Does Anyone Really Want Integration? A Discussion on the Desirability of Integration as a Mitigation Goal

  • Catalina Freixas
  • Mark Abbott
Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)


The purpose of the chapter is to evaluate the desirability of integration as the end goal of desegregation. The research of Mallach (Inclusionary Housing Programs: Policies and Practices. Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 1984), Patterson (The Ordeal of Integration: Progress and Resentment in America’s “Racial” Crisis. Civitas Books, New York, 1998), Ogbar (Black Power: Radical Politics and African American Identity (Reconfiguring American Political History). The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2004), Bloom and Martin (Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party. University of California Press, Oakland, CA, 2012), Ivery and Bassett (Reclaiming Integration and the Language of Race in the “Post-Racial Era.” Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD, 2015), Jabobus (Inclusionary Housing: Creating and Maintaining Equitable Communities (Policy Focus Reports). Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, MA, 2015) and Stanley (An Impossible Dream? Racial Integration in the United States, Oxford University Press, New York, 2017) informed this focus group agenda. The topic was also shaped by primary source material that included the writings of Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King, and Malcolm X. The conversation had five main themes. One, while the civil rights legislation of the 1960s has been beneficial to individual African Americans, it has been detrimental to many black communities. Two, the nature of community life is changing for both whites and blacks. Three, the impact of design in bringing about segregation is limited. Four, while there are also constrains on what policy can accomplish, it is the optimal tool in achieving desegregation. Five, true integration is still the desired ultimate goal, yet America lacks the commitment to realize it. In the accompanying essay, “Unity of Research and Social Action: Models for Praxis in St. Louis,” Kenneth Jolly examines the black-nationalist writings in Proud, a St. Louis Black Studies journal published in the 1970s, to showcase the complex relationship between the concept of integration and black self-determination.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 13th (2016) Directed by Ava DuVernay. Kandoo Films, Sherman Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  2. 2000–2010 Census Data by Neighborhood (2000–2010) City of St. Louis.
  3. A Speaking in Tongues (1978) Proud 9(2):24–25Google Scholar
  4. Adler M (2006) Behind the ever-expanding American dream house. National Public Radio. 4 Jul.
  5. Affirmative Action Overview (2014) National conference of state legislators. 7 Feb.
  6. African Continuum (1971) Proud 2(10):16–20Google Scholar
  7. Alcindor Y, Bello M (2014) Police in Ferguson ignite debate about military tactics. USA Today. 19 Aug.
  8. Alexander M (2010) The new Jim Crow: mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. The New Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen MR (2010) Chickens in South City. Preservation Research Office. 22 Jul.
  10. Amadeo K (2017a) What is the American dream today? The Balance. 15 Sept.
  11. Amadeo K (2017b) What is the American dream? the history that made it possible. The Balance. 12 Sept.
  12. American Civil Liberties Union (n.d.) Racial profiling.
  13. American Planning Association. Dr. Homer Hoyt: planning’s unsung hero. American Planning Association: Economic Development Division.
  14. Annie E. Casey Foundation (2006) Race matters: unequal opportunities for civic participation. 1 Jan.
  15. APSA Task Force on Inequality and American Democracy (2004) American democracy in an age of rising inequality. Perspect Polit 2(4):651–689Google Scholar
  16. Atlanta Compromise (n.d.) Encyclopedia Britannica.
  17. Barna Group (2016) Americans’ views of police brutality. Barna. 14 Jul.
  18. Beito DT (1993) From privies to boulevards: the private supply of infrastructure in the United States during the nineteenth century. In: Jenkins J, Sisk D (eds) Development by consent: the voluntary supply of public goods and services. ICS Press, San Francisco, p 33–48Google Scholar
  19. Beito D, Smith B (1990) The formation of urban infrastructure through nongovernmental planning: the private places of St. Louis, 1869–1920. J Urban Hist 16(3):263–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bivens J (2007) Globalization and American wages: today and tomorrow. Econ Policy Inst. 10 Oct.
  21. Black Lives Matter (n.d.) Herstory.
  22. Blockbusting (n.d.)
  23. Bloom J, Martin WE Jr (2012) Black against empire: the history and politics of the Black Panther Party. University of California Press, Oakland, CAGoogle Scholar
  24. Bolden OL (1974) Black studies: where do we go from here? Proud 5(5):16–18Google Scholar
  25. Booker T Washington Delivers the 1895 Atlanta Compromise Speech (n.d.) History matters: the U.S. survey course on the web. George Mason University.
  26. Bryant T (2010) Area near botanical garden set for a face-lift. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 17 Sept.
  27. Burrow CA (1970) Environmental racism. Proud 1(10):6–9Google Scholar
  28. Calhoun JC (2009)
  29. Calloway E (1973) St. Louis black politics today: an inventory and balance sheet. Proud 4(4):4–6Google Scholar
  30. Capers GM (n.d.) John C. Calhoun. Encyclopedia Britannica.
  31. Central West End (2010) City of St. Louis.
  32. Central West End (2011) St. Louis City talk. 24 Oct.
  33. Cha-Jua SK (2000) Black studies in the new millennium: resurrecting ghosts of the past. Souls Crit J Black Polit Cult Soc Summ: 43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chapman J (2015) Gentrification without losing the neighborhood: communities struggle to maintain identities as prosperity grows. Sustainable City Network. 26 Aug.
  35. Chermayeff S, Alexander C (1963) Community and privacy: toward a new architecture of humanism. Anchor Books Publishing Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Clay WL, Kirkland JA (1972) Black political power: the alpha of liberation or omega of America. Proud 3(4):6–9, 36Google Scholar
  37. Congress for the New Urbanism (n.d.) What is new urbanism?
  38. Cooper KJ (1979) Black leadership: a conceptual definition. Proud 10(1):22–26Google Scholar
  39. Cooper-McCann P (2015) The trap of triage: lessons from the ‘Team Four plan’. J Plann Hist 15(2):149–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cortright J (2017) Here’s what’s wrong with that ‘peak millennials’ story. CityLab. 24 Jan.
  41. Crouch E (2013) Charter school’s success boosts city neighborhoods. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 17 Feb.
  42. Crouch E (2016) St. Louis school officials will seek property tax increase. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 26 Jan.
  43. Crunchy-granola (n.d.)
  44. Daniel PM (n.d.) Encyclopedia Britannica.
  45. Davey M, Bosman J (2014) Protests flare after Ferguson police officer is not indicted. The New York Times. 2 Nov.
  46. Day E (2015) #BlackLivesMatter: the birth of a new civil rights movement. The Guardian. 19 Jul.
  47. Delany MR (1812–1885) (n.d.)
  48. Domonoske C (2014) Segregated from its history, how ‘ghetto’ lost its meaning. National Public Radio. 27 Apr.
  49. Doyle A, Adams M (2017) Standing up for civil rights in St. Louis. Missouri History Museum Press, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  50. Du Bois WEB (1903) The souls of Black folk. A.C. McCurg and Co., ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  51. Duncan, Garrett Albert (n.d.) Black Panther Party. Encyclopedia Britannica.
  52. Easterly W (2009) Empirics of strategic interdependence: the case of the racial tipping point. The National Bureau of Economic Research.
  53. Emrath P (2014) Typical American subdivisions. National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). 2 Sept.
  54. Emrath P, Ford C (2016) Typical American subdivisions. National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). 3 Oct. #fergusonsyllabus.
  55. Emerson Park Development Corporation (n.d.) About EPDC.
  56. Fishel LH Jr, Quarles B (1976) George Fitzhugh advocates slavery. In: The black American: a documentary history, 3nd edn. Scott, Foresman and Company, Illinois, Glenview, ILGoogle Scholar
  57. Frederick D (2016) Encyclopedia Britannica.
  58. Freivogel WH (2015) Supreme court housing discrimination decision had its roots in Black Jack. St. Louis Public Radio. 25 Jun.
  59. Garvey AJ, Clarke JH (2014) Garvey and Garveyism. Black Classic Press, Baltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
  60. Gilmore RW (2007) Golden gulag: prisons, surplus, crisis, and opposition in globalizing California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  61. Globalization Has Lowered Wages for American Workers, New EPI Study Finds (2013) Economic Policy Institute. 22 Mar.
  62. Goodman P (1960) Growing up absurd: problems of youth in the organized society. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. Gordon C (2008) Mapping decline: St. Louis and the American city. Hosted by The University of Iowa Libraries.
  64. Groth M (2011) Groth guide to Shaw. NextSTL. 14 Feb.
  65. Haggis P (2015) Show me a hero. Home Box Office (HBO), New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Hamilton KM (2017) Booker T Washington in American memory. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, ILGoogle Scholar
  67. Harlan C (2014) In St. Louis, Delmar Boulevard is the line that divides a city by race and perspective. The Washington Post. 22 Aug.
  68. Harris T (1997) The power of the porch: the storyteller’s craft in Zora Neale Hurston, Gloria Naylor, and Randall Kenan. Mercer University Lamar memorial lectures series. University of Georgia Press, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  69. Hasan N (2001) No place like home: public housing is going upscale, and it’s the new ‘mixed-income’ mantra that’s doing the trick. Riverfront Times. 18 Jul.
  70. Healy J (2014) Ferguson, still tense, grows calmer. The New York Times. 26 Nov.
  71. Heath B (2014) Racial gap in U.S. arrest rates: ‘staggering disparity’. USA Today. 18 Nov.
  72. Hill WB (1974) Education: what direction? Proud 5(3):5–8Google Scholar
  73. Hill ML (2016) Nobody: casualties of America’s war on the vulnerable, from Ferguson to Flint and beyond. Atria Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. Holland JJ, Swanson E (2016) Nearly a quarter of young black people say they’ve been harassed by police, poll finds. PBS NewsHour.
  75. Islam in America (n.d.) Public broadcasting service.
  76. Ivery C, Bassett J (eds) (2015) Reclaiming integration and the language of race in the “post-racial era”. Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MDGoogle Scholar
  77. Jabobus R (2015) Inclusionary housing: creating and maintaining equitable communities (policy focus reports). Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  78. Jacobs J (1961) The death and life of great American cites. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Johnson Defense to Speak Here (1974) UMSL Current. 24 Oct. 1974: p 5Google Scholar
  80. Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University (2017) Improving America’s housing 2017: demographic change and remodeling outlook. Harvard Graduate School of Design and Harvard Kennedy School.
  81. Jones A (2015) Obama administration announces new fair housing rule. CNN Polit. 8 Jul.
  82. Joseph P (2006) Waiting ‘til the midnight hour. Henry Holt and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  83. Juskus K (2010) Front porch revival: the past, present, and possibility of a neighborhood mainstay. Flourish Magazine. 10 Feb.
  84. Kershaw T (2003) The black studies paradigm: the making of scholar activists. In: Conyers J Jr (ed) Afrocentricity and the academy: essays on theory and practice. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson, NCGoogle Scholar
  85. Kershner K (n.d.) Why do cookie-cutter neighborhoods exist? HowStuffWorks.
  86. Kindleberger C (2011) A brief guide to our history. 2 Dec.
  87. King J, Luther M (1963) Strength to love. Walker and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  88. Kirkwood School District Rankings (2018) Niche.
  89. Knight GL (2014) Pop culture places: an encyclopedia of places in American popular culture. Greenwood, Santa Barbara, CAGoogle Scholar
  90. Leachman M (2017) Kansas’ K–12 funding just one casualty of unaffordable tax cuts. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. 2 Mar.
  91. LeFlouria T (2015) Chained in silence: black women and convict labor in the New South. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lloyd T (2016) Analysis: vast differences in how much St. Louis-area school districts are spending per student. St. Louis Public Radio. 19 Apr.
  93. Looker B (2004) Point from which creation begins: ‘the black artists’ group of St. Louis. The Missouri Historical Society Press, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  94. Lynch AJ (1973) New directions in community health: skyrocketing medical service costs—ARCH is trying to do something about it. Proud 4(2):4–8Google Scholar
  95. Malcolm X, Haley A (1987) The autobiography of Malcolm X: as told to Alex Haley, reissue edn. The Ballantine Publishing Group, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  96. Malcolm X, The Nation of Islam (n.d.) U.S. history: a new civil rights movement.
  97. Mallach A (1984) Inclusionary housing programs: policies and practices. Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJGoogle Scholar
  98. Mamiya LA (n.d.) Malcolm X. Encyclopedia Britannica.
  99. Marcus G (2016) Encyclopedia Britannica.
  100. Marcus Garvey’s Back-to-Africa movement (n.d.) In motion: the African-American migration experience.;jsessionid=f8301360481465986250901?migration=4&topic=8&bhcp=1
  101. Marshall A (1999) Building new urbanism: less filling, but not so tasty. Build Mag. 30 Nov.
  102. Matthews C (2015) Young people can afford homes, they just don’t want to be homeowners. Fortune. 18 Aug.
  103. McCormack Baron Salazar, Inc. (2002) McCormack Baron Salazar announces opening of Parsons Place. 1 Jun.
  104. McCormick Baron Salazar, Inc. (n.d.) Innovators in community development and urban revitalization.
  105. McFeely WS (1995) Frederick Douglass. W.W. Norton & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  106. McMillan E (1974) Introduction. Proud 5(1)Google Scholar
  107. Missouri Department of Elementary & Secondary Education (n.d.) Charter Schools.
  108. Missouri Housing Development Commission (n.d.) Rental production: Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Program.
  109. Millennials Buying in the Suburbs (2017) Zillow. 1 Mar.
  110. Moffitt K (2017) Are TIF, tax abatement being used in St. Louis in the best way? a tale of two differing philosophies. St. Louis Public Radio. 21 Feb.
  111. Moore D (2014) Public housing high-rises to become part of the past in St. Louis. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 22 Mar.
  112. Morin R, Stepler R (2016) The racial confidence gap in police performance. Pew Social Trends. 29 Sept.
  113. Muhammad KG (2011) The condemnation of blackness: race, crime, and the making of modern urban America. Harvard University Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  114. Myers PC, King ML Jr, The American Dream (2014) The heritage foundation. 28 Mar.
  115. Naffziger C (2017) Why is St. Louis trying to blight Westminster Place? St. Louis Magazine. 1 Feb.
  116. National Institute of Justice (2013) Racial profiling. 10 Jan.
  117. New City School (n.d.) Diversity.
  118. Newton HP (n.d.) Encyclopedia Britannica.
  119. Niccol A Weir P (1998) The Truman Show. Paramount Pictures, Hollywood, CAGoogle Scholar
  120. North House (1970) Proud 1(7):10–12Google Scholar
  121. Nursing Home Case Study in Missouri (n.d.) Construction Market Data.
  122. Odlum L (n.d.) The black power movement. Digital Public Library of America.
  123. Ogbar JOG (2004) Black power: radical politics and African American identity (reconfiguring American political history). The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
  124. O’Neal L (2016) Losing the sacred space of the front porch. The Undefeated. 23 Aug.
  125. Padiak N (2017) Is owning a home still essential to the American dream? The Chicago Tribune. 7 Jun.
  126. Palko C (2010) America’s 100 most conservative-friendly counties. The Daily Caller. 19 Mar.
  127. Patterson O (1998) The ordeal of integration: progress and resentment in America’s “racial” crisis. Civitas Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  128. Personality Profile: Bill Barnes (1971) Proud 2(10):20–21Google Scholar
  129. Pettibone TS (2016) Hatred day, 1st edn. Chrysanthalix Press, Gilroy, CAGoogle Scholar
  130. Pettibone TS (n.d.) About us.
  131. Pettibone TS (n.d.) Virtue of the West.–X3HoowE25M
  132. Pew Research Center (2008) Americans say they like diverse communities; election, census trends suggest otherwise. Pew Social Trends. 2 Dec.
  133. Pew Research Center (2011) Wealth gaps rise to record highs between whites, blacks and hispanics. Pew Social Trends. 26 Jul.
  134. Popkin SJ et al (2000) The Gautreaux legacy: what might mixed-income and dispersal strategies mean for the poorest public housing tenants? Hous Policy Debate 11(4):911–942. Scholar
  135. Redlining (n.d.)
  136. Reisman D, Glazer N, Denney R (1963) The lonely crowd: a study of the changing American character. Yale University Press, Hartford, CTGoogle Scholar
  137. Restrictive Covenant (n.d.) The Free Dictionary.
  138. Ritterman J (2014) The beloved community: Martin Luther King Jr.’s prescription for a healthy society. The Huffington Post. 19 Jan.
  139. Rothwell J (2014) How the war on drugs damages black social mobility. Brookings. 30 Sept.
  140. Schwartz M (2011) Pre-occupied: the origins and future of occupy Wall Street. 28 Nov. The New Yorker.
  141. Seale, Bobby (1936–) (n.d.)
  142. Semuels A (2015a) Can better data help solve America’s housing problems? The Atlantic. 8 Jul.
  143. Semuels A (2015b) Is ending segregation the key to ending poverty? The Atlantic. 3 Feb.
  144. Semuels A (2015c) The supreme court vs. neighborhood segregation. The Atlantic. 25 Jun.
  145. Shaw Census Results (2010) City of St. Louis.
  146. Shaw Neighborhood Housing Corporation (n.d.) History of the Shaw neighborhood.
  147. Shaw St. Louis (n.d.) All about Shaw.
  148. Sherman School (n.d.) St. Louis public schools: building revitalize collaborative.
  149. Shiller RJ (2017) What is the ‘American dream’? the history that made it possible. The New York Times. 4 Aug.
  150. Smethurst J (2005) The black arts movement: literary nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NCGoogle Scholar
  151. Smith KR, Weitz T (2015) Wild place: a history of Priest Lake, Idaho. Washington State University Press, Pullman, WAGoogle Scholar
  152. Soerget A (2017) Study: globalization has boosted income inequality. U.S. News. 8 May.
  153. Stanley S (2017) An impossible dream? racial integration in the United States, 1st edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  154. Surtrson J (n.d.) About a primer text.
  155. Taylor K-Y (2016) From #BlackLivesMatter to black liberation. Haymarket Books, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  156. Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs v. Inclusive Communities Projects, Inc. 576 U.S. (2015)Google Scholar
  157. The Chicago Defender (n.d.) The public broadcasting service. Blackpress.
  158. The Editorial Board (2015) The architecture of segregation. NY Times Sunday Rev. 15 Sept.
  159. The Great Migration (1915–1960) (n.d.)–1960
  160. The Missouri Housing Development Commission (n.d.) About MHDC: history and mission.
  161. The Ville (2010) City of St. Louis.
  162. Theising AJ (2013) Made in USA: East St. Louis. Virginia Publishing, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  163. Thomas WL Jr (1970) Don’t get sick in America if you are poor and black. Proud 1(4):20–23Google Scholar
  164. United States v. City of Black Jack, Missouri. 508 F.2d 1179 (1974) Leagle, Inc.,%20MISSOURI
  165. Urban Land Institute (2015) America in 2015: a ULI survey of views on housing, transportation, and community.
  166. Urban Strategies (2014) Our mission, history, and values.
  167. U.S. Census Bureau (2015) Demographic and Housing Estimates: Newtown Town, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  168. U.S. Census Bureau (2015) East St. Louis City, Illinois. American FactFinder.
  169. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015a) Des Peres City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  170. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015b) Florissant City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  171. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015c) Hazelwood City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  172. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015d) Kirkwood City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  173. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015e) Webster Groves City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  174. U.S. Census Bureau (2016a) Characteristics of new housing survey.
  175. U.S. Census Bureau (2016b) St. Louis City, Missouri. QuickFacts.
  176. U.S. Census Bureau (2016c) St. Louis County, Missouri. QuickFacts.
  177. U.S. Census Bureau (2016d) St. Charles County, Missouri. QuickFacts.,US/RHI225216
  178. U.S. Census Bureau (2017) Quarterly residential vacancies and homeownership, third quarter.
  179. U.S. Department of Commerce (2015) 2015 characteristics of new housing. U.S. Census Bureau.
  180. U.S. Department of Education (2004) Creating successful magnet school programs.
  181. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (2013) Inclusionary zoning and mixed-income communities. Evidence Matters: Transforming Knowledge into Housing and Community Development Policy (Spring).
  182. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (2015) The Federal housing administration (FHA).
  183. U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division (2015) Investigation of the Ferguson police department. 4 Mar.
  184. U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division (2016) Investigation of the Baltimore City police department. 10 Aug.
  185. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (n.d.) About HOPE VI.
  186. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (n.d.) Choice Neighborhoods.
  187. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (n.d.) Mission.
  188. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (n.d.) Title VIII: Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity.
  189. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (n.d.) Our mission and what we do.
  190. Vega T (2016) Blacks still far behind whites in wealth and income. CNN Money. 27 Jun.
  191. Wartts A (n.d.) The Ville (St. Louis, MO).
  192. Waxman L, Flynn J (1974) Committee to defend J.B. Johnson. Proud 5(1):28–31Google Scholar
  193. W.E.B. DuBois Critiques Booker T. Washington (n.d.) History matters: the U.S. survey course on the web. George Mason University.
  194. Weich S (2014) New resident of new town upset over insurance requirement. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 31 Mar.
  195. What is Class A, Class B, or Class C Property? (2013) Realty mogul. 24 Jun.
  196. What You Need to Know about the Alt-Right Movement (2015) Morning edition. 26 Aug. National Public Broadcasting.
  197. When Did The Real Estate Bubble Burst? (2016) 14 Jun.
  198. Whyte W (1956) The organization man. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  199. Williams R, Kirkland J, Bailey R (1971) Black studies: a black revolution. Proud 2(3):8–11Google Scholar
  200. Wilson WJ (2012) The truly disadvantaged: the inner city, the underclass, and public policy, 2nd edn. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  201. Wilson CR, Ferris W (eds) (1989) George Fitzhugh. Encyclopedia of Southern culture. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.
  202. Wormser R (n.d.) Jim Crow stories: Booker T. Washington. Public Broadcasting System.
  203. Wormser R (n.d.) Jim Crow stories: W.E.B. Du Bois. Public Broadcasting System.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catalina Freixas
    • 1
  • Mark Abbott
    • 2
  1. 1.ArchitectureWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Social and Behavioral SciencesHarris-Stowe State UniversitySt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations