Protists of Arctic Sea Ice

  • Z. T. Smoła
  • A. M. Kubiszyn
  • M. Różańska
  • A. Tatarek
  • J. M. Wiktor
Part of the GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences book series (GEPS)


Sea ice not only shapes the global climate but is also an important background for a complicated ecosystem that is closely related to the littoral benthic ecosystem. This similarity is the reason why this formation is usually referred to as an “inverted bottom.” In the deep central part of the Arctic Basin (which is 47% of its overall surface area), it is estimated that approximately 50% of the primary production comes from autotrophic protists (sympagic) related to sea ice. Global warming has caused changes in the range and time of sea ice occurrence, and the existence time of sea ice assemblages is also changing. After 173 years of ice-related microalgae studies, the appearance of 1027 taxa closely related to sea ice has been recorded.


Protists Arctic Sea ice Primary production 



The team of authors has participated in research on ice protists in international programmes such as NOW (North Water Polynya—1998), ‘Marinok’ (Project on Ice Margin Zone on Barents Sea)—1999–2000, CASES (Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study)—2003/4, CLEOPATRA (Climate effects on planktonic food quality and trophic transfer in Arctic Marginal Ice Zones) 2007/2008, Resolute 2010/11 and have participated in ArcticNet (grant NR695/N-ARCTICNET/2010/0).

This publication was financed by funds from the Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) received by the Centre for Polar Studies for the period 2014–2018.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. T. Smoła
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. M. Kubiszyn
    • 1
  • M. Różańska
    • 1
  • A. Tatarek
    • 1
  • J. M. Wiktor
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine Ecology DepartmentInstitute of Oceanology Polish Academy of SciencesSopotPoland
  2. 2.Centre for Polar Studies KNOW (Leading National Research Centre), Faculty of Earth SciencesUniversity of SilesiaSosnowiecPoland

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