Advertisement

Focus Group Becomes Support Group: Women in Educational Leadership

  • Jennifer L. Martin
  • Martina L. Sharp-Grier
  • Chloe E. Bortmas
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we seek to share and problematize our own experiences as leaders in education at the university level and the experiences of a diverse group of women leaders holding various administrative roles in K-12 education. We end with strategies and suggestions on how women can navigate the bumpy road of leadership that does not always rise to meet them.

Keywords

Transformational leadership Personal agency Attribution error Cultural lockdown Microaggressions 

References

  1. Abele, A. E. (2003). The dynamics of masculine-agentic feminine-communal traits: Findings from a prospective study. Journal of Personality, 85(4), 768–776.Google Scholar
  2. Alston, J. A. (2000). Missing from action: Where are the black female school superintendents? Urban Education, 35(5), 525–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bachen, C. M., McLoughlin, M. M., & Garcia, S. S. (1999, July). Assessing the role of gender in college students’ evaluations of faculty. Communication Education, 48, 193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, P., & Copp, M. (1997, January). Gender matters most: The interaction of gendered expectations, feminist course content, and pregnancy in student course evaluations. Teaching Sociology, 25, 29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beauboeuf-Lafontant, T. (2007). “You have to show strength”: An exploration of gender, race, and depression. Gender and Society, 2(1), 28–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beauboeuf-Lafontant, T. (2005). Keeping up appearances, getting fed up: The embodiment of strength among African American women. Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism, 5(2), 104–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 140, 139–167.Google Scholar
  9. Cross, W. E., Strauss, L., & Fhagen-Smith, P. (1999). African American identity development across the life span: Educational implications. In R. H. Sheets & E. R. Hollins (Eds.), Racial and ethnic identity in school practices: Aspects of human development (pp. 29–47). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Dreher, G. F. (2003). Breaking the glass ceiling: The effects of sex ratios and work-life programs on female leadership at the top. Human Relations, 56(5), 541–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., & Van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eagly, A. H., Karau, S. J., & Makhijani, M. G. (1995). Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 117(1), 125–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eagly, A. H., Makhijani, M. G., & Klonsky, B. G. (1992). Gender and the evaluation of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111(1), 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(4), 735–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Elabor-Idemudia, P. (2011). Identity, representation, and knowledge production. In C. A. Bowers (Ed.), Counterpoints—Indigenous philosophies and critical education: A reader (Vol. 379, pp. 142–156). New York, NY: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  16. Erickson, R. J., & Ritter, C. (2001). Emotional labor, burnout, and inauthenticity: Does gender matter? Social Psychology Quarterly, 64(2), 146–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Exum, W. H. (1983). Climbing the crystal stair: Values, affirmative action, and minority faculty. Social Problems, 30(4), 383–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Foster, J. C. (2015). David Hamilton Golland. constructing affirmative action: The struggle for equal employment opportunity. Enterprise & Society, 16(02), 464–466.Google Scholar
  19. Frame, M. W., Willams, C. B., & Green, E. (1999). Balm in Gilead: Spiritual dimensions in counseling African American women. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 27(4), 192–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goff, P. A., Jackson, M. C., Di Leone, B. A., Culotta, C. M., & DiTomasso, N. A. (2014). The essence of innocence: Consequences of dehumanizing black children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(4), 526–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in every day life. Gordon City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  22. Greenhaus, J. H., & Parasuraman, S. (1993). Job performance attributions and career advancement prospects: An examination of gender and race effects. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 55, 273–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gupton, S. L., & Slick, G. A. (1996). Highly successful women administrators: The inside stories of how they got there. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  24. Gutierrez y Muhs, G., Flores Niemann, Y., Gonzalez, C. G., & Harris, A. P. (Eds.). (2012). Presumed incompetent: The intersections of race and class for women in academia. Boulder, CO: Utah State University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hamermesh, D. S., & Parker, A. (2005). Beauty in the classroom: Instructors’ pulchritude and putative pedagogical productivity. Economics of Education Review, 24(4), 369–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harlow, R. (2003). “Race doesn’t matter, but…”: The effect of race on professors’ experiences and emotion management in the undergraduate college classroom. Social Psychology Quarterly, 66(4), 348–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Harris, A. P., & Gonzalez, C. G. (2012). Introduction. In G. Gutierrez y Muhs, Y. Flores Niemann, C. G. Gonzalez, & A. P. Harris (Eds.), Presumed incompetent: The intersections of race and class for women in academia (pp. 1–14). Boulder, CO: Utah State University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Heilman, M. E., Wallen, A. S., Fuchs, D., & Tamkins, M. M. (2004). Penalties for success: Reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(3), 416–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hill, S., & Sprague, J. (1999). Parenting in black and white families: The interaction of gender with race and class. Gender and Society, 13(40), 480–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  31. Hopkins, M. M., O’Neil, D. A., Passarelli, A., & Bilimoria, D. (2008). Women’s leadership development: Strategic practices for women and organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 60(4), 348–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jones, S. J., Taylor, C. M., & Coward, F. (2013). Through the looking glass: An autoethnographic view of the perceptions of race and institutional support in the tenure process. The Qualitative Report, 18(58), 1–16.Google Scholar
  33. Kirchmeyer, C. (1998). Determinants of managerial career success: Evidence and explanation of male/female differences. Journal of Management, 24(6), 673–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kropiewnicki, M. I., & Shapiro, J. P. (2001). Female leadership and the ethic of care: Three case studies. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, WA. April 10–14.Google Scholar
  35. Lively, K. J. (2000). Reciprocal emotion management: Working together to maintain stratification in private law firms. Work and Occupations, 27(1), 32–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lorde, A. (1997). Age, race, class, and sex: Women redefining difference. Cultural Politics, 11, 374–380.Google Scholar
  37. Ludlow, J., Rodgers, L. A., & Wrighton, M. G. (2005). Students’ perceptions of instructors’ identities: Effects and interventions. Academic Exchange Extra. Retrieved May 20, 2014, from http://www.unco.edu/ae-extra/2005/3/Art-2.html.
  38. Lyness, K. S., & Thompson, D. E. (1997). Above the glass ceiling? A comparison of matched samples of female and male executives. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(3), 359–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Martin, J. L. (Ed.). (2011b). Women as leaders in education: Succeeding despite inequity, discrimination, and other challenges. Volume 2: Women as leaders in classrooms and schools. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  40. Martin, J. L., & Sharp-Grier, M. L. (2016). Lest we forget, the personal continues to be political: Yik Yak and other unsafe spaces, necessary dialogue in a time of silence. In M. Paludi (Ed.), Campus action against sexual assault: Needs, policies, procedures, and training programs (pp. 51–82). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  41. Moss-Racusin, C. A., Dovidio, J. F., Brescoll, V. L., Graham, M. J., & Handelsman, J. (2012). Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(41), 16474–16479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Paludi, M. A., & Coates, B. E. (Eds.). (2011). Women as transformational leaders: From grassroots to global interests. Volume 2: Organizational obstacles and solutions. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  43. Pardine, P., Fox, I., & Salzano, J. (1995). Substereotypes and requisite management characteristics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. (Eric Document Reproduction Services. ED397239).Google Scholar
  44. Parker, P. S., & Ogilvie, D. T. (1996). Gender, culture, and leadership: Toward a culturally distinct model of African-American women executives’ leadership strategies. The Leadership Quarterly, 7(2), 189–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Parks, S. (2010). Fierce angels: The strong Black Woman in American life and culture. New York, NY: One World Press.Google Scholar
  46. Patton, L. D., Shahjahan, R. A., & Osei-Kofi, N. (2010). Introduction to the emergent approaches to diversity and social justice in higher education special issue. Equity & Excellence in Education, 43(3), 265–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rodriguez, D. (2006). Un/masking identity: Healing our wounded souls. Qualitative Inquiry, 12(6), 1067–1090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Saldana, J. (2016). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  49. Sandler, B. R. (1991). Women faculty at work in the classroom, or, why it still hurts to be a woman in labor. Communication Education, 40, 1–15.Google Scholar
  50. Settles, I. H., Cortina, L. M., Malley, J., & Stewart, A. J. (2006). The climate for women in academic science: The good, the bad, and the changeable. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30, 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sharp-Grier, M. (2013). Ain’t no pity party here!: African American women’s socialization into the sbw. Presented at the ninth international congress of qualitative inquiry. The University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  52. Sharp-Grier, M. L. (2015). “She was more intelligent than I thought she’d be!”: Status, stigma, and microaggressions in the academy. In J. Martin (Ed.), Racial battle fatigue: Insights from the front lines of social justice advocacy. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  53. Sharp-Grier, M. L., & Martin, J. L. (2016). Broken windows, broken promises: Grief, privilege, and hope in the mythical post racial. A call and response. Qualitative Inquiry, 22, 561–567.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800415624716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shinew, K. J., & Arnold, M. L. (1998). Gender equity in the leisure services field. Journal of Leisure Research, 30(2), 177–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52(6), 613–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Swann, W. B., Jr. (1987). Identity negotiation: Where two roads meet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(6), 1038–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Takiff, H. A., Sanchez, D. T., & Stewart, T. L. (2001). What’s in a name? The status implications of students’ terms of address for male and female professors. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25, 134–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Toombs, C. (2013). Diverse faculty: The collision of academic freedom, course content/subject matter, student evaluations, student conduct, research areas, and colleagues. Seattle, WA: AAUP Summer Institute.Google Scholar
  59. Twenge, J. M. (1997). Changes in masculine and feminine traits over time: A meta-analysis. Sex Roles, 36, 305–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vinnicombe, S., & Harris, H. (2000). A gender hidden. People Management, 6, 28–29.Google Scholar
  61. Vinnicombe, S., & Singh, V. (2002). Women-only management training: An essential part of women’s leadership development. Journal of Change Management, 3(4), 294–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Warren, C. A. B., & Karner, T. X. (2005). Discovering qualitative methods: Field research, interviews, and analysis. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  63. West, M. S., & Curtis, J. W. (2006). AAUP faculty gender equity indicators 2006. Washington, DC: American Association of University Professors.Google Scholar
  64. White House Project (2009). Report: Benchmarking women’s leadership. Retrieved on February 10, 2018 from http://benchmarks.thewhitehouseproject.org.
  65. Whiston, S. C., & Bouwkamp, J. C. (2003). Ethical implications of career assessment with women. Journal of Career Assessment, 11(1), 59–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Williams, T. (2008). Black pain: It just looks like we’re not hurting. New York, NY: Scribner.Google Scholar
  67. Williamson, R. D., & Hudson, M. B. (2001, April). New rules for the game: How women leaders resist socialization to old norms. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  68. Woods-Giscombe, C. L. (2010). Superwoman schema: African American women’s views on stress, strength, and health. Qualitative Health Research, 20(5), 668–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer L. Martin
    • 1
  • Martina L. Sharp-Grier
    • 2
  • Chloe E. Bortmas
    • 1
  1. 1.AllianceUSA
  2. 2.North CantonUSA

Personalised recommendations