Advertisement

The Infrastructure of Racism: The Psychic Dimensions

  • Robbie W. C. Tourse
  • Johnnie Hamilton-Mason
  • Nancy J. Wewiorski
Chapter

Abstract

The individual psyche is an important component of the societal infrastructure that assists in maintaining racism in the United States. The internalization of racism is an intrinsic part of who we are and is the outcome of centuries of acceptance and reinforcement of societal norms that reflect an unequal society. This chapter focuses on internalization of societal cues that help to form one’s racial identity. A case scenario to illuminate the impact of racial identity on people of all races is used. It explains that societal cues affect the formation of a racial sense of self for people of color and for whites. It also compares and distinguishes between ethnicity and race. Personal and environmental events are rooted in a racist society in America. Racial discrimination is analyzed with a model, based on distancing and oppression that assists with understanding internalized racism. Finally, the chapter presents and discusses Cross’ Racial Identity Development Model and Helms’ Identity Models, presenting scenarios to illustrate different stages in racial identity development.

Keywords

Psychic infrastructure Psychic internalization Racial identity Discrimination and internalization Ethnic identity Racial identity models 

References

  1. Abrams, L. S., & Moio, J. A. (2009). Critical race theory and the cultural competence dilemma in social work education. Journal of Social Work Education, 45(2), 245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akamatsu, N. (2008). Teaching white students about racism and its implications in practice. In M. McGoldrick & K. V. Hardy (Eds.), Re-Visioning family therapy: Race, culture, and gender in clinical practice (2nd ed., pp. 413–424). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Akiba, D., & Coll, C. G. (2004). Effective interventions with children of color and their families: A contextual developmental approach. In T. B. Smith (Ed.), (pp. 123–144). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, D. R., Morten, G., & Sue, D. W. (Eds.). (1998). Counseling American Minorities: A cross cultural perspective (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Company.Google Scholar
  5. Baldwin, D. C., Jr. (1987). Some philosophical and psychological contributions to the use of self in therapy. In M. Baldwin & V. Satir (Eds.), The use of self in therapy (pp. 27–44). New York, NY: The Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2014). Racism without racists: Color-Blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in America (4th ed.). New York, NY: Rowman& Littlefield Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  7. Brammer, R. (2004). Diversity in counseling. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  8. Butler, S. (2013). Cracking the codes: The system of racial inequity (Video) Retrieved from https://world-trust.org/product/cracking-codes-system-racial-inequity/.
  9. Carter, R. T. (1995). The influence of race and racial identity in psychotherapy: Towards a racially inclusive model. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Cross, W. E., Jr. (1991). Shades of black. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cross, W. E., Jr. (1971). The negro-to-black conversion experience: Toward a psychology of black liberation. Black World, 20(9), 13–27.Google Scholar
  12. Cross, W. E., Jr. (1978). The Thomas and Cross models of psychological Nigrescence: A review. The Journal of Black Psychology, 5(1), 13–31.  https://doi.org/10.1177/009579847800500102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cross, W. E., Jr. (1995). The psychology of nigrescence: Revising the errors model. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 93–122). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  14. De Rosa, P. (2001). Building blocks: My journey towards white racial awareness. Retrieved from http://www.changeworksconsuting.org/articles.heml.
  15. Dovidio, J., Major, B., & Crocker, J. (2000). Stigma: Introduction and overview. In T. Heatherton, R. Kleck, M. Hebl, & J. Hull (Eds.), The social psychology of stigma (pp. 1–28). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  16. Fanon, F. (1967). Black skin, white masks. New York, NY: Random House, Inc..Google Scholar
  17. Faulkner, J., & Henderson, R. (2000). Ethnic notions: Black images in the white mind. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Art Center.Google Scholar
  18. Hamilton-Mason, J. (2001). Transactional learning and double consciousness: Voices of students of color within racism and oppression courses. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00377310109517651
  19. Hamilton-Mason, J. (2004). Psychodynamic perspectives: Responding to the assessment needs of people of color? Smith College Studies in Social Work, 74(2), 315–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Helms, J. E. (1985). Cultural identity in the treatment process. In P. Pedersen (Ed.), Handbook of cross-cultural counseling and therapy (pp. 239–247). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  21. Helms, J. E. (1986). Expanding racial identity theory to cover the counseling process. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33, 62–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Helms, J. E. (1990). Black and white racial identity: Theory, research and practice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc..Google Scholar
  23. Helms, J. E. (1994). The conceptualization of racial identity and other “racial” constructs. In E. Trickett, R. J. Watts, & D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity (pp. 285–311). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  24. Helms, J. E. (1995). An update of Helm’s white and people of color racial identity models. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 181–198). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  25. Helms, J. E., & Cook, D. A. (1999). Using race and culture in counseling and psychotherapy. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  26. Jaimes, M. A. (1994). American racism: The impact on American-Indian identity and survival. In S. Gregory & R. Sanjek (Eds.), Race (pp. 41–61). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Kivel, P. (2004). You call this a democracy? Who benefits, who pays, and who really decides? New York, NY: Apex Press.Google Scholar
  28. Knowles, L. L., & Prewitt, K. (1969). Institutional racism in America. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc..Google Scholar
  29. Longres, J., & Scanlon, E. (2001). Social justice and the research curriculum. Journal of Social Work Education, 37, 447–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Luhman, R. (2002). Race and ethnicity in the United States: Our differences and our roots. New York, NY: Harcourt College Publishers.Google Scholar
  31. Lum, D. (2000). Social work practice and people of color: A process-stage approach (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  32. Marden, C. F., Meyer, G., & Engel, M. H. (1992). Minorities in American Society (6th ed.). New York, NY: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  33. Marger, M. N. (2003). Race and ethnic relations: American and global perspectives (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  34. McGoldrick, M., & Hardy, K. V. (Eds.). (2008). Re-visioning family therapy: Race, culture, and gender in clinical practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  35. McIntosh, P. (2008). White privilege and male privilege. In M. McGoldrick & K. V. Hardy (Eds.), Re-visioning family therapy: Race, culture, and gender in clinical practice (2nd ed., pp. 238–249). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  36. Moraga, C. (2004). La Güera. In M. L. Andersen & P. H. Collins (Eds.), Race, class, and gender: An anthology (5th ed., pp. 28–35). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.Google Scholar
  37. Omi, M., & Winant, H. (2004). Racial formations. In P. S. Rothenberg (Ed.), Race, class, and gender in the United States (6th ed., pp. 12–21). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. Paynter, R., Hautaniemi, S., & Muller, N. (1994). The landscapes of the W. E. B. Du Bois boyhood homesite: An agenda for an archaeology of the color line. In S. Gregory & R. Sanjek (Eds.), Race (pp. 285–318). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Riggs, M. (Producer & Director). (1987). Ethnic notions [Documentary]. United States: Newsreel.org/video.
  40. Robbins, S. P., Chatterjee, P., & Canda, E. R. (2012). Contemporary human behavior theory: A critical perspective for social work (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  41. Sanjek, R. (1994). The enduring inequalities of race. In S. Gregory & R. Sanjek (Eds.), Race (pp. 1–17). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Schaefer, R. T. (1998). Racial and ethnic groups (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Scott, Foresman and Company.Google Scholar
  43. Schriver, J. M. (2004). Human behavior and the social environment: Shifting paradigms in essential knowledge for social work practice (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/A & B.Google Scholar
  44. Sethi, R. C. (2004). Smells like racism. In P. S. Rothenberg (Ed.), Race, class, & gender in the United States: An integrated study (6th ed., pp. 143–154). New York, NY: St Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  45. Simpson, G. E., & Yinger, J. M. (1974). Techniques for reducing prejudice: Changing the situation. In P. Watson (Ed.), Psychology and race (pp. 145–174). Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  46. Smedley, A., & Smedley, B. D. (2005). Race as biology is fiction, racism as a social problem is real: Anthropological and historical perspectives on the social construction of race. American Psychologist, 60(1), 16–26. Retrieved from http://psych.colorado.edu/~willcutt/pdfs/Smedley_2005.pdf CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stampp, K. M. (1956). The peculiar institution: Slavery in the ante-bellum south. New York, NY: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  48. Stewart, E. C. (1976). Cultural sensitivities in counseling. In P. Pedersen, W. Lonner, & J. G. Draguns (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (pp. 98–122). Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  49. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (1990). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  50. Swenson, C. R. (1998). Clinical social work’s contribution to a social justice perspective. Social Work, 43, 527–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tatum, B. (2013). The complexity of Identity: “Who and I”. In M. Adams, W. J. Blumenfeld, C. Castañeda, H. W. Hackman, M. L. Peters, & X. Zúñiga (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice (3rd ed., pp. 6–9). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Tourse, R. W. C. (1984). An internalized racial process: putting people of color in their place. Unpublished teaching diagram.Google Scholar
  53. Tourse, R. W. C. (2016). Understanding cultural sway: Critical for culturally competent practice. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 86(2), 84–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Van Soest, D., & Garcia, B. (2003). Diversity education for social justice: Mastering teaching skills. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.Google Scholar
  55. Walls, N. E., Griffen, R., Arnold-Renicker, H., Burson, M., Johnston, C., Moorman, N., et al. (2009). Mapping graduate social work student learning journeys about heterosexual privilege. Journal of Social Work Education, 45(2), 289–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yamato, G. (2004). Something about the subject makes it hard to name. In M. L. Andersen & P. H. Collins (Eds.), Race, class, & gender: An anthology (5th ed., pp. 99–103). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robbie W. C. Tourse
    • 1
  • Johnnie Hamilton-Mason
    • 2
  • Nancy J. Wewiorski
    • 3
  1. 1.Boston College School of Social WorkChestnut HillUSA
  2. 2.Simmons College School of Social WorkBostonUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Department of Veterans AffairsBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations