Classification of Open Globe Injuries

  • Edith R. Reshef
  • Matthew F. Gardiner


When describing ocular trauma, it is important to utilize consistent terminology and have a uniform classification system to provide optimal clinical outcomes. The Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT) describes the accepted set of definitions used to unambiguously describe the nature (open vs. closed globe) and mechanism of an injury. A standardized classification system is then used to further categorize ocular trauma based on the mechanism of injury (type), initial visual acuity (grade), presence or absence of an afferent pupillary defect (pupil), and anatomic location of the injury (zone). This information can be applied to calculate the Ocular Trauma Score (OTS), a prognostic tool that provides reliable prognostic information that can help the clinician counsel patients on the final visual outcome after recovery.


Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology Ocular Trauma Score Open globe Closed globe Classification system Zones of injury 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edith R. Reshef
    • 1
  • Matthew F. Gardiner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyHarvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and EarBostonUSA

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