Gait Training by FES

  • Thomas SchauerEmail author
  • Thomas Seel
Part of the Biosystems & Biorobotics book series (BIOSYSROB, volume 19)


Functional electrical stimulation has been applied for more than half a century to restore and support gait in patients after stroke or after spinal cord injury. Most prevalent are assistive systems for the correction of drop foot in stroke patients using either surface or implanted stimulation technology. For therapeutical use in clinical environments, multi-channel FES systems are often employed in combination with robotic devices or partial body weight support during walking on a treadmill. The restoration of gait in spinal cord injured people is also an ongoing research topic. New implantable stimulation systems and hybrid approaches that combine powered exoskeletons and FES are under investigation. Inertial sensor technology, electromyographic sensing, and advanced feedback control are predicted to be key technologies of future FES systems that allow a more patient and situation-specific gait support.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Control Systems GroupTechnische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

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