Advertisement

How Should We Think About Race? A Conversation on Equity, Inclusion and Integration

  • Catalina Freixas
  • Mark Abbott
Chapter
Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)

Abstract

The purpose of the chapter is to better understand the differences between black and white Americans in the ways they think about race and what they see as the primary objective of desegregation. Recent studies on the concept of race by Hannaford (1996), Ignatiev (2008) and Painter (2011) as well as recent commentary on the state of race relations in the United States provided by Coates (2014, 2015, and 2017) and Kendi (2016) informed the focus group agenda. Two main themes emerged from the conversation. One, African Americans view societal dynamics very differently than whites. Whites tend to think of society as an integrated whole, while African Americans tend to see it as being comprised of competing factions. Two, as a result, whites tend to understand racism in terms of attitudes, while African Americans view it through a sociopolitical lens and as an unequal distribution of power and resources. Consequently, blacks and whites conceptualize the goal of desegregation antithetically. For whites, integration is the goal, whereas blacks are more interested in equity or the fair distribution of power and resources. In the accompanying essay, “American Urban Housing and Racial Integration Before 1968,” Eric Mumford examines attempts by architects and planners to develop racially integrated communities before the 1968 Fair Housing Act.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (2017) Primary documents in American history. Library of Congress. 28 Dec. https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/13thamendment.html
  2. 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (2015) Primary documents in American history. Library of Congress. 25 Nov. https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/14thamendment.html
  3. 56e. Lyndon Johnson’s “Great Society” (n.d.) U.S. history. http://www.ushistory.org/us/56e.asp
  4. Abbott M (2009) The seeds of regionalism: Harland Bartholomew and the origins of St. Louis regionalism. The Confluence. https://www.lindenwood.edu/confluence/docs/2009Fall/TheSeedsOfRegionalism.pdf
  5. About Dr. Cornel West. (n.d.) CornelWest.com. http://www.cornelwest.com/bio.html#.WZCnUq2ZM6g
  6. Abrams C (1955) Forbidden neighbors. Harper and Brothers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Abrams C (1947) Race bias in housing. American Civil Liberties Union National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Adichie CN (2009) The danger of a single story. TED Talks. https://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story
  9. Affirmative Action Overview (2017) National Conference of State Legislators. 7 Feb. http://www.ncsl.org/research/education/affirmative-action-overview.aspx
  10. African American Intellectual History Society (n.d.) About. http://www.aaihs.org/about/
  11. Alcindor Y, Bello M (2014) Police in Ferguson ignite debate about military tactics. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/08/14/ferguson-militarized-police/14064675/
  12. American Institute of Architects, St. Louis Chapter (1964) Bicentennial bus tour of Old St. Louis. St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  13. Apartheid (n.d.) Dictionary.com. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/apartheid
  14. Bartholomew H (1947) Comprehensive city plan: Saint Louis, Missouri. St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  15. Bavar R (1994) LaClede town: an analysis of design and government policies in a government-sponsored project. M.Arch thesis, Washington University School of Architecture, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  16. Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation (n.d.) The New York preservation archive project. http://www.nypap.org/preservation-history/bedford-stuyvesant-restoration-corporation/
  17. Berlin I (1998) Many thousands gone: the first two centuries of slavery in North America. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  18. Birdsong N (2015) The consequences of economic inequality. Seven Pillars Institute for Global Finance and Ethics. 5 Feb. http://sevenpillarsinstitute.org/case-studies/consequences-economic-inequality
  19. Black Lives Matter (n.d.) Herstory. https://blacklivesmatter.com/about/herstory/
  20. Black Students United (n.d.) Cornell University. https://orgsync.com/72813/chapter
  21. Blasingame J (1972) The slave community: plantation life in the Antebellum South. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Bloom ND (2008) Public housing that worked: New York in the twentieth century. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bloom CH (2014) You can’t do that! Bloom, Sluggett, Morgan blog. http://www.bsmlawpc.com/_blog/Municipal_Law_Grand_Rapids_Michigan/post/Attorney_Writes/
  24. Bobo L, Zubrinsky CL (1996) Attitudes on residential integration: perceived status differences, mere in-group preference or racial preference. Soc Forces 74(3):883–909Google Scholar
  25. Boyle K (2004) Arc of justice: a saga of race, civil rights, and murder in the jazz age. Henry Holt and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Boyles A (2015) Race, place, and suburban policing: too close for comfort. University of California Press, Oakland, CACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Boyles A (2019) Community disorder and social ties in Post-Ferguson America. University of California Press, Oakland, CAGoogle Scholar
  28. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. 347 U.S. 483 (1954). https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html
  29. Burns R (2017) The infamous practice of contract selling Is back in Chicago. Chicago Reader. 1 Mar. https://www.chicagoreader.com/chicago/contract-selling-redlining-housing-discrimination/Content?oid=25705647
  30. Carson C, Garrow, DJ, Gill G, Harding V, Hine DC (eds) (1991) The eyes on the prize civil rights reader: documents, speeches, and firsthand accounts from the black freedom struggle. Penguin Group, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Cendon SF (2012) Pruitt-Igoe 40 years later. AIArchitect. 3 Feb. http://archive.is/20141231055559/www.aia.org/practicing/AIAB092656
  32. Chandler DL (n.d.) Little known black history fact: Sambo. Black America Web. https://blackamericaweb.com/2017/01/11/little-known-black-history-fact-sambo/
  33. Civil Rights Act (1964) Our documents. https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=97
  34. City Plan Commission (1912) Central traffic-parkway. St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  35. Coates T-N (2014) The case for reparations. The Atlantic. 7 Jul. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/06/the-case-for-reparations/361631/
  36. Coates T-N (2015) Between the world and me. Spiegel & Grau, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Coates T-N (2017b) We were eight years in power. One World Publishing Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Cohen A, Taylor E (2000) American pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley and his battle for Chicago and the nation. Little Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
  39. Cook J (1989) Harland Bartholomew, 100, dean of city planners. The New York Times. 7 Dec. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/12/07/obituaries/harland-bartholomew-100-dean-of-city-planners.html
  40. Craven J (2017) How did architecture become a licensed profession? ThoughtCo. 19 Feb. https://www.thoughtco.com/architecture-become-licensed-profession-177473
  41. Davey M, Bosman J (2014) Protests flare after Ferguson police officer is not indicted. The New York Times. 2 Nov. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/25/us/ferguson-darren-wilson-shooting-michael-brown-grand-jury.html?_r=0
  42. Day E (2015) #BlackLivesMatter: the birth of a new civil rights movement. The Guardian. 19 Jul. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/19/blacklivesmatter-birth-civil-rights-movement
  43. Deere S (2016) 2 years later, Ferguson protests have produced some change. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 16 Aug. http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/years-later-ferguson-protests-have-produced-some-change/article_7cd4d141-e912-5893-83d8-fecee2d6922d.html
  44. Desmond M, Emirbayer M (2016) Race in America. W.W. Norton & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Douglass F (1881) The color line. North Am Rev 132(295)Google Scholar
  46. Duignan B (n.d.) Cornel West. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Cornel-West
  47. Early G (n.d.) Washington University in St. Louis. https://english.artsci.wustl.edu/gerald_early
  48. Eldridge L (1993) Harland Bartholomew: his contributions to American urban planning. Department of Regional Planning, University of Illinois, Urbana, ILGoogle Scholar
  49. Elkins S (1959) Slavery: a problem in American institutional and intellectual life. The University of Chicago, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  50. Estrada S (2015) NYC plans more school segregation. Diversity Inc. 29 Sept. http://www.diversityinc.com/news/nyc-plan-to-reduce-school-overcrowding-will-lead-to-more-segregation/
  51. Evaluating the Success of the Great Society (2014) The Washington Post. 17 May. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/special/national/great-society-at-50/
  52. Executive Order #9066: Resulting in the Relocation of Japanese (1942) National Archives. 19 Feb. https://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/?dod-date=219
  53. Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Years 1954–1965 (1987–1990) Directed by Henry Hampton. Blackside, BostonGoogle Scholar
  54. Faubourg Lafitte (n.d.) L + M Development Partners Inc. http://lmdevpartners.com/projects/faubourg-lafitte/
  55. Ferguson-Florissant School R-II School District (2018) Niche. https://www.niche.com/k12/d/ferguson-florissant-r-ii-school-district-mo/
  56. Flint Water Crisis Fast Facts (2017) CNN. 14 Jun. http://www.cnn.com/2016/03/04/us/flint-water-crisis-fast-facts/index.html
  57. Foner E (1988) Reconstruction: America’s unfinished revolution, 1863–1877. Harper Perennial and Modern Classics, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Foner E (2016) Reconstruction. Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/event/Reconstruction-United-States-history
  59. Fridovich-Keil JL. Human genome. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/human-genome
  60. Gannon M (2016) Race is a social construct, scientists argue. Scientific American. 5 Feb. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/race-is-a-social-construct-scientists-argue/
  61. Genovese E (1974) Roll, Jordon, roll: the world the slaves made. Pantheon Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Gill L (2016) Controversial Vinegar Hill School rezoning gets a passing grade. The Brooklyn Paper. 6 Jan. http://www.brooklynpaper.com/stories/39/2/dtg-ps307-ps8-rezoning-approved-2016-01-08-bk.html
  63. Gossett T (1963) Race: the history of an idea in America. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Gregor A (2014) Bedford-Stuyvesant: diverse and changing. The New York Times. 9 Jul. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/13/realestate/bedford-stuyvesant-diverse-and-changing.html
  65. Gordon C (2008) Mapping decline: St. Louis and the fate of the American city. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hannaford I (1996) Race: the history of an idea in the West. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
  67. Harlan C (2014) In St. Louis, Delmar Boulevard is the line that divides a city by race and perspective. The Washington Post. 22 Aug. https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/in-st-louis-delmar-boulevard-is-the-line-that-divides-a-city-by-race-and-perspective/2014/08/22/de692962-a2ba-4f53-8bc3-54f88f848fdb_story.html
  68. Harlem Race Riot of 1964 (2017) Encyclopedia Britannica. 4 Sept. https://www.britannica.com/event/Harlem-race-riot-of-1964
  69. Harrington M (1962) The other America: poverty in the United States. Simon & Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. Harris-Stowe University (1857–) (n.d.) BlackPast.org. http://www.blackpast.org/aah/harris-stowe-university-1857
  71. Hashaw T (2009) The birth of black America: the first African Americans and the pursuit of freedom. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  72. Hayden D (2003) Building suburbia. Vintage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Healy J (2014) Ferguson, still tense, grows calmer. The New York Times. 26 Nov. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/27/us/michael-brown-darren-wilson-ferguson-protests.html
  74. Holocaust Restitution: German Reparations (n.d.) The Jewish virtual library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/german-holocaust-reparations
  75. Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (2003) Dictionary of American history. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Home_Owners_Loan_Corporation.aspx
  76. Houses for Sale in Brooklyn Heights (n.d.) Trulia. https://www.trulia.com/for_sale/5048_nh/SINGLE-FAMILY_HOME,TOWNHOUSE_type/
  77. Hulser K (2003) Reading uncle Tom’s image: from anti-slavery hero to racial insult. NY J Am Hist 65(1):75–79Google Scholar
  78. Ignatiev N (2008) How the Irish became white. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Jim Crow Laws (n.d.) American experience: freedom riders. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/freedomriders/issues/jim-crow-laws
  80. Jolly K (2006) Black liberation in the midwest: the struggle in St. Louis, Missouri, 1964–1970. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  81. Jolly K (2013) By our own strength: William Sherill, the UNIA and the fight for African-American self-determination in Detroit. Peter Lang Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Jury Verdict Overturned in Case of Fired Teacher (1998) Education Reporter (152) (Sept)Google Scholar
  83. Kendi IX (2016) Stamped from the beginning: The definitive history of racist ideas in America. Nation Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Killenberg S (2011) James E. McLeod, 67. The Source. 7 Sept. https://source.wustl.edu/2011/09/james-e-mcleod-67/
  85. King ML (1967) Where do we go from here. Community or chaos? Beacon Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  86. Krysan M et al (2009) Does race matter in neighborhood preferences? Results from a video experiment. Am J Sociol 1115(2):527–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lacks C (1997) The teacher’s nightmare: getting fired for good teaching. Engl J 86(2):29–33. http://www.jstor.org/stable/819670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lang C (2009) Grassroots at the gateway: class politics and black freedom struggle in St. Louis, 1936–75. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  89. Lebron CJ (2017) The making of Black Lives Matter: a brief history of an idea. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  90. Lement C (2016) Social theory: the multicultural, global and classic readings, 6th edn. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  91. Little J, Hamilton E (1997) University City: landmarks and historic places. Historic Preservation Commission, University City, MOGoogle Scholar
  92. LGBT Rights (n.d.) American Civil Liberties Union. https://www.aclu.org/issues/lgbt-rights
  93. Massey DS, Denton NA (1993) American apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  94. Meyerson M, Banfield EC (1955) Politics, planning and the public interest. Free Press, Glencoe, ILGoogle Scholar
  95. Moore C (1974) After a new architecture: the best shape for a chimera. Oppositions 3:1–16Google Scholar
  96. Morgan E (1975) American slavery: American freedom. W.W. Norton & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  97. Morris CZ (2012) Obituary: Elsie Richardson. Bed-Stuy Patch. 27 Mar. https://patch.com/new-york/bed-stuy/obituary-elsie-richardson
  98. Mumford E (2009) Defining urban design: CIAM architects and the formation of a discipline, 1937–69. Yale University Press, New Haven, CTGoogle Scholar
  99. National Council of Architecture Registration Boards (n.d.) History of NCARB. https://www.ncarb.org/about/history-ncarb
  100. Newman O (1972) Defensible space. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  101. Oberlander HP, Newbrun E (1999) Houser: the life and work of Catherine Bauer. University of British Columbia Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  102. O’Connell’s Pub. (2006) Sauce Magazine. http://www.saucemagazine.com/oconnells/
  103. Odlum L (n.d.) The Black Power Movement. Digital Public Library of America. https://dp.la/primary-source-sets/sets/the-black-power-movement/
  104. O’Neil T (2009) A look back: the clearing of Mill Creek Valley changed the face of the city. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 9 Aug. http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/a-look-back-clearing-of-mill-creek-valley-changed-the/article_04738cde-b0f8-5688-a20e-6fd86266d1ac.html
  105. Oprah Winfrey (n.d.) Biography.com. https://www.biography.com/people/oprah-winfrey-9534419
  106. Painter NI (2011) The history of white people. W. W. Norton & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  107. Park RE, Burgess EW (1925) The city: suggestions for investigation of human behavior in the urban environment. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  108. Petrow S (2014) Civilities: what does the acronym ‘LGBTQ’ stand for? The Washington Post. 23 May. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/arts-and-entertainment/wp/2014/05/23/civilities-what-does-the-acronym-lgbtq-stand-for/?utm_term=.4452dee35b45
  109. Pew Research Center (2011) Twenty-to-one: Wealth gaps rise to record highs between whites, blacks and hispanics. Pew Social Trends. 26 Jul. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2011/07/SDT-Wealth-Report_7-26-11_FINAL.pdf
  110. Plessy v. Ferguson. 163 U.S. 537 (1896). https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/163/537
  111. Primm JN (1998) Lion of the valley: St. Louis, Missouri, 1764–1980. Missouri Historical Society Press, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  112. Pritchett WE (2008) Robert Clifton weaver and the American City. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. P.S.307 (n.d.) Our school. http://www.ps307.org/our-school/
  114. P.S.8 Brooklyn (n.d.) Our school & mission statement. https://ps8brooklyn.org/about/mission/
  115. Qureshi B (2013) From wrong to right: a U.S. apology for Japanese internment. National Public Radio. 9 Aug. http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/08/09/210138278/japanese-internment-redress
  116. Radford G (1996) Modern housing for America. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Redmond EB (n.d.) Biography. Eugenebredmond.com. http://eugenebredmond.com/home/biography/
  118. Restrictive Covenant (n.d.) The Free Dictionary. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Restrictive+covenants
  119. Rickford R (2016) The fallacies of new-liberal protest. Black Perspectives. 24 Sept. http://www.aaihs.org/the-fallacies-of-neoliberal-protest/
  120. Richardson E (n.d.) Interview with Elsie Richardson. Fighting for justice: New York voices of the civil rights movement. New York City Commission on Civil Rights. http://home.nyc.gov/html/cchr/justice/html/videos/elsie_richardson.shtml
  121. Ritterman J (2014) The beloved community: Martin Luther King Jr.’s prescription for a healthy society. The Huffington Post. 19 Jan. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jeffrey-ritterman/the-beloved-community-dr-_b_4583249.html
  122. Rivas RS (2011) Jim McLeod, pioneering Washington University dean, passes at 67. The St. Louis American. 8 Sept. http://www.stlamerican.com/news/local_news/jim-mcleod-pioneering-washington-university-dean-passes-at/article_99096b4c-d9ad-11e0-b287-001cc4c03286.html
  123. Rohan TM (2014) The architecture of Paul Rudolph. Yale University Press, New Haven, CTGoogle Scholar
  124. Rossi PH, Dentler RA (1961) The politics of urban renewal: the Chicago findings. Free Press of Glencoe, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  125. Ruotsila M (n.d.) Michael Harrington. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Michael-Harrington-American-activist-and-author
  126. Schwartz M (2011) Pre-occupied: the origins and future of occupy wall street. The New Yorker. 28 Nov. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2011/11/28/pre-occupied
  127. Separate But Equal: The Plessy v. Ferguson Case (n.d.) History matters. http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5485/
  128. Sharecropping (n.d.) Slavery by another name. Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/sharecropping/
  129. Sitkoff H (1981) The struggle for black equality. Hill and Wang, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  130. Spellen S (2015) Past and present: the St. John’s home for boys becomes the Albany Houses. Brownstoner. 7 Jul. http://www.brownstoner.com/history/victorian-home-for-boys-becomes-nycha-apartments/
  131. Stampp K (1956) Peculiar institution: slavery in the Antebellum South. Alfred A. Knopf, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  132. St. Louis Association of Community Organizations (n.d.) Conference overview. http://www.slaco-mo.org/conference-overview.html
  133. Tepper T (2017) The troubling reason homeownership has dropped to a 50-year low. Time. 10 Feb. http://time.com/money/4665272/mortgage-homeownership-racial-gap-discrimination-inequality/
  134. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (2010) History.com. http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-act
  135. The Election of 1876 & The End of Reconstruction (2012) Authentic History. http://www.authentichistory.com/1865-1897/1-reconstruction/4-1876election/
  136. The Ferguson Commission (n.d.) Implementation. Forward through Ferguson. http://forwardthroughferguson.org/implementation/
  137. The Great Migration (1915–1960) (n.d.) BlackPast.org. http://www.blackpast.org/aah/great-migration-1915-1960
  138. The Voting Rights Act (2009) History.com. http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/voting-rights-act
  139. Tunca D (n.d.) Biography. The Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie website. http://www.cerep.ulg.ac.be/adichie/cnabio.html
  140. U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.) Census of population and housing for Saginaw City, Michigan. Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses from 1790 to 2000Google Scholar
  141. U.S. Census Bureau (2015) East St. Louis City, Illinois. American FactFinder. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml
  142. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015) Evanston City, Illinois. American FactFinder. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml
  143. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015) Ferguson City, Missouri. American FactFinder. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml
  144. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015) Flint City, Michigan. American FactFinder. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml
  145. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015) Saginaw City, Michigan. American FactFinder. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml
  146. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (n.d.) Mission. http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/about/mission
  147. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (n.d.) Title VIII: Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. https://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/progdesc/title8
  148. U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division (2015) Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department. 4 Mar. https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/opa/press-releases/attachments/2015/03/04/ferguson_police_department_report.pdf
  149. Vatcha JA, Weir M (2009) Celebrating Skinker-DeBaliviere: history and comeback. Times of Skinker-Baliviere, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  150. von Hoffmann A (2000) Why they built Pruitt-Igoe. In: Bauman JF, Biles R, Szylvian KM (eds) From tenements to the Taylor Homes: in search of an urban housing policy in twentieth-century America. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PAGoogle Scholar
  151. Wade WC (1987) The fiery cross: the Ku Klux Klan. Simon and Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  152. Waldheim C (ed) (2004) Lafayette Park Detroit. Prestel, MunichGoogle Scholar
  153. Walsh M (1999) High Court turns down Mo. teacher’s appeal over firing. Education Week. 17 Mar. http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/1999/03/17/27scotus.h18.html
  154. Waring A.b.i. Elementary School (n.d.) Public School Review. https://www.publicschoolreview.com/waring-a-b-i-elementary-school-profile
  155. Watts R (n.d.) Civil rights digital library: documenting America’s struggle for racial equality. http://crdl.usg.edu/events/watts_riots/?Welcome
  156. Walters A, Brown HB, Sylvester-Williams H, DuBois WEB (1900) Address to the nations of the world by the Pan-African conference in London. In: Ideologies of liberation in Black Africa, 1856–1970. Documents on modern African political thought from colonial times to present. The British Library BoardGoogle Scholar
  157. Weaver RC (1948) The Negro Ghetto. Harcourt, Brace, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  158. Whiting S (2001) Bas-relief urbanism: Chicago’s figured field. In: Lambert P (ed) Mies in America. Harry Abrams, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  159. Wicks-Lim J (2012) The great recession in black wealth: white wealth reaches historic high of twenty times black wealth. Dollars and Sense. http://www.dollarsandsense.org/archives/2012/0112wicks-lim.html
  160. Wilkerson I (2010) The warmth of other suns: the epic story of America’s great migration. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  161. Williamson J (2010) Eugene B. Redmond runs a club for writers on the east side. St. Louis American. 8 Apr. http://www.stlamerican.com/entertainment/living_it/eugene-b-redmond-runs-a-club-for-writers-on-the/article_9d5d377b-fc5a-549b-9ffc-6bb10f72b3e2.html
  162. Wilson S (2016) Brooklyn Ed Council votes to rezone, integrate PS 307 and PS 8. Fort Greene Patch. 6 Jan. https://patch.com/new-york/fortgreene/live-blog-ps-307-ps-8-rezoning-vote
  163. Woodsworth M (2012) Remembering Elsie Richardson. The Nation. 10 Apr. https://www.thenation.com/article/remembering-elsie-richardson/
  164. Wright H (1935) Rehousing urban America. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  165. Yatt BD (1999) A history of the architecture profession in America. Catholic University of America. http://archprac.cua.edu/aprp/olce/educ/history.htm
  166. Zipf CW (n.d.) A female modernist in the classical capital: Chloethiel Woodard Smith and the architecture of Southwest Washington, DC. Salve Regina University Cultural and Historic Preservation Program, Newport, RIGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catalina Freixas
    • 1
  • Mark Abbott
    • 2
  1. 1.ArchitectureWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Social and Behavioral SciencesHarris-Stowe State UniversitySt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations