Preserving Cultural Heritage Stone: Innovative Consolidant, Superhydrophobic, Self-Cleaning, and Biocidal Products

  • Rafael Zarzuela
  • Manuel Luna
  • Luis A.M. Carrascosa
  • Maria J. Mosquera


Most products commonly employed in the restoration and conservation of cultural heritage stone have not been specifically developed to preserve such elements. In addition, they are plagued by limited performance and structural drawbacks such as low adhesion, poor penetration, and cracking. Another disadvantage is the requirement for most products to be dissolved in volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which produce environmental and human health risks in their use. An innovative sol–gel route for preserving cultural heritage stonework has been developed and is discussed herein. Specifically, a surfactant-assisted sol–gel synthesis produces, in situ on the stonework, crack-free nanomaterials to be used as long-term consolidants. Additionally, hydrophobic, water-repellent, self-cleaning, and biocidal properties can be incorporated into the product by innovative chemical modifications of the proposed synthesis route.


Surfactant Consolidant Hydrophobic/superhydrophobic Photocatalytic Biocide 



We wish to express our gratitude for the financial support from the Spanish Government MINECO/FEDER-EU (MAT2013-42934-R) and the Regional Government of Andalusia (Group TEP-243). R. Zarzuela and M. Luna would also like to thank the Spanish Government for their predoctoral grants (FPU14/02054 and BES-2014-068031).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael Zarzuela
    • 1
  • Manuel Luna
    • 1
  • Luis A.M. Carrascosa
    • 1
  • Maria J. Mosquera
    • 1
  1. 1.TEP-243 Nanomaterials Group, Dto. Química-Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus Universitario Río San PedroUniversidad de CádizCádizSpain

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