Emerging Adults and Criminal Offending

  • Christopher Salvatore


Studies suggest emerging adulthood impacts offending in young adults This chapter presents evidence exploring the influence emerging adulthood has on criminal offending including the role of turning points and social bonds (e.g., marriage, parenthood, military service). Continuity and persistence in offending are also explored.


Criminal offender Emerging adulthood Social bond Turning points 


  1. Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., Roth, J. A., & Vischer, C. A. (1986). Criminal careers and ‘career criminals’. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  2. Glueck, S., & Glueck, E. (1950). Unraveling juvenile delinquency. New York: Commonwealth Fund.Google Scholar
  3. Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Ishida, K. (2015). Young adults in conflict with the law: Opportunities for diversion. Retrieved July 6, 2017, from
  5. Jang, S. J., & Rhodes, J. R. (2012). General strain and non-strain theories: A study of crime in emerging adulthood. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 176–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: Delinquent boys to age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Le Blanc, M., & Frechette, M. (1989). Male criminal activity from childhood through youth: Multilevel developmental perspectives. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (Eds.). (2012). Young homicide offenders and victims: Risk factors and successful interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & White, H. R. (2008). Violence and serious theft: Development and prediction from childhood to adulthood. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Marcus, R. F. (2009). Cross-sectional study of violence in emerging adulthood. Aggressive Behavior, 35, 188–202. Scholar
  11. Markowitz, M., & Salvatore, C. (2012). Exploring race based differences in patterns of life-course criminality. Deviant Behavior, 22, 596–605. Scholar
  12. Moffitt, T. (1993). Adolescent limited and life course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., & Milne, B. J. (2002). Males on the life course persistent and adolescent-limited anti-social pathways: Follow up at age 26 years. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 179–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Piquero, A. R., Brame, R., Mazerolle, P., & Haapanen, R. (2002). Crime in emerging adulthood. Criminology, 40, 137–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rosenfeld, R., White, H. R., & Ebensen, F. A. (2012). Special categories of serious and violent offenders: Drug dealers, gang members, homicide offenders, and sex offenders. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), From juvenile delinquency to adult crime: Criminal careers, justice policy and prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Salvatore, C. (2013). Arrested adolescent offenders: A study of delayed transition to adulthood. El Paso, TX: LFB Publications.Google Scholar
  17. Salvatore, C. (2017). The emerging adulthood gap: Integrating emerging adulthood into life course criminology. International Social Science Review, 93. Retrieved from
  18. Salvatore, C., & Taniguchi, T. (2012). Do social bonds matter for emerging adults? Deviant Behavior, 33, 738–756. Scholar
  19. Salvatore, C., Taniguchi, T., & Welsh, W. (2012). Is emerging adulthood influencing Moffitt’s developmental taxonomy? Adding the “prolonged” adolescent offender. Western Criminological Review, 12, 1–15.Google Scholar
  20. Vaske, J., Ward, J., Boisvert, D., & Wright, J. (2012). The stability of risk-seeking from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 313–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Salvatore
    • 1
  1. 1.Montclair State UniversityMontclairUSA

Personalised recommendations