Advanced Grafting Techniques for Implant Placement in Compromised Sites

  • Bach Le
  • Joan Pi-Anfruns


The loss of teeth can result in up to 50% of alveolar ridge width shrinkage within the first 1–3 years [1]. This bone loss is exacerbated if there are preexisting endodontic pathologies and/or periodontal disease or if the tooth is loss due to trauma. Since prosthetically driven implant placement is only possible when there is an adequate amount of the bone, the presence of significant resorption can pose a considerable clinical challenge. Bone augmentation is often required to create ideal gingival contours and aesthetics.


Implants Aesthetic zone Provisional restorations Immediate loading Screw retained 


  1. 1.
    Schropp L, et al. Bone healing and soft tissue contour changes following single-tooth extraction: a clinical and radiographic 12-month prospective study. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2003;23:313–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ekfeldt A, Carlsson GE, Borjesson G. Clinical evaluation of single-tooth restorations supported by osseointegrated implants: a retrospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1994;9:179–83.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Haas R, et al. Branemark single tooth implants: a preliminary report of 76 implants. J Prosthet Dent. 1995;73:274–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jemt T, et al. Osseointegrated implants for single tooth replacement: a 1-year report from a multicenter prospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1991;6:29–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Oates TW, et al. Long-term changes in soft tissue height on the facial surface of dental implants. Implant Dent. 2002;11:272–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tymstra N, Raghoebar GM, Vissink A, Meijer HJA. Dental implant treatment for two adjacent missing teeth in the maxillary aesthetic zone: a comparative pilot study and test of principle. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2011;22(2):207–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Rouch T, Collys K, Cosyn J. Immediate single-tooth implants in the anterior maxilla: a 1-year case cohort study on hard and soft tissue response. J Clin Periodontol. 2008;35:649–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    JYK K, et al. Periimplant tissue response following immediate provisional restoration of scalloped implants in the esthetic zone: a one-year pilot prospective multicenter study. J Prosthet Dent. 2007;97(Supplement 1):S109–18.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    JYK K, Rungcharassaeng K, Lozada J. Immediate placement and provisionalization of maxillary anterior single implants: 1-year prospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2003;18:31–9.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Salama H, Salama M. The role of orthodontic extrusive remodeling in the enhancement of soft and hard tissue profiles prior to implant placement: a systematic approach to the management of extraction site defects. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 1993;13:312–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brindis MA, Block MS. Orthodontic tooth extrusion to enhance soft tissue implant esthetics. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67(11 Supplement):49–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    JYK K, et al. Facial gingival tissue stability after connective tissue graft with single immediate tooth replacement in the esthetic zone: consecutive case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67(Supplement 1):40–8.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Block MS, et al. Prospective evaluation of immediate and delayed provisional single tooth restorations. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67(Supplement 3):89–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Choquet V, et al. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of the papilla level adjacent to single-tooth dental implants: a retrospective study in the maxillary anterior region. J Periodontol. 2001;72:1364–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    JYK K, et al. Dimensions of peri-implant mucosa: an evaluation of maxillary anterior single implants in humans. J Periodontol. 2003;74:557–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tarnow D, et al. Vertical distance from the crest of bone to the height of the interproximal papilla between adjacent implants. J Periodontol. 2003;74:1785–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tarnow D, Cho SC, Wallace SS. The effect of inter-implant distance on the height of inter-implant bone crest. J Periodontol. 2000;71:546–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen Stephen T, et al. Immediate implant placement postextraction without flap elevation. J Peridontol. 2009;80:163–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Seibert J, Lindhe J. Esthetics and periodontal therapy. [book auth.]. In: Lindhe J, editor. Textbook of clinical periodontology. Copenhagen: Munksgaard International Publishing; 1989. p. 477–514.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    De Rouck T, et al. The gingival biotype revisited: transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin as a method to discriminate thin from thick gingiva. J Clin Periodontol. 2009;36:428–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Muller HP, Eger T, Schorb A. Gingival dimensions after root coverage with free connective tissue grafts. J Clin Periodontol. 1998;25:424–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hammerle CHF, Chen ST, Wilson TG. Consensus statements and recommended clinical procedures regarding the placement of implants in extraction sockets. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19(Suppl):26–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sclar AG. Preserving alveolar ridge anatomy following tooth removal in conjunction with immediate implant placement. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 1999;7:39–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Le BT, Borzabadi-Farahani A. Labial bone thickness in area of anterior maxillary implants associated with crestal labial soft tissue thickness. Implant Dent. 2012;21:406–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Le BT, Borzabadi-Farahani A. Is buccolingual angulation of maxillary anterior implants associated with the crestal labial soft tissue thickness? Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;43:874–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barros RM, et al. Buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with a flap or flapless approach: a pilot study in dogs. Titanium. 2009;1:45–51.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Belser UC, Grutter L, Vailati F, Bornstein MM, Weber HP, Buser D. Outcome evaluation of early placed maxillary anterior single-tooth implants using objective esthetic criteria: a cross-sectional, retrospective study in 45 patients with a 2- to 4-year follow-up using pink and white esthetic scores. J Periodontol. 2009;80(1):140–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Worthington HV. Agreement of quantitative subjective. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2009;24:309–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Meijndert L, Meijer HJ, Stellingsma K, Stegenga B, Raghoebar GM. Evaluation of aesthetics of implant-supported single-tooth replacements using different bone augmentation procedures: a prospective randomized clinical study. Clin Oral Implant Res. 2007;18(6):715–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kokich VO, Kokich VG, Kiyak HA. Perceptions of dental professionals and laypersons to altered dental esthetics: asymmetric and symmetric situations. Am J Orthod Dentalfacail Orthop. 2008;130(2):141–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Spray JR, et al. The influence of bone thickness on facial marginal bone response: stage 1 placement through stage 2 uncovering. Annal Periodontol. 2000;5:119–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Takahashi T, et al. Use of endosseous implants for dental reconstruction of patients with grafted alveolar clefts. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;66:251–5.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hasson O. Lateral ridge augmentation using the pocket technique. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63(Supplement 1):26–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Peleg M. Lateral alveolar ridge augmentation with allogeneic block grafts: observations form a multicenter prospective clinical trial. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63(Supplement 1):29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Block M, Degen M. Horizontal ridge augmentation using human mineralized particulate bone: preliminary results. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:67–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Buser D, et al. Lateral ridge augmentation using autografts and barrier membranes: a clinical study with 40 partially edentulous patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996;54:420–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Raghoebar GM, et al. Augmentation of localized defects of the anterior maxillary ridge with autogenous bone before insertion of implants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996;54:1180–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Barone A, et al. Deep-frozen allogeneic onlay bone grafts for reconstruction of atrophic maxillary alveolar ridges: a preliminary study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:1300–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Howell TH, et al. A feasibility study evaluating rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge device for local alveolar ridge preservation or augmentation. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 1997;17:124–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Oda T, et al. Horizontal alveolar distraction of the narrow maxilla ridge for implant placement. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:1530–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Donovan MG, et al. Maxillary and mandibular reconstruction using calvarial bone grafts and branemark implants: a preliminary report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1994;52:588–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Peleg M, et al. Maxillary sinus and ridge augmentations using a surface-derived autogenous bone graft. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:1535–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Llambes F, Silvestre F-J, Caffesse R. Vertical guided bone regeneration with bioabsorbably barrier. J Periodontol. 2007;78:2036–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Marx RE, Shellenberger T, Wimsatt J, Correa P. Severely resorbed mandible: predictable reconstruction with soft tissue matrix expansion (tent pole) grafts. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;60:878–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Louis PJ, et al. Reconstruction of the maxilla and mandible with particulate bone graft and titanium mesh for implant placement. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:235–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Le B, Burstein J. Cortical tenting grafting technique in the severely atrophic alveolar ridge for implant site preparation. Implant Dent. 2008;17:40–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Le B, Burstein J. Esthetic grafting for small volume hard and soft tissue contour defects for implant site development. Implant Dent. 2008;17:136–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Le BT, Rohrer MD, Prassad HS. Screw “tent-pole” grafting technique for reconstruction of large vertical alveolar ridge defects using human mineralized allograft for implant site preparation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68:428–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Verdugo F, Simonian K, Nowzari H. Periodontla biotype influence on the volume maintenance of only grafts. J Periodontol. 2009;80:816–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Le BT. Effectiveness of single-staged implant placement with simultaneous grafting using mineralized allograft. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67(Supplement 1):57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hellem S, et al. Implant treatment in combination with lateral augmentation of the alveolar process: a 3-year prospective study. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2003;5:233–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Le BT, Borzabadi-Farahani A. Simultaneous implant placement & bone grafting with particulate mineralized allograft in sites with buccal wall defects, a 3-year follow-up & review of literature. J Cranio-Maxillofac Surg. 2014;42:552–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Le B, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Nielsen B. Treatment of labial soft tissue recession around dental implants in the esthetic zone using guided bone regeneration with mineralized allograft: a retrospective clinical case series. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;74:1552–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Le B, Borzabadi-Farahani A. Treatment of labial mucosal recession around maxillary anterior implants with tenting screws, particulate allograft and xenogenic membrane: a case report. J Oral Implantol. 2016;10:1563.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Block M, Finger I, Lytle R. Human mineralized bone in extraction sites before implant placement: preliminary results. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002;133:1631–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Elian N, et al. A simplified socket classification and repair technique. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent. 2007;19:99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Araujo M, Linder E, Lindhe J. Effect of xenograft on early bone formation in extraction sockets: an experimental study in dog. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20:1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wang H-L, Tsao Y-P. Mineralized bone allograft-plug socket augmentation: rationale and technique. Implant Dent. 2007;16:33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ashman A. Postextraction ridge preservation using a synthetic alloplast. Implant Dent. 2000;9:168–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shi B, et al. Alveolar ridge preservation prior to implant placement with surgical-grade calcium sulfate and platelet-rich plasma: a pilot study in a canine model. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2007;22:656–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Masago H, et al. Alveolar ridge augmentation using various bone substitutes–a web form of titanium fibers promotes rapid bone development. Kobe J Med Sci. 2007;53:257–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Trisi P, et al. Histologic effect of pure-phase beta-tricalcium phosphate on bone regeneration in human artificial jawbone defects. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2003;23:69–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fiorellini J, et al. Randomized study evaluating recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for extraction socket augmentation. J Periodontol. 2005;76:605–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Simunek A, et al. Deproteinized bovine bone versus beta-tricalcium phosphate in sinus augmentation surgery: a comparative histologic and histomorphometric study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2008;23:935–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Froum S, et al. Extraction sockets and implantation of hydroxyapatites with membrane barriers: a histologic study. Implant Dent. 2004;13:153–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Araujo M, et al. The influence of Bio-Oss Collagen on healing of an extraction socket: an experimental study in the dog. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2008;28:123–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Molly L, et al. Bone formation following implantation of bone biomaterials into extraction sites. J Periodontol. 2008;79:1108–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Minichetti JC, D’Amore JC, Hong AY. Three-year analysis of tapered screw-vent implants placed into extraction sockets grafted with mineralized bone allograft. J Oral Implantol. 2005;31:283–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Le BT, Woo I. Alveolar cleft repair in adults using guided bone regeneration with mineralized allograft for dental implant site development: a report of 2 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:1716–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Froum SJ, et al. Comparison of mineralized cancellous bone allograft (Puros) and anorganic bovine bone matrix (Bio-oss) for sinus augmentation: histomorphometry at 26 to 32 weeks after grafting. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2006;26:543–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Malinin TI, Carpenter E, Temple HT. Particulate bone allograft incorporation in regeneration of osseous defects: importance of particle sizes. Open Orthop J. 2007;1:19–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Simion M, et al. Guided bone regeneration using resorbable and nonresorbable membranes: a comparative histologic study in humans. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1996;11:735–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Simion M, et al. Vertical ridge augmentation by expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene membrane and a combination of intraoral autogenous bone graft and deproteinized anorganic bovine bone (Bio Oss). Clin Oral Implants Res. 2007;18:620–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gielkens PFM, et al. Is there evidence that barrier membranes prevent bone resorption in autologous bone grafts during the healing period? A systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2007;22:390–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lekovic V, et al. A bone regenerative approach to alveolar ridge maintenance following tooth extraction. Report of 10 cases. J Periodontol. 1997;68:563–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lekovic V, et al. Preservation of alveolar bone in extraction sockets using bioabsorbable membranes. J Periodontol. 1998;69:1044–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Murphy KG. Postoperative healing complications associated with gore-tex periodontal material. Part II. Effect of complications on regeneration. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 1996;16:463–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Barone A, et al. Flap versus flapless procedure for ridge preservation in alveolar extraction sockets: a histological evaluation in a randomized clinical trial. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2015;26:806–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Coatoam GW, Mariotti A. The segmental ridge-split procedure. J Periodontol. 2003;74:757–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jensen OT, Cullum DR, Baer D. Marginal bone stability using 3 different flap approaches for alveolar split expansion for dental implants–a 1-year clinical study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:1921–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Buser D, et al. Localized ridge augmentation using guided bone regeneration. II. Surgical procedure in the mandible. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 1995;15:11–29.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Buser D, et al. Localized ridge augmentation with autografts and barrier membranes. Periodontology. 1999;19:151–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Misch CM. Comparison of intraoral donor sites for onlay grafting prior to implant placement. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1997;12:767–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rasmusson L, et al. Effects of barrier membranes on bone resorption and implant stability in onlay bone grafts. An experimental study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 1999;10:267–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Proussaefs P, Lozada J, Rohrer MD. A clinical and histologic evaluation of a block onlay graft in conjunction with autogenous particulate and inorganic bovine material: a case report. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2002;22:567–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Misch CM, Misch CE. The repair of localized severe ridge defects for implant placement using mandibular bone grafts. Implant Dent. 1995;4:261–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Keller EE, Tolman DE, Eckert S. Surgical-prosthodontic reconstruction of advanced maxillary bone compromise with autogenous onlay block grafts and osseointegrated implants: a 12 year study of 32 consecutive patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1999;14:197–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Thor A. Reconstruction of the anterior maxilla with platelet gel, autogenous bone and titanium mesh: a case report. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2002;4:150–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Doblin JM, et al. A histologic evaluation of localized ridge augmentation utilizing DFDBA in combination with e-PTFE membranes and stainless steel bone pins in humans. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 1996;16:121–9.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fugazzotto PA. Report of 302 consecutive ridge augmentation procedures: technical considerations and clinical results. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1998;13:358–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Araujo MG, et al. Lateral ridge augmentation by the use of grafts comprised of autologous bone or biomaterial. An experiment in the dog. J Clin Periodontol. 2002;29:1122–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Friedmann A, et al. Histological assessment of augmented jaw bone utilizing a new collagen barrier membrane compared to a standard barrier membrane to protect granular bone substitute material: a randomized clinical trial. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2002;13:587–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kent JN, et al. Alveolar ridge augmentation using nonresorbable hydroxyapatite with or without autogenous cancellous bone. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1983;41:629–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mentag PJ, Kosinski T. Hydroxyapatite-augmented sites as receptors for replacement implants. J Oral Implantol. 1989;15:114–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Smith JD, Abramson M. Membranous vs. endochondral bone autografts. Arch Otolaryngol. 1974;99:203–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Zins JE, Whitaker LA. Membranous vs endochondral bone autografts: implications for craniofacial reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1983;72:778–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    James JD, Geist ET, Gross BD. Adynamic ileus as a complication of iliac bone removal. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1981;39:289–91.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Proussaefs P, et al. The use of ramus autogenous block grafts for vertical alveolar ridge augmentation and implant placement: a pilot study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2002;17:238–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Montazem A, et al. The mandibular symphysis as a donor site in maxillofacial bone grafting: a quantitative anatomic study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000;58:1368–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Gungormus M, Yavuz MS. The ascending ramus of the mandible as a donor site in maxillofacial bone grafting. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;60:1316–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Misch CM. Ridge augmentation using mandibular ramus bone grafts for the placement of dental implants: presentation of a technique. Pract Periodontics Aesthet Dent. 1996;8:127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Pikos MA. Facilitating implant placement with chin graft as donor sites for maxillary bone augmentation. Dent Implantol Updat. 1995;6:89.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Widmark G, Andersson B, Ivanoff CJ. Mandibular bone graft in the anterior maxilla for single-tooth implants: presentation of a surgical method. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;26:106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Tolstunov L. Maxillary tuberosity block bone graft: innovative technique and case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:1723–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Raghoebar GM, et al. Maxillary bone grafting for insertion of endosseous implants: results after 12-124 months. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2001;12:279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Proussaefs P. Clinical and histologic evaluation of the use of mandibular tori as donor site for mandibular block grafts: report of three cases. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2006;26:43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hassani A, et al. The “crescent” graft: a new design for bone reconstruction in implant dentistry. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:1735–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Clavero J, Lundgren S. Ramus or chin grafts for maxillary sinus inlay and local onlay augmentation: comparison of donor site morbidity and complications. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2003;5:154–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Weibull L, et al. Morbidity after chin bone harvesting–a retrospective long-term follow-up study. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2009;11:149–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sbordone L, et al. Clinical survey of neurosensory side-effects of mandibular parasymphyseal bone harvesting. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;38:139–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Frost H. The regional acceleratory phenomenon: a review. Henry Fort Hosp Med J. 1983;31:3–9.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Oda T, et al. Horizontal alveolar distraction of the narrow maxillary ridge for implant placement. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:1530–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Maiorana C, et al. Reduction of autogenous bone graft resorption by means of Bio-Oss coverage: a prospective study. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2005;25:19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Block M, Haggerty C. Interpositional osteotomy for posterior mandible ridge augmentation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:31–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hearne J, Le BT. Screw “tent-pole” grafting technique for vertical augmentation of the severely atrophic alveolar ridge for implant site preparation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66(Supplement 1):86–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Roccuzzo M, et al. Autogenous bone graft alone or associated with titanium mesh for vertical alveolar ridge augmentation: a controlled clinical trial. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2007;18:286–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Roccuzzo M, et al. Vertical alveolar ridge augmentation by means of a titanium mesh and autogenous bone grafts. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2004;15:73–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Weng D, et al. A prospective multicenter clinical trial of 3i machined-surface implants: results after 6 years of follow-up. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2003;18:417–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ivanoff CJ, et al. Influence of variations in implant diameters: a 3- to 5-year retrospective clinical report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1999;14:173–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Goodacre CJ, et al. Clinical complications with implants and implant prostheses. J Prosthet Dent. 2003;90:121–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Misch CE, et al. Short dental implants in posterior partial edentulism: a multicenter retrospective 6-year case series study. J Periodontol. 2006;77:1340–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Fourmousis I, Karoussis IK, Bamia C. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of implant length on the survival of rough-surface dental implants. J Periodontol. 2009;80:1700–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Anitua E, et al. Five-year clinical evaluation of short dental implants placed in posterior areas: a retrospective study. J Periodontol. 2008;79:42–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Nedir R, et al. Osteotome sinus floor elevation technique without grafting material: 3-year results of a prospective pilot study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20:701–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nedir R, et al. A 7-year life table analysis from a prospective study on ITI implants with special emphasis on the use of short implants. Results from a private practice. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2004;15:150–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Nedir R, et al. Osteotome sinus floor elevation technique without grafting material and immediate implant placement in atrophic posterior maxilla: report of 2 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:1098–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Griffin TJ, Cheung WS. The use of short implants in posterior areas with reduced bone height: a retrospective investigation. J Prosthet Dent. 2004;92:139–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Polini F, et al. Bifunctional sculpturing of the bone graft for 3-dimensional augmentation of the atrophic posterior mandible. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:174–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Fontana F, et al. Clinical and histologic evaluation of allogeneic bone matrix versus autogenous bone chips associated with titanium-reinforced e-PTFE membrane for vertical ridge augmentation: a prospective pilot study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2008;23:1003–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Jensen O. Alveolar segmental “sandwich” osteotomies for posterior edentulous mandibular sites for dental implants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:471–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Jensen OT. Alveolar segmental sandwich osteotomy for anterior maxillary vertical augmentation prior to implant placement. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:290–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Le B, Mirzaians A, Yip K. Vertical alveolar ridge augmentation in the anterior maxilla and mandible using interpositional osteotomy. Abstract American Association of Oral Maxillofacial Surgeons Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL. Oct 2018.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kheur M, Kheur S, Lakha T, Jambhekar S, Le BT, Jain V. Does graft particle type and size affect ridge dimensional changes after alveolar ridge split procedure? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018;76(4):761–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Laster Z, Cohen G, Nagler R. A novel technique for vertical bone augmentation in the premaxillary region. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:2669–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Klug CN, et al. Preprosthetic vertical distraction osteogenesis of the mandible using an L-shaped osteotomy and titanium membranes for guided bone regeneration. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;59:1302–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Block MS, Baughman DG. Reconstruction of severe maxillary defects using distraction osteogenesis, bone grafts, and implants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63:291–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Jensen O, Horiuchi K. Osteoperiosteal flaps and distraction osteogenesis. [book auth.]. In: Fonseca R, editor. Oral and maxillofacial surgery. s.l. New York: Elsevier; 2017.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Froum SJ, et al. Distraction osteogenesis for ridge augmentation: prevention and treatment of complications. Thirty case reports. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2008;28:337–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Belser UC, et al. Outcome analysis of implant restorations located in the anterior maxilla: a review of the recent literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19(Suppl):30–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Priest GF. The esthetic challenge of adjacent implants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65(Supplement 1):2–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Hurzeler M, et al. Peri-implant bone level around implants with platform-switched abutments: preliminary data from a prospective study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65(Supplement 1):33–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Canullo L, Iurlaro G, Iannello G. Double-blind randomized controlled trial study on post-extraction immediately restored implants using the switching platform concept: soft tissue response. Preliminary report. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20:414–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Luongo R, et al. Hard and soft tissue responses to the platform-switching technique. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2008;28:551–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Baggi L, et al. The influence of implant diameter and length on stress distribution of osseointegrated implants related to crestal bone geometry: a three-dimensional finite element analysis. J Prosthet Dent. 2008;100:422–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Astrand P, et al. Astra tech and branemark system implants: a 5-year prospective study of marginal bone reactions. Clin Oral Implant Res. 2004;15:413–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Palmer RM, Palmer PJ, Smith BJ. A 5-year prospective study of Astra single tooth implants. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2000;11:179–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Rasmusson L, Roos J, Bystedt H. A 10-year follow-up study of titanium dioxide-blasted implants. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2005;7:36–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Favero G, et al. Role of teeth adjacent to implants installed immediately into extraction sockets: an experimental study in dogs. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23:402–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Fickl S. Tissue alterations after tooth extraction with and without surgical trauma: a volumetric study in the beagle dog. J Clin Periodontol. 2008;35:356–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Salama M, et al. Advantages of the root submergence technique for pontic site development in esthetic implant therapy. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2007;27:521–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Landsberg CJ. Implementing socket seal surgery as a socket preservation technique for pontic site development: surgical steps revisited–a report of two cases. J Periodontol. 2008;79:945–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bach Le
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joan Pi-Anfruns
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryHerman Ostrow School of Dentistry at USCLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Private PracticeWhittierUSA
  3. 3.Division of Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Division of Regenerative and Constitutive SciencesDental Implant Center, UCLA School of DentistryLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations