscberg A. Deciduale zellbildungen am Wurmfortsatz bei Tubenschwangerschaft. Arch Gynäkol. 1905;74:620–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Sampson J. Perforating hemorrhagic (chocolate) cysts of ovary: their importance and especially their relation to pelvic adenomas of endometrial type (adenomyoma, of the uterus, rectovaginal septum, sigmoid, etc.). Arch Surg. 1921;3:245–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Bogatko F. Endometriosis of the appendix in conjunction with pregnancy. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 1949;4:230–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Blair NP, Bugis SP, Turner LJ, et al. Review of the pathologic diagnoses of 2,216 appendectomy specimens. Am J Surg. 1993;165:618–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Honore G. Extrapelvic endometriosis. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1999;42:699–711.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Ortiz-Hidalgo C, Cortés-Aguilar D, Ortiz de la Pena J, Endometriosis of the vermiform appendix (EVA) is an uncommon lesion with a frequency <1 % of all cases of pelvic endometriosis. Recent case. World J Surg. 1999;23:427.Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Gustofson RL, Kim N, Liu S, et al. Endometriosis and the appendix: a case series and comprehensive review of the literature. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:298–303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Giorgakis E, Karydakis V, Farghaly A. Perforated endometrial appendicitis in pregnancy. Hippokratia. 2012;16:181–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Ghazanfar A, Nasir SM, Choudary ZA, et al. Acute appendicitis complicating pregnancy; experience with the management of 50 patients. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2002;14:19–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Kondoh E, Shimizu M, Kakui K, et al. Deciduosis can cause remarkable leukocytosis and obscure abdominal pain. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012;38:1376–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Lane R. Endometriosis of the vermiform appendix. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1960;79:372–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Tedeschi LG, Masand G. Endometriosis of the intestines: a report of seven cases. Dis Colon Rectum. 1971;14:360–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Finch DR, Lee E. Acute appendicitis complicating pregnancy in the Oxford region. Br J Surg. 1974;61:129–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Cutait R, Borges JL, Camara-Lopes L, et al. Endometriosis of the vermiform appendix inducing acute appendicitis in a pregnant woman. Rev Paul Med. 1980;96:77–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Gini PC, Chukudebelu WO, Onuigbo WIB. Perforation of the appendix during pregnancy; a rare complication of endometriosis: case report. BJOG. 1981;88:456–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Nielsen M, Lykke J, Thomsen J. Endometriosis of the vermiform appendix. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand A. 1983;91:253–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Nakatani Y, Hara M, Misugi K, et al. Appendiceal endometriosis in pregnancy. Report of a case with perforation and review of the literature. Acta Pathol Jpn. 1987;37:1685–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Silvestrini IE, Marcial MA. Endometriosis of the appendix with decidual polyp formation: a rare cause of acute appendicitis during pregnancy. P R Health Sci J. 1995;14:223–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Stefanidis K, Kontostolis S, Pappa L, et al. Endometriosis of the appendix with symptoms of acute appendicitis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93:850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Dimitriadis PA, Makar RR, Kingston G, et al. Appendiceal endometriosis and carcinoid presented as acute appendicitis in pregnancy: a rare case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2013;2013:360459.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Lofwander M, Haugen G, Hammarstrom C, et al. [A pregnant woman with abdominal pain and fever]. Tidsskr den Nor Laegeforening. 2007;127:2528–9.Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    Faucheron JL, Pasquier D, Voirin D. Endometriosis of the vermiform appendix as an exceptional cause of acute perforated appendicitis during pregnancy. Color Dis. 2008;10:518–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Packeisen J, Knieriem H. Akute Appendizitis bei schwangerschaftsassoziierter ektoper Dezidua Fallbericht und Überlegungen zur Pathogenese. Pathologe. 1999;20:355–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Dogan E, Okyay E, Saatli B, et al. Tuba ovarian abscesses formation from decidualized ovarian endometrioma after appendiceal endometriosis presenting as acute appendicitis in pregnancy. Iran J Reprod Med. 2012;10:275–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Lebastchi AH, Prieto PA, Chen C, et al. Appendiceal endometriosis in a pregnant woman presenting with acute perforated appendicitis. J Surg Case Reports. 2013;2013:rjt104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Collom ML, Bajwa KS, Mehta S, et al. Endometriosis of the appendix masquerading as appendicitis in a 34-week pregnant woman: case report and review of the literature. Austin J Surg. 2014;1:1040.Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Balta A, Lubgane M, Orube I, et al. Deciduosis of the appendix manifesting as acute abdomen in pregnancy. Acta Chir Latv. 2014;14:43–5.Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Murphy SJ, Kaur A, Wullschleger M. Endometrial decidualization: a rare cause of acute appendicitis during pregnancy. J Surg Case Rep. 2016;2016:rjw053.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Garcia H, Fodor M, Giovannoni A, et al. [Deciduosis of the appendix as cause of acute abdomen in pregnancy]. Med (Buenos Aires). 2001;61:185–6.Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    O’Donnell ME, Carson J, Garstin W. Surgical treatment of malignant carcinoid tumours of the appendix. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61:431–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Guraya SY, Khairy GA, Ghallab A, et al. Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Our experience in a university hospital. Saudi Med J. 2005;26:434–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Goede AC, Caplin ME, Winslet M. Carcinoid tumour of the appendix. Br J Surg. 2003;90:1317–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Gilboa Y, Fridman E, Ofir K, et al. Carcinoid tumor of the appendix: ultrasound findings in early pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008;31:576–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Pitiakoudis M, Kirmanidis M, Tsaroucha A, et al. Carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy. A rare case and a review of the literature. J BUON. 2008;13:271–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Louzi A, Nargis Y, Belaabidia B, et al. Appendicular mucocele caused by carcinoid tumor during pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2006;34:1051–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Poiana C, Carsote M, Trifanescu R, et al. Case study of appendiceal carcinoid during pregnancy. J Med Life. 2012;5:325–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Berriors JR, Dunnihoo DR, Gibbs CE, et al. Appendiceal carcinoid tumors in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1965;26:428–31.Google Scholar
  330. 330.
    Scott RC, McElin T. Argentaffinoma of the appendix in pregnancy: report of a case. IMJ Ill Med J. 1968;133:181–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Boudreaux JP, Klimstra DS, Hassan M. The NANETS (North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society) consensus guideline for the diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors: well-differentiated neuruendocrine tumors of the Jejunum, Ileum, Appendix, and Caecum. Pancreas. 2010;39:753–66.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Meiling R. Appendicitis complicating pregnancy, labor and the puerperium. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1947;85:512–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Diettrich NA, Kaplan G. Surgical considerations in the contemporary management of biliary tract disease in the postpartum period. Am J Surg. 1998;176:251–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Vasireddy A, Atkinson S, Shennan A, et al. Surgical management of appendicitis remains best option during pregnancy. BMJ. 2012;344:e3575.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Basaran A, Basaran M. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis during pregnancy—a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2009;64:481–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Kuvacic I, Skrablin S, Zupancic B, et al. Appendicitis in the early puerperium: case report. Gynaecol Perinatol. 2003;12:130–2.Google Scholar
  337. 337.
    Irvine SW, Devereaux RS, Wang H. Postpartum appendicitis manifesting as umbilical purulence. Am J Emerg Med. 2010;28:262.e1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Gerstle R. Postpartum appendicitis presenting as RUQ pain. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Babler E. Perforative appendicitis complicating pregnancy. JAMA. 1908;51:1310–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Murray A, Holdcroft A. Incidence and intensity of postpartum lower abdominal pain. BMJ. 1989;17:298.Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    Tan E. Postpartum abdominal pain—have you excluded a perforated ulcer? J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;24:582–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Mahmoodian S. Appendicitis complicating pregnancy. South Med J. 1992;85:19–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Abrahams R. Appendicitis complicating pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynaecol. 1897;35:205–25.Google Scholar
  344. 344.
    Abrahams R. Abrahams R. Med Rec. 1895.Google Scholar
  345. 345.
    Fowler G. Observations upon appendicitis. Ann Surg. 1894;19:146–71.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Füth H. Ueber die hohe Mortalität der Appendizitis in graviditate and ihre Ursachen. 1913;39.Google Scholar
  347. 347.
    Parker R. Acute appendicitis in late pregnancy. Lancet. 1954;266:1252–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Corneille MG, Gallup TM, Bening T, et al. The use of laparoscopic surgery in pregnancy: evaluation of safety and efficacy. Am J Surg. 2010;200:363–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Reynolds J, Booth J, Fuente S, et al. A review of laparoscopy for non-obstetric-related surgery during pregnancy. Curr Surg. 2003;60:164–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Holthausen U, Mettler L, Troidl H. Pregnancy: a contraindication? World J Surg. 1999;23:856–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Fatum M, Rojansky N. Laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2001;56:50–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Rizzo A. Laparoscopic surgery in pregnancy: longterm follow-up. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2003;13:11–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Affleck DG, Handrahan DL, Egger MJ, et al. The laparoscopic management of appendicitis and cholelithiasis during pregnancy. Am J Surg. 1999;178:523–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Squires R. Surgical considerations in pregnancy. Audiol Dig Genet Surg. 1998;45:6.Google Scholar
  355. 355.
    Miracle X, Di Renzo GC, Stark A, et al. Guideline for the use of antenatal corticosteroids for fetal maturation. J Perinat Med. 2008;36:191–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Easton A. Acute appendicitis during pregnancy. Postgrad Med J. 1957;33:272–7, 286.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Ananth CV, Liu S, Joseph KS, et al. A comparison of foetal and infant mortality in the United States and Canada. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38:480–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Joseph KS, Huang L, Liu S, et al. Reconciling the high rates of preterm and postterm birth in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109:813–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Beck S, Wojdyla D, Say L, et al. The worldwide incidence of preterm birth: a systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88:31–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    MacDorman MF, Mathews T. BirthStats: percentage of preterm births, United States and selected European countries, 2004. Birth. 2010;37:168.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Mathews TJ, MacDorman M. Infant mortality statistics from the 2005 period linked birth/infant death data set. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2008;57:1–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Hunt MG, Martin JN Jr, Martin R, et al. Perinatal aspects of abdominal surgery for nonobstetric disease. Am J Perinatol. 1989;6:412–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    MacDorman MF, Kirmeyer S. Fetal and prenatal mortality, United States, 2005. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2009;57:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Reedy M, Galan H, Bean-Lijewski J, et al. Maternal and fetal effects of laparoscopic insufflation in the gravid babboon. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 1995;2:399–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Palanivelu C, Rangarajan M, Parthasarathi R. Laparoscopic appendectomy in pregnancy: a case series of seven patients. JSLS. 2006;10:321–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Park SH, Park MI, Choi J, et al. Laparoscopic appendectomy performed during pregnancy by gynecological laparoscopists. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;148:44–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Choi JJ, Mustafa R, Lynn ET, et al. Appendectomy during pregnancy: follow-up of progeny. J Am Coll Surg. 2011;213:627–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Goran Augustin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Medicine University of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity Hospital Centre ZagrebZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations