Identifying Needs, Vulnerabilities and Resources in Refugee Persons and Groups

  • Thomas WenzelEmail author
  • Sabine Völkl-Kernstock
  • Tatiana Urdaneta Wittek
  • David Baron


The global increase in refugees has led to a number of critical challenges, which should be addressed by an interdisciplinary approach to permit identification and understanding of the complex needs and vulnerabilities of the diverse refugee groups, and guide both emergency aid and long-term planning.

The approach chosen would be guided by the priorities in a specific situation, and the professional background of the helper. In an emergency setting a comprehensive assessment of mental health might for example not be possible or even necessary. Therefore, we recommend the reader selects the sections of the following chapter that are most relevant to his or her work.

Part I of the chapter will introduce the subject with a short overview of general assessment models and tools, developed by UN organisations and international NGOs that should be considered in any humanitarian disaster and displacement of large population groups. The authors also address specifics that are frequently neglected, including considerations of ethics and data protection in shared data.

Part II of the chapter explores the identification and primary protection of vulnerable groups. As an example of the complex interdisciplinary situation encountered in highly vulnerable groups, this chapter also elaborates on the specific steps relevant to the support and protection of survivors of torture. These include legal, medical, social and psychological aspects, and can be linked to developing strategies like universal jurisdiction contributing to long-term justice and the recovery of a civil society.

Identification of resources and resilience factors is also important to counter the risk of a too narrow focus on vulnerabilities in the assessment of refugee groups and will be covered in this part of the chapter.

Parts III and IV of this chapter focus on the specific aspect of mental health assessment in adults and children including specific toolboxes and instruments that can be used for the evaluation of mental health-related factors in communities, groups and individuals.


Assessment Diagnosis Mental health planning Traumatic stress Stress reaction Transcultural psychiatry Resilience Human rights Torture 


  1. 1.
    Aladhrai SA, Djalali A, Della Corte F, Alsabri M, El-Bakri NK, Ingrassia PL. Impact of the 2011 revolution on hospital disaster preparedness in Yemen. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2015;9(4):396–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bloch-Infanger C, Battig V, Kremo J, Widmer AF, Egli A, Bingisser R, et al. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. PLoS One. 2017;12(6):e0179537.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ismail SA, Abbara A, Collin SM, Orcutt M, Coutts AP, Maziak W, et al. Communicable disease surveillance and control in the context of conflict and mass displacement in Syria. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;47:15–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ozaras R, Leblebicioglu H, Sunbul M, Tabak F, Balkan II, Yemisen M, et al. The Syrian conflict and infectious diseases. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther. 2016;14(6):547–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rits IA. Declaration of Helsinki. Recommendations guidings doctors in clinical research. World Med J. 1964;11:281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tangwa GB. Research with vulnerable human beings. Acta Trop. 2009;112(Suppl 1):S16–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Culhane-Pera KA, Moua M, Vue P, Xiaaj K, Lo MX, Straka RJ. Leaves imitate trees: Minnesota Hmong concepts of heredity and applications to genomics research. J Community Genet. 2017;8(1):23–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jaffe AE, Steel AL, DiLillo D, Hoffman L, Gratz KL, Messman-Moore TL. Victim alcohol intoxication during a sexual assault: relations with subsequent ptsd symptoms. Violence Vict. 2017;32(4):642–57.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Haskew C, Spiegel P, Tomczyk B, Cornier N, Hering H. A standardized health information system for refugee settings: rationale, challenges and the way forward. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88(10):792–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lay M, Papadopoulos I. Sexual maltreatment of unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors from the Horn of Africa: a mixed method study focusing on vulnerability and prevention. Child Abuse Negl. 2009;33(10):728–38.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR), Administration for Children and Families (ACF), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment involving unaccompanied children. Interim final rule (IFR). Fed Regist. 2014;79(247):77767–800.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sipsma HL, Falb KL, Willie T, Bradley EH, Bienkowski L, Meerdink N, et al. Violence against Congolese refugee women in Rwanda and mental health: a cross-sectional study using latent class analysis. BMJ Open. 2015;5(4):e006299.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    International Summit on Transplant Tourism and Organ Trafficking. The declaration of Istanbul on organ trafficking and transplant tourism. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3(5):1227–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moszynski P. Organ traffickers are targeting refugees in Egypt, warns charity. BMJ. 2011;343:d8254.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Najafizadeh K, Ghorbani F, Rostami A, Ghobadi O, Barbati E, Rad SS, et al. Seeking consent in the country of origin for transplantation from a brain-dead refugee in the host country. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2010;21(2):345–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mautino KS. The convention against torture and other forms of cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment. J Immigr Health. 2000;2(4):179–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    The Lancet. Torture and ill treatment in Syria’s prisons. Lancet. 2016;388(10047):842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Song SJ, Subica A, Kaplan C, Tol W, de Jong J. Predicting the mental health and functioning of torture survivors. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2017;206(1):33–9.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wenzel T, Griengl H, Stompe T, Mirzaei S, Kieffer W. Psychological disorders in survivors of torture: exhaustion, impairment and depression. Psychopathology. 2000;33(6):292–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wenzel T. Torture. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2007;20(5):491–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ghaddar A, Elsouri G, Abboud Z. Torture and long-term health effects among lebanese female political prisoners. J Interpers Violence. 2016;31(3):500–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Defrin R, Ginzburg K, Mikulincer M, Solomon Z. The long-term impact of tissue injury on pain processing and modulation: a study on ex-prisoners of war who underwent torture. Eur J Pain. 2014;18(4):548–58.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dalgaard NT, Todd BK, Daniel SI, Montgomery E. The transmission of trauma in refugee families: associations between intra-family trauma communication style, children’s attachment security and psychosocial adjustment. Attach Hum Dev. 2016;18(1):69–89.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dalgaard NT, Montgomery E. Disclosure and silencing: a systematic review of the literature on patterns of trauma communication in refugee families. Transcult Psychiatry. 2015;52(5):579–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Iacopino V, Ozkalipci O, Schlar C. The Istanbul Protocol: international standards for the effective investigation and documentation of torture and ill treatment. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1117.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ucpinar H, Baykal T. An important step for prevention of torture. The Istanbul protocol and challenges. Torture. 2006;16(3):252–67.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wenzel T, Frewer A, Mirzaei S. The DSM 5 and the Istanbul Protocol: diagnosis of psychological sequels of torture. Torture. 2015;25(1):51–61.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hofmann M, Hagemeier I, Altenhain K, Kruse J. Evaluation of medical and psychological expert opinions in asylum and residence legislation. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 2014;64(1):12–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hauff NJ, Fry-McComish J, Chiodo LM. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predict post-traumatic stress disorder in postpartum African-American women. J Clin Nurs. 2016;26(15-16):2372–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Levy-Gigi E, Richter-Levin G, Okon-Singer H, Keri S, Bonanno GA. The hidden price and possible benefit of repeated traumatic exposure. Stress. 2016;19(1):1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ponnamperuma T, Nicolson NA. Negative trauma appraisals and PTSD symptoms in Sri Lankan adolescents. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2016;44(2):245–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bottche M, Heeke C, Knaevelsrud C. Sequential traumatization, trauma-related disorders and psychotherapeutic approaches in war-traumatized adult refugees and asylum seekers in Germany. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2016;59(5):621–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Atwoli L, Stein DJ, King A, Petukhova M, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder associated with unexpected death of a loved one: cross-national findings from the world mental health surveys. Depress Anxiety. 2017;34(4):315–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schock K, Rosner R, Knaevelsrud C. Impact of asylum interviews on the mental health of traumatized asylum seekers. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2015;6:26286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hainmueller J, Hangartner D, Lawrence D. When lives are put on hold: lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees. Sci Adv. 2016;2(8):e1600432.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Takahashi H, Rissling AJ, Pascual-Marqui R, Kirihara K, Pela M, Sprock J, et al. Neural substrates of normal and impaired preattentive sensory discrimination in large cohorts of nonpsychiatric subjects and schizophrenia patients as indexed by MMN and P3a change detection responses. NeuroImage. 2013;66:594–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    McMahon C, Callaghan CO, O'Brien D, Smith OP. The increasing prevalence of childhood sickle-cell disease in Ireland. Ir J Med Sci. 2001;170(3):183–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Backman O. Abdominal pain in a refugee. Duodecim. 2003;119(18):1779–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brosch P. Here’s how German courts are planning to prosecute Syrian war crimes. The Washington Post; 2017.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Levy D, Sznaider N. Sovereignty transformed: a sociology of human rights. Br J Sociol. 2006;57(4):657–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Robinson M. The Principles of universal jurisdiction. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2001.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Philippe X. The principles of universal jurisdiction and complementarity: how do the two principles intermesh? Int Rev Red Cross. 2006;88(862):23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nowak M. Torture and enforced disappearance. In: CSM K, editor. International protection of human rights: a textbook. Turku: Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University; 2012. p. 153–87.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Calam R. Public health implications and risks for children and families resettled after exposure to armed conflict and displacement. Scand J Public Health. 2017;45(3):209–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wenzel T, Kienzler H, Wollmann A. Facing violence - a global challenge. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2015;38(3):529–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mylius M, Bornschlegl W, Frewer A. Medizin für “Menschen ohne Papiere”: Menschenrechte und Ethik in der Praxis des Gesundheitssystems. Göttingen: V&R Unipress; 2011. 276p.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Seguin M, Roberts B. Coping strategies among conflict-affected adults in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic literature review. Glob Public Health. 2017;12(7):811–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Somasundaram D, Sivayokan S. Rebuilding community resilience in a post-war context: developing insight and recommendations - a qualitative study in Northern Sri Lanka. Int J Ment Heal Syst. 2013;7(1):3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chemali Z, Borba CPC, Johnson K, Hock RS, Parnarouskis L, Henderson DC, et al. Humanitarian space and well-being: effectiveness of training on a psychosocial intervention for host community-refugee interaction. Med Confl Surviv. 2017;33(2):141–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kristiansen M, Younis T, Hassani A, Sheikh A. Experiencing loss: a muslim widow's bereavement narrative. J Relig Health. 2016;55(1):226–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hasanovic M, Pajevic I. Religious moral beliefs inversely related to trauma experiences severity and presented posttraumatic stress disorder among Bosnia and Herzegovina war Veterans. J Relig Health. 2015;54(4):1403–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bryant-Davis T, Ullman S, Tsong Y, Anderson G, Counts P, Tillman S, et al. Healing pathways: longitudinal effects of religious coping and social support on PTSD symptoms in African American sexual assault survivors. J Trauma Dissociation. 2015;16(1):114–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Simmelink J, Lightfoot E, Dube A, Blevins J, Lum T. Understanding the health beliefs and practices of East African refugees. Am J Health Behav. 2013;37(2):155–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bongartz D, Kraft S. Promoting resilience with rituals. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2013;32(3):97–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lehmann V. Physicians who come to Norway as refugees. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1993;113(25):3165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wenzel T. Refugee doctors can do valuable work in European host countries. BMJ. 1999;318(7177):196.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rumani G. Refugee doctors find it hard to get back into practice. BMJ. 2001;322(7290):862.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cheeroth S, Ambrose L. A training programme for refugee doctors. Hosp Med. 2002;63(10):582–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stewart E, Nicholas S. Refugee doctors in the United Kingdom. BMJ. 2002;325(7373):S166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Leaver L. Overseas-trained refugee doctors. Med Educ. 2003;37(1):77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Al-Dhahir L. Re-training refugee and other overseas doctors. Clin Med. 2006;6(2):217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hilton C. Refugee doctors and the development of psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;189:383–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Arie S. Syrian doctors risk arrest and deportation for treating fellow refugees in Lebanon and Jordan. BMJ. 2015;350:h1699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Abbara A, Orcutt M, Gabbar O. Syria’s lost generation of doctors. BMJ. 2015;350:h3479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ong YL, Trafford P, Paice E, Jackson N. Investing in learning and training refugee doctors. Clin Teach. 2010;7(2):131–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ong YL, Paice E. A successful initiative for getting refugee doctors back into medical employment: the PRIME project. Br J Hosp Med. 2006;67(5):264–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ong YL, Gayen A. Helping refugee doctors get their first jobs: the pan-London clinical attachment scheme. Hosp Med. 2003;64(8):488–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ferracioli L, De Lora P. Primum nocere: medical brain drain and the duty to stay. J Med Philos. 2015;40(5):601–19.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhou X, Wu X, Zhen R. Understanding the relationship between social support and posttraumatic stress disorder/posttraumatic growth among adolescents after Ya’an earthquake: the role of emotion regulation. Psychol Trauma. 2017;9(2):214–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Reavell J, Fazil Q. The epidemiology of PTSD and depression in refugee minors who have resettled in developed countries. J Ment Health. 2017;26(1):74–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    de Jong JT, Berckmoes LH, Kohrt BA, Song SJ, Tol WA, Reis RA. public health approach to address the mental health burden of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2015;17(7):60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tol WA, Purgato M, Bass JK, Galappatti A, Eaton W. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: a public mental health perspective. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2015;24(6):484–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ao T, Shetty S, Sivilli T, Blanton C, Ellis H, Geltman PL, et al. Suicidal ideation and mental health of Bhutanese refugees in the United States. J Immigr Minor Health. 2016;18(4):828–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Suicide and suicidal ideation among Bhutanese refugees--United States, 2009-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62(26):533–6.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Falb KL, McCormick MC, Hemenway D, Anfinson K, Silverman JG. Suicide ideation and victimization among refugee women along the Thai-Burma border. J Trauma Stress. 2013;26(5):631–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lerner E, Bonanno GA, Keatley E, Joscelyne A, Keller AS. Predictors of suicidal ideation in treatment-seeking survivors of torture. Psychol Trauma. 2016;8(1):17–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Reko A, Bech P, Wohlert C, Noerregaard C, Csillag C. Usage of psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers: clinical implications based on a descriptive study in Denmark. Nord J Psychiatry. 2015;69(8):587–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sundvall M, Tidemalm DH, Titelman DE, Runeson B, Baarnhielm S. Assessment and treatment of asylum seekers after a suicide attempt: a comparative study of people registered at mental health services in a Swedish location. BMC Psychiatry. 2015;15:235.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wenzel T, Rushiti F, Aghani F, Diaconu G, Maxhuni B, Zitterl W. Suicidal ideation, post-traumatic stress and suicide statistics in Kosovo. An analysis five years after the war. Suicidal ideation in Kosovo. Torture. 2009;19(3):238–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tol WA, Patel V, Tomlinson M, Baingana F, Galappatti A, Silove D, et al. Relevance or excellence? Setting research priorities for mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2012;20(1):25–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Troya MI, Greene MC, Santos CG, Shultz JM. Conducting a desk review to inform the mental health and psychosocial support response to the 2016 Ecuador earthquake. Disaster Health. 2016;3(4):90–101.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jordans MJ, Semrau M, Thornicroft G, van Ommeren M. Role of current perceived needs in explaining the association between past trauma exposure and distress in humanitarian settings in Jordan and Nepal. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;201(4):276–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Fellmeth G, Paw MK, Wiladphaingern J, Charunwatthana P, Nosten FH, McGready R. Maternal suicide risk among refugees and migrants. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2016;134(2):223–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vijayakumar L. Suicide among refugees--a mockery of humanity. Crisis. 2016;37(1):1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Colucci E, Too LS, Minas H. A suicide research agenda for people from immigrant and refugee backgrounds. Death Stud. 2017;41(8):502–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Cyniak-Cieciura M, Staniaszek K, Popiel A, Praglowska E, Zawadzki B. The structure of PTSD symptoms according to DSM-5 and IDC-11 proposal: a multi-sample analysis. Eur Psychiatry. 2017;44:179–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Danzi BA, La Greca AM. DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-11: identifying children with posttraumatic stress disorder after disasters. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2016;57(12):1444–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hansen M, Hyland P, Armour C, Shevlin M, Elklit A. Less is more? Assessing the validity of the ICD-11 model of PTSD across multiple trauma samples. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2015;6:28766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Haravuori H, Kiviruusu O, Suomalainen L, Marttunen M. An evaluation of ICD-11 posttraumatic stress disorder criteria in two samples of adolescents and young adults exposed to mass shootings: factor analysis and comparisons to ICD-10 and DSM-IV. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16:140.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sachser C, Goldbeck L. Consequences of the diagnostic criteria proposed for the ICD-11 on the prevalence of PTSD in children and adolescents. J Trauma Stress. 2016;29(2):120–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tay AK, Mohsin M, Rees S, Steel Z, Tam N, Soares Z, et al. The factor structures and correlates of PTSD in post-conflict Timor-Leste: an analysis of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):191.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wisco BE, Miller MW, Wolf EJ, Kilpatrick D, Resnick HS, Badour CL, et al. The impact of proposed changes to ICD-11 on estimates of PTSD prevalence and comorbidity. Psychiatry Res. 2016;240:226–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Chen YF. Chinese classification of mental disorders (CCMD-3): towards integration in international classification. Psychopathology. 2002;35(2-3):171–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bracken PJ, Giller JE, Summerfield D. Psychological responses to war and atrocity: the limitations of current concepts. Soc Sci Med. 1995;40(8):1073–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zambrano-Vazquez L, Levy HC, Belleau EL, Dworkin ER, Howard Sharp KM, Pittenger SL, et al. Using the research domain criteria framework to track domains of change in comorbid PTSD and SUD. Psychol Trauma. 2017;9(6):679–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    McTeague LM. Reconciling RDoC and DSM approaches in clinical psychophysiology and neuroscience. Psychophysiology. 2016;53(3):323–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Krueger RF, Hopwood CJ, Wright AG, Markon KE. Challenges and strategies in helping the DSM become more dimensional and empirically based. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2014;16(12):515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Franklin JC, Jamieson JP, Glenn CR, Nock MK. How developmental psychopathology theory and research can inform the research domain criteria (RDoC) project. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2015;44(2):280–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tay AK, Rees S, Chen J, Kareth M, Silove D. Factorial structure of complicated grief: associations with loss-related traumatic events and psychosocial impacts of mass conflict amongst West Papuan refugees. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016;51(3):395–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cavkaytar O, Duzova A, Teksam O, Karabulut E, Derman O, Kale G, et al. Final diagnosis of children and adolescents with musculoskeletal complaints. Minerva Pediatr. 2017;69(1):50–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lin SY, Hou SJ, WH W, Chen SM, Young TK. Effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicines on the pharmacokinetics of western drugs in SD rats of different ages. I. Aminophylline-Tin chuan Tang and aminophylline-Hsiao Ching Long Tang. J Pharmacobiodyn. 1991;14(4):201–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Keatley E, d’Alfonso A, Abeare C, Keller A, Bertelsen NS. Health outcomes of traumatic brain injury among refugee survivors of torture. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015;30(6):E1–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mollica RF, Chernoff MC, Megan Berthold S, Lavelle J, Lyoo IK, Renshaw P. The mental health sequelae of traumatic head injury in South Vietnamese ex-political detainees who survived torture. Compr Psychiatry. 2014;55(7):1626–38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Keatley E, Ashman T, Im B, Rasmussen A. Self-reported head injury among refugee survivors of torture. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2013;28(6):E8–E13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Junaid M, Mamoon-ur R, Afsheen A, Tahir A, Bukhari SS, Kalsoom A. Changing spectrum of traumatic head injuries: demographics and outcome analysis in a tertiary care referral center. J Pak Med Assoc. 2016;66(7):864–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Stemper BD, Pintar FA. Biomechanics of concussion. Prog Neurol Surg. 2014;28:14–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Fares Y, Fares J, Gebeily S. Head and facial injuries due to cluster munitions. Neurol Sci. 2014;35(6):905–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Xie K, Kuang H, Tsien JZ. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e64907.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rosenfeld JV, McFarlane AC, Bragge P, Armonda RA, Grimes JB, Ling GS. Blast-related traumatic brain injury. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12(9):882–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rosenfeld JV, Ford NL. Bomb blast, mild traumatic brain injury and psychiatric morbidity: a review. Injury. 2010;41(5):437–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Doherty SM, Craig R, Gardani M, McMillan TM. Head injury in asylum seekers and refugees referred with psychological trauma. Glob Ment Health. 2016;3:e28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Radhakrishnan R, Garakani A, Gross LS, Goin MK, Pine J, Slaby AE, et al. Neuropsychiatric aspects of concussion. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(12):1166–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Stein DM, Feather CB, Napolitano LM. Traumatic brain injury advances. Crit Care Clin. 2017;33(1):1–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Brenner LA, Betthauser LM, Homaifar BY, Villarreal E, Harwood JE, Staves PJ, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and suicide attempt history among veterans receiving mental health services. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2011;41(4):416–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Bryan CJ, Clemans TA. Repetitive traumatic brain injury, psychological symptoms, and suicide risk in a clinical sample of deployed military personnel. JAMA Psychiat. 2013;70(7):686–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Finley EP, Bollinger M, Noel PH, Amuan ME, Copeland LA, Pugh JA, et al. A national cohort study of the association between the polytrauma clinical triad and suicide-related behavior among US Veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(2):380–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mollica RF, Caspi-Yavin Y, Bollini P, Truong T, Tor S, Lavelle J. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Validating a cross-cultural instrument for measuring torture, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder in Indochinese refugees. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1992;180(2):111–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Nickerson A, Garber B, Ahmed O, Asnaani A, Cheung J, Hofmann SG, et al. Emotional suppression in torture survivors: relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms and trauma-related negative affect. Psychiatry Res. 2016;242:233–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    de Jong JP, Scholte WF, Koeter MW, Hart AA. The prevalence of mental health problems in Rwandan and Burundese refugee camps. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000;102(3):171–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Cheung P. Posttraumatic stress disorder among Cambodian refugees in New Zealand. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 1994;40(1):17–26.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Cheung P, Spears G. Psychiatric morbidity among New Zealand Cambodians: the role of psychosocial factors. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1995;30(2):92–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Khavarpour F, Rissel C. Mental health status of Iranian migrants in Sydney. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1997;31(6):828–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Thabet AA, Abed Y, Vostanis P. Effect of trauma on the mental health of Palestinian children and mothers in the Gaza Strip. East Mediterr Health J. 2001;7(3):413–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kalafi Y, Hagh-Shenas H, Ostovar A. Mental health among Afghan refugees settled in Shiraz, Iran. Psychol Rep. 2002;90(1):262–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Chou KL. Psychological distress in migrants in Australia over 50 years old: a longitudinal investigation. J Affect Disord. 2007;98(1-2):99–108.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Pernice R, Trlin A, Henderson A, North N, Skinner M. Employment status, duration of residence and mental health among skilled migrants to New Zealand: results of a longitudinal study. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2009;55(3):272–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Tremblay J, Pedersen D, Errazuriz C. Assessing mental health outcomes of political violence and civil unrest in Peru. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2009;55(5):449–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hamid AA, Musa SA. Mental health problems among internally displaced persons in Darfur. Int J Psychol. 2010;45(4):278–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Idemudia ES, William JK, Boehnke K, Wyatt G. Gender differences in trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms among displaced Zimbabweans in South Africa. J Trauma Stress Disord Treat. 2013;2(3):1340.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Idemudia ES, Williams JK, Madu SN, Wyatt GE. Trauma exposures and posttraumatic stress among Zimbabwean refugees in South Africa. Life Sci J. 2013;10(3):349.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Dick M, Fennig S, Lurie I. Identification of emotional distress among asylum seekers and migrant workers by primary care physicians: a brief report. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2015;52(3):14–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Getanda EM, Papadopoulos C, Evans H. The mental health, quality of life and life satisfaction of internally displaced persons living in Nakuru County, Kenya. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:755.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Idemudia ES. Trauma and PTSS of Zimbabwean refugees in South Africa: a summary of published studies. Psychol Trauma. 2017;9(3):252–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Rickels K, Uhlenhuth EH, Covi L. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): a self-report symptom inventory. Behav Sci. 1974;19(1):1–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hinton WL, Du N, Chen YC, Tran CG, Newman TB, Lu FG. Screening for major depression in Vietnamese refugees: a validation and comparison of two instruments in a health screening population. J Gen Intern Med. 1994;9(4):202–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kleijn WC, Hovens JE, Rodenburg JJ. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in refugees: assessments with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins symptom Checklist-25 in different languages. Psychol Rep. 2001;88(2):527–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Bean T, Derluyn I, Eurelings-Bontekoe E, Broekaert E, Spinhoven P. Validation of the multiple language versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-37 for refugee adolescents. Adolescence. 2007;42(165):51–71.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Mels C, Derluyn I, Broekaert E, Rosseel Y. The psychological impact of forced displacement and related risk factors on Eastern Congolese adolescents affected by war. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010;51(10):1096–104.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Mels C, Derluyn I, Broekaert E, Rosseel Y. Community-based cross-cultural adaptation of mental health measures in emergency settings: validating the IES-R and HSCL-37A in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2010;45(9):899–910.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Brink DR, Shannon PJ, Vinson GA. Validation of a brief mental health screener for Karen refugees in primary care. Fam Pract. 2016;33(1):107–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, Bernert S, Bruffaerts R, Brugha TS, Bryson H, et al. Sampling and methods of the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2004;420:8–20.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kessler RC, Ustun TB. The World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2004;13(2):93–121.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Janca A, Ustun TB, Sartorius N. New versions of World Health Organization instruments for the assessment of mental disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1994;90(2):73–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kosten TR, Bryant K, Rounsaville BJ. The SCID: a clinical instrument for assessing psychiatric disorders. NIDA Res Monogr. 1990;105:213–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Silove DM, Steel Z, Susljik J, Frommer N, Lonergan C, Chey T, et al. The impact of the refugee decision on the trajectory of PTSD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among asylum seekers: a longitudinal study. Am J Disaster Med. 2007;2(6):321.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Roth G, Ekblad S, Prochazka H. A study of aggression among mass-evacuated Kosovo Albanians. Torture. 2009;19(3):227–37.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Teodorescu DS, Heir T, Hauff E, Wentzel-Larsen T, Lien L. Mental health problems and post-migration stress among multi-traumatized refugees attending outpatient clinics upon resettlement to Norway. Scand J Psychol. 2012;53(4):316–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Elhabiby MM, Radwan DN, Okasha TA, El-Desouky ED. Psychiatric disorders among a sample of internally displaced persons in South Darfur. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2015;61(4):358–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Teodorescu DS, Heir T, Siqveland J, Hauff E, Wentzel-Larsen T, Lien L. Chronic pain in multi-traumatized outpatients with a refugee background resettled in Norway: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychol. 2015;3(1):7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Kaiser BN, Haroz EE, Kohrt BA, Bolton PA, Bass JK, Hinton DE. “Thinking too much”: a systematic review of a common idiom of distress. Soc Sci Med. 2015;147:170–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Diamond DM, Zoladz PR. Dysfunctional or hyperfunctional? The amygdala in posttraumatic stress disorder is the bull in the evolutionary China shop. J Neurosci Res. 2016;94(6):437–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Sipahi L, Uddin M, Hou ZC, Aiello AE, Koenen KC, Galea S, et al. Ancient evolutionary origins of epigenetic regulation associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014;8:284.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Silove D. Is posttraumatic stress disorder an overlearned survival response? An evolutionary-learning hypothesis. Psychiatry. 1998;61(2):181–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Haagen JF, Ter Heide FJ, Mooren TM, Knipscheer JW, Kleber RJ. Predicting post-traumatic stress disorder treatment response in refugees: multilevel analysis. Br J Clin Psychol. 2017;56(1):69–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Sullivan TP, Weiss NH, Flanagan JC, Willie TC, Armeli S, Tennen H. PTSD and daily co-occurrence of drug and alcohol use among women experiencing intimate partner violence. J Dual Diagn. 2016;12(1):36–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Yehuda R, Lehrner A, Rosenbaum TY. PTSD and sexual dysfunction in men and women. J Sex Med. 2015;12(5):1107–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Weiss NH, Tull MT, Sullivan TP, Dixon-Gordon KL, Gratz KL. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and risky behaviors among trauma-exposed inpatients with substance dependence: the influence of negative and positive urgency. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;155:147–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Wahlstrom LC, Scott JP, Tuliao AP, DiLillo D, McChargue DE. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and aggressive behavior among incarcerated methamphetamine users. J Dual Diagn. 2015;11(2):118–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Ramsawh HJ, Fullerton CS, Mash HB, Ng TH, Kessler RC, Stein MB, et al. Risk for suicidal behaviors associated with PTSD, depression, and their comorbidity in the U.S. Army. J Affect Disord. 2014;161:116–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Shevlin M, Hyland P, Karatzias T, Fyvie C, Roberts N, Bisson JI, et al. Alternative models of disorders of traumatic stress based on the new ICD-11 proposals. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2017;135(5):419–28.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Young GPTSD, in Court III. Malingering, assessment, and the law. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2017;52:81–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Weathers FW, Bovin MJ, Lee DJ, Sloan DM, Schnurr PP, Kaloupek DG, et al. The clinician-administered PTSD scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5): development and initial psychometric evaluation in military Veterans. Psychol Assess. 2017.
  163. 163.
    Malekzai AS, Niazi JM, Paige SR, Hendricks SE, Fitzpatrick D, Leuschen MP, et al. Modification of CAPS-1 for diagnosis of PTSD in Afghan refugees. J Trauma Stress. 1996;9(4):891–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Charney ME, Keane TM. Psychometric analyses of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)--Bosnian translation. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2007;13(2):161–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hinton DE, Chhean D, Fama JM, Pollack MH, McNally RJ. Gastrointestinal-focused panic attacks among Cambodian refugees: associated psychopathology, flashbacks, and catastrophic cognitions. J Anxiety Disord. 2007;21(1):42–58.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Hinton DE, Chhean D, Pich V, Um K, Fama JM, Pollack MH. Neck-focused panic attacks among Cambodian refugees; a logistic and linear regression analysis. J Anxiety Disord. 2006;20(2):119–38.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Hinton DE, Chhean D, Pich V, Pollack MH, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in Cambodian refugees using the clinician-administered PTSD scale: psychometric properties and symptom severity. J Trauma Stress. 2006;19(3):405–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Hinton DE, Chhean D, Pich V, Hofmann SG, Barlow DH. Tinnitus among Cambodian refugees: relationship to PTSD severity. J Trauma Stress. 2006;19(4):541–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Halvorsen JO, Stenmark H. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in tortured refugees: a preliminary uncontrolled trial. Scand J Psychol. 2010;51(6):495–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Ter Heide FJ, Mooren TM, van de Schoot R, de Jongh A, Kleber RJ. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy v. stabilisation as usual for refugees: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2016;209(4):311–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Hensel-Dittmann D, Schauer M, Ruf M, Catani C, Odenwald M, Elbert T, et al. Treatment of traumatized victims of war and torture: a randomized controlled comparison of narrative exposure therapy and stress inoculation training. Psychother Psychosom. 2011;80(6):345–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Halepota AA, Wasif SA. Harvard Trauma Questionnaire Urdu translation: the only cross-culturally validated screening instrument for the assessment of trauma and torture and their sequelae. J Pak Med Assoc. 2001;51(8):285–90.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Rasmussen A, Verkuilen J, Ho E, Fan Y. Posttraumatic stress disorder among refugees: measurement invariance of Harvard Trauma Questionnaire scores across global regions and response patterns. Psychol Assess. 2015;27(4):1160–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Tay AK, Jayasuriya R, Jayasuriya D, Silove D. Assessing the factorial structure and measurement invariance of PTSD by gender and ethnic groups in Sri Lanka: an analysis of the modified Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). J Anxiety Disord. 2017;47:45–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Brunet A, Weiss DS, Metzler TJ, Best SR, Neylan TC, Rogers C, et al. The peritraumatic distress inventory: a proposed measure of PTSD criterion A2. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(9):1480–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Thomas E, Saumier D, Brunet A. Peritraumatic distress and the course of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a meta-analysis. Can J Psychiatr. 2012;57(2):122–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Blanc J, Rahill GJ, Laconi S, Mouchenik Y. Religious beliefs, PTSD, depression and resilience in survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. J Affect Disord. 2016;190:697–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Hollifield M, Verbillis-Kolp S, Farmer B, Toolson EC, Woldehaimanot T, Yamazaki J, et al. The Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15): development and validation of an instrument for anxiety, depression, and PTSD in refugees. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2013;35(2):202–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Johnson-Agbakwu CE, Allen J, Nizigiyimana JF, Ramirez G, Hollifield M. Mental health screening among newly arrived refugees seeking routine obstetric and gynecologic care. Psychol Serv. 2014;11(4):470–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Hollifield M, Toolson EC, Verbillis-Kolp S, Farmer B, Yamazaki J, Woldehaimanot T, et al. Effective screening for emotional distress in refugees: the refugee health screener. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2016;204(4):247–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Polcher K, Calloway S. Addressing the need for mental health screening of newly resettled refugees: a pilot project. J Prim Care Community Health. 2016;7(3):199–203.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Salt RJ, Costantino ME, Dotson EL, Paper BM. “You are not alone” strategies for addressing mental health and health promotion with a refugee women’s sewing group. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2017;38(4):337–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Tedeschi FK, Billick SB. Pediatric PTSD in the DSM-5 and the forensic interview of traumatized youth. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2017;45(2):175–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Tedeschi FK, Billick SB, Pediatric PTSD. Clinical, forensic, and diagnostic understanding. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2017;45(2):161–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    La Greca AM, Danzi BA, Chan SF. DSM-5 and ICD-11 as competing models of PTSD in preadolescent children exposed to a natural disaster: assessing validity and co-occurring symptomatology. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2017;8(1):1310591.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Winkler N, Ruf-Leuschner M, Ertl V, Pfeiffer A, Schalinski I, Ovuga E, et al. From war to classroom: PTSD and depression in formerly abducted youth in Uganda. Front Psych. 2015;6:2.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Kelly JT, Branham L, Decker MR. Abducted children and youth in Lord’s Resistance Army in Northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): mechanisms of indoctrination and control. Confl Heal. 2016;10:11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Miles GM. Drawing together hope: ‘listening’ to militarised children. J Child Health Care. 2000;4(4):137–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Rowe C, Watson-Ormond R, English L, Rubesin H, Marshall A, Linton K, et al. Evaluating art therapy to heal the effects of trauma among refugee youth: the Burma art therapy program evaluation. Health Promot Pract. 2016.
  190. 190.
    Schandorph Lokkegaard S, Ronholt S, Karsberg S, Elklit A. Validation of the PTSD screening cartoon test “Darryl” in a Danish clinical sample of children and adolescents. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2017;26(1).
  191. 191.
    Thakkar MJ, Jaffe AM, Vander Linden RS. Guidelines for conducting a victim-sensitive interview. J Child Sex Abus. 2015;24(7):717–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, et al. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59(Suppl 20):22–33. quiz 4–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Loughry M, Flouri E. The behavioral and emotional problems of former unaccompanied refugee children 3-4 years after their return to Vietnam. Child Abuse Negl. 2001;25(2):249–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Mollica RF, Poole C, Son L, Murray CC, Tor S. Effects of war trauma on Cambodian refugee adolescents’ functional health and mental health status. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(8):1098–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Huemer J, Karnik N, Voelkl-Kernstock S, Granditsch E, Plattner B, Friedrich M, et al. Psychopathology in African unaccompanied refugee minors in Austria. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2011;42(3):307–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Steinberg AM, Brymer MJ, Decker KB, Pynoos RS. The University of California at Los Angeles post-traumatic stress disorder reaction index. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2004;6(2):96–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Elhai JD, Layne CM, Steinberg AM, Brymer MJ, Briggs EC, Ostrowski SA, et al. Psychometric properties of the UCLA PTSD reaction index. Part II: investigating factor structure findings in a national clinic-referred youth sample. J Trauma Stress. 2013;26(1):10–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Steinberg AM, Brymer MJ, Kim S, Briggs EC, Ippen CG, Ostrowski SA, et al. Psychometric properties of the UCLA PTSD reaction index: part I. J Trauma Stress. 2013;26(1):1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Hafstad GS, Thoresen S, Wentzel-Larsen T, Maercker A, Dyb G. PTSD or not PTSD? Comparing the proposed ICD-11 and the DSM-5 PTSD criteria among young survivors of the 2011 Norway attacks and their parents. Psychol Med. 2017;47(7):1283–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Deeba F, Rapee RM, Prvan T. Psychometric properties of the children’s revised impact of events scale (CRIES) with Bangladeshi children and adolescents. PeerJ. 2014;2:e536.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Salari R, Malekian C, Linck L, Kristiansson R, Sarkadi A. Screening for PTSD symptoms in unaccompanied refugee minors: a test of the CRIES-8 questionnaire in routine care. Scand J Public Health. 2017;45(6):605–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Meiser-Stedman R, Smith P, Bryant R, Salmon K, Yule W, Dalgleish T, et al. Development and validation of the child post-traumatic cognitions inventory (CPTCI). J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;50(4):432–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Sourander A. Behavior problems and traumatic events of unaccompanied refugee minors. Child Abuse Negl. 1998;22(7):719–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Derluyn I, Broekaert E. Different perspectives on emotional and behavioural problems in unaccompanied refugee children and adolescents. Ethn Health. 2007;12(2):141–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Bronstein I, Montgomery P, Ott E. Emotional and behavioural problems amongst Afghan unaccompanied asylum-seeking children: results from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013;22(5):285–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Goodman R, Meltzer H, Bailey V. The Strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a pilot study on the validity of the self-report version. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998;7(3):125–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Goodman R. Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(11):1337–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Wenzel
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sabine Völkl-Kernstock
    • 2
    • 3
  • Tatiana Urdaneta Wittek
    • 4
  • David Baron
    • 5
  1. 1.World Psychiatric Association Scientific Section, Psychological Aspects of Persecution and TortureGenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Trauma Assessment and Child Protection UnitMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.Department of Child- and Youth PsychiatryMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  4. 4.Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human RightsViennaAustria
  5. 5.PsychiatryKeck Hospital of USC, Keck School of Medicine at USCLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations