Ultrasonography of the Thyroid and Cervical Lymph Nodes

  • Enrico Papini
  • R. Guglielmi
  • Irene Misischi
  • Andrea Frasoldati


Due to its wide accessibility, easiness of use, and inexpensive cost, ultrasound (US) examination of the thyroid gland and cervical lymph nodes is commonly employed for the diagnosis of diffuse and nodular thyroid disease and for the pre-operatory staging and follow-up of patients with thyroid malignancy.

The present chapter is focused on the basic principles of US imaging, on thyroid US examination, and on the role of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of thyroid disease. Special attention will be devoted to thyroid nodular disease, to the identification of benign and malignant US findings, and to the use of US classification systems for the stratification of the risk of malignancy.

Lymph node anatomy and topography and the diagnostic approach to the imaging of regional thyroid metastases will be discussed in a dedicated section.

Learning objectives of this section are to make the reader familiar with main US assessment modalities, the use of an appropriate equipment, the correct diagnosis of thyroid and cervical lymph node abnormalities, and a reliable reporting system of neck US findings.


Thyroid ultrasound Thyroid nodule Neck lymph nodes Thyroid malignancy 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enrico Papini
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Guglielmi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Irene Misischi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrea Frasoldati
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EndocrinologyRegina Apostolorum HospitalRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of EndocrinologyArcispedale Santa Maria NuovaReggio EmiliaItaly

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