Chronic Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

  • Pooya Khan Mohammad Beigi


Cutaneous lupus can be classified into three main different forms based on its clinical presentation [1]:
  1. 1.

    Acute cutaneous LE (ACLE)

  2. 2.

    Subacute cutaneous LE (SCLE)

  3. 3.

    Chronic cutaneous LE (CCLE)



Acute cutaneous LE (ACLE) Subacute cutaneous LE (SCLE) Chronic cutaneous LE (CCLE) Hyperkeratotic LE Lupus tumidus Lupus profundus ,Chilblain lupus Peripheral scaling Hyperpigmentation Trauma UV exposure Cold temperatures Infection Dermatitis Burns Keratoacanthoma Hypertrophic lichen Dermal elastin fibers Lupus tumidus Lupus profundus Chilblain lupus Biopsy Basement membrane Follicular plugging Mucin Perivascular lymphocytic Inflammation Adnexal involvement Photoprotection Corticosteroids Topical calcineurin inhibitors Systemic antimalarial therapy UVA UVB Smoking cessation Corticosteroids Fluocinonide Hydrocortisone Topical calcineurin inhibitors Intralesional Antimalarials Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) Chloroquine Quinacrine 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pooya Khan Mohammad Beigi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Health ManagementNew York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA
  2. 2.University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Misdiagnosis AssociationSeattleUSA

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