Individualization Treatment of Inguinal Hernia in Children

  • Jie Chen
  • Yingmo Shen
  • Chengbing Chu
  • Zhenyu Zou
  • Xin Yuan


The incidence of inguinal hernia in children less than 18 years of age ranges from 0.8 to 4.4% [1]. About 85% of children with an inguinal hernia present with a unilateral hernia. The incidence of incarceration in untreated hernias in infants and young children varies between 6 and 18%, but it increases to approximately 30% in infancy [2]. A surgical intervention for inguinal hernia is one of the most common operations performed in children [3]. The individualized treatment program was established for pediatric inguinal hernia in authors’ department and provided a relatively reasonable surgical treatment. This chapter was mainly to describe the individualized treatment program applied to pediatric inguinal hernia.


  1. 1.
    Miltenburg DM, Nuchtern JG, Jaksic T, et al. Laparoscopic evaluation of the pediatric inguinal hernia: a meta-analysis. J Pediatr Surg. 1998;33(6):874–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Parelkar SV, Oak S, Gupta R, et al. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in the pediatric age group—experience with 437 children. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45(4):789–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lau S, Lee Y, Caty M. Current management of hernias and hydroceles. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2007;16(1):50–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mary L, Brandt M. Pediatric hernias. Surg Clin N Am. 2008;88:27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Toki A, Watanabe Y, Sasaki K, Tani M, Ogura K, Wang ZQ. Adopt a wait-and-see attitude for patent processus vaginalis in neonates. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38(9):1371–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Burcharth J, Pommergaard HC, Rosenberg J. The inheritance of groin hernia: a systematic review. Hernia. 2013;17:183–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang Y, Han Q, Li C, et al. Genetic analysis of the TBX1 gene promoter in indirect inguinal hernia. Gene. 2014;535:290–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Han Q, Zhang Y, Li W, et al. Functional sequence variants within the SIRT1 gene promoter in indirect inguinal hernia. Gene. 2014;546:1–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Qiao Y, Zhang Z, Huang W, et al. Two functional sequence variants of the GATA6 gene promoter in patients with indirect inguinal hernia. Gene. 2014;547:86–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhao Z, Tian W, Wang L, et al. Genetic and functional analysis of the TBX3 gene promoter in indirect inguinal hernia. Gene. 2015;554:101–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sabiston DC. Sabiston textbook of surgery: hernias—19th d [M]. Canada; 2012. p. 1114–9.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sameshima YT, Yamanari MG, Silva MA, Neto MJ, Funari MB. The challenging sonographic inguinal canal evaluation in neonates and children: an update of differential diagnoses. Pediatr Radiol. 2016. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brandt ML. Pediatric hernias. Surg Clin North Am. 2008;88(1):27–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wiener ES, Touloukian RJ, Rodgers BM, et al. Hernia survey of the section on surgery of the American Academy of Pediatrics. J Pediatr Surg. 1996;31:1166–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gonzalez Santacruz M, Mira Navarro J, Encinas Goenechea A, et al. Low prevalence of complications of delayed herniotomy in the extremely premature infant. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93(1):94–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krieger NR, Shochat SJ, McGowan V, et al. Early hernia repair in the premature infant: long-term follow-up. J Pediatr Surg. 1994;29(8):978–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rajput A, Gauderer MW, Hack M. Inguinal hernias in very low birth weight infants: incidence and timing of repair. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27(10):1322–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Uemura S, Woodward AA, Amerena R, et al. Early repair of inguinal hernia in premature babies. Pediatr Surg Int. 1999;15(1):36–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nah SA, Giacomello L, Eaton S, et al. Surgical repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia in children: laparoscopic or open? Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2011;21:8–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Boocock GR, Todd PJ. Inguinal hernias are common in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child. 1985;60:669–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kozlov Y, Novozhilov V, Kovalev V, et al. Laparoscopic inguinal preperitoneal injection (LIPI) novel experimental technique for inguinal hernia repair in children. Croatia: In Tech; 2014. p. 71–84.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Esposito C, Montinaro L, Alicchio F, et al. Technical standardization of laparoscopic herniorraphy in pediatric patients. World J Surg. 2009;33:1846–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schier F. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair prospective personal series of 542 children. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:1081–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wilson JM, Aaronson DS, Schrader R, et al. Hydrocele in the pediatric patient: inguinal or scrotal approach? J Urol. 2008;180(l4 Suppl):1724–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mollen KP, Kane TD. Inguinal hernia: what we have learned from laparoscopic evaluation of the contralateral side. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2007;19:344–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Esposito C, Escolino M, Farina A, Settimi A. Two decade of history of laparoscopic pediatric inguinal hernia repair. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2014;24(9):669–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ostlie DJ, Ponsky TA. Technical options of the laparoscopic pediatric inguinal hernia repair. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2014;24(3):194–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rao A, Kynaston J, MacDonald ER, et al. Patient preferences for surgical techniques: should we invest in new approaches? Surg Endosc. 2010;24:3016–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu SJ, Wang F, Zhu YL, et al. Clamp type needle assisted single hole laparoscopic treatment in pediatric patients with inguinal hernia. Chin J Hernia Abdominal Wall Surg (Electronic Edition). 2014;8:16–7.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Feliu X, Clavería R, Besora P, et al. Bilateral inguinal hernia repair: laparoscopic or open approach? Hernia. 2011;15:15–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lukong CS. Surgical techniques of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in childhood: a critical appraisal. J Surg Tech Case Rep. 2012;4(1):1–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chang YT. Technical refinements in single port laparoscopic surgery of inguinal hernia in infants and children. Diag Ther Endosc. 2010;2010:392847.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Montupet P, Esposito C. Fifteen years experience in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in pediatric patients. Results and considerations on a debated procedure. Surg Endosc. 2011;25(2):450–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lee Y, Liang J. Experience with 450 cases of micro-laparoscopic herniotomy in infants and children. Pediatri Endosurg Innov Tech. 2002;6910:25–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schier F, Montupet P, Esposito C. Laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy in children: a three-center experience with 933 repairs. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37(3):395–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schier F. Laparoscopic surgery of inguinal hernias in children; initial experience. J Pediatr Surg. 2000;35(9):1331–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lichtenstein IL, Shulman AG, Amid PK, Montllor MM. The tension-free hernioplasty. Am J Surg. 1989;157:188–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Antoniou SA, Pointner R, Granderath FA. Current treatment concepts for groin hernia. Langenbeck’s Arch Surg. 2014;399:553–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jie Chen
    • 1
  • Yingmo Shen
    • 1
  • Chengbing Chu
    • 1
  • Zhenyu Zou
    • 1
  • Xin Yuan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Hernia and Abdominal SurgeryBeijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations