Postural Rehabilitation Within the VRRS (Virtual Reality Rehabilitation System) Environment
Postural control has been defined as the ability to maintain, achieve or restore a state of balance during any posture or activity (van Diest et al. in J Neuroeng Rehabil 10:101, ; Pollock et al. in Clin Rehabil 14:402–406, ). Appropriate postural control is an absolute pre-requisite for activities of daily living and requires several different motor skills to be effective. To maintain a stable upright stance, with adaptive strategies for orientation and balance, information processed through the somatosensory (70%), visual (10%) and vestibular (20%) systems needs to be integrated (Horak in Age Ageing 35(Suppl 2):ii7–ii11, ; Laughton et al. in Gait Posture 18:101–108, ), and a complex interplay between sensory and motor systems (Bekkers et al. in Front Hum Neurosci 8:939, ) is required in order to control the multisegmental body system and interlimb coupling (Jancová in Acta Med Hradec Král Univ Carol Fac Med Hradec Král 51:129–137, ).
- 3.Horak FB. Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls? Age Ageing. 2006;35(Suppl 2):ii7–11. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afl077.
- 5.Bekkers EMJ, Dockx K, Heremans E, Vercruysse S, Verschueren SMP, Mirelman A, Nieuwboer A. The contribution of proprioceptive information to postural control in elderly and patients with Parkinson’s disease with a history of falls. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014;8:939. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Jancová J. Measuring the balance control system—review. Acta Med Hradec Král Univ Carol Fac Med Hradec Král. 2008;51:129–37.Google Scholar
- 9.Winter DA. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. Wiley; 2009.Google Scholar
- 11.Horlings CGC, Küng UM, Honegger F, Van Engelen BGM, Van Alfen N, Bloem BR, Allum JHJ. Vestibular and proprioceptive influences on trunk movements during quiet standing. Neuroscience. 2009;161:904–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Robinson J, Dixon J, Macsween A, van Schaik P, Martin D. The effects of exergaming on balance, gait, technology acceptance and flow experience in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2015;7:8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-015-0001-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Harris DM, Rantalainen T, Muthalib M, Johnson L, Teo W-P. Exergaming as a viable therapeutic tool to improve static and dynamic balance among older adults and people with iIdiopathic Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015;7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00167.
- 18.Miller KJ, Adair BS, Pearce AJ, Said CM, Ozanne E, Morris MM. Effectiveness and feasibility of virtual reality and gaming system use at home by older adults for enabling physical activity to improve health-related domains: a systematic review. Age Ageing. 2014;43:188–95. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/aft194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Hung J-W, Chou C-X, Hsieh Y-W, Wu W-C, Yu M-Y, Chen P-C, Chang H-F, Ding S-E. Randomized comparison trial of balance training by using exergaming and conventional weight-shift therapy in patients with chronic stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014;95:1629–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2014.04.029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Fitzgerald D, Trakarnratanakul N, Smyth B, Caulfield B. Effects of a wobble board-based therapeutic exergaming system for balance training on dynamic postural stability and intrinsic motivation levels. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010;40:11–9. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2010.3121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Piron L, Turolla A, Agostini M, Zucconi CS, Ventura L, Tonin P, Dam M. Motor learning principles for rehabilitation: a pilot randomized controlled study in poststroke patients. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2010;24(6):501–8.Google Scholar
- 36.Genthon N, Gissot AS, Froger J, Rougier P, Pérennou D. Posturography in patients with stroke estimating the percentage of body weight on each foot from a single force platform. Stroke. 2008;39(2):489.Google Scholar