Management Can Be Considered as a Profession
This chapter challenges the views held by scholars in the professions arena asserting that the management occupation is not a profession. The role of civil society is examined and occupational classification systems are used to develop an occupational baseline to enable an assessment of management along a professionalization continuum. A new professionalization framework is applied to assess the degree to which management can be considered as a profession. Leveraging the precedence of medicine as a true profession, common professionalization framework elements are applied to the management occupation resulting in an assessment at Level 2, Emerging Professions.
KeywordsTrue profession Client-practitioner relationship Management occupation Professionalization Civil society
- Abbott, Andrew. 1988. The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Addison, Joseph, and Richard Steele. 1711. “The Professions.” The Spectator in London 4:114–9.Google Scholar
- American Medical Association. 2016. “Born to Do This: 2016 Annual Report.” https://www.ama-assn.org/sites/default/files/media-browser/ama-annual-report-2016.pdf. Accessed on 22 August 2017.
- Barker, Richard. 2010. “No, Management Is Not a Profession.” Harvard Business Review 88(7): 52–60. https://hbr.org/2010/07/the-big-idea-no-management-is-not-a-profession. Accessed on August 21, 2017.Google Scholar
- Barnett, Tim, Judith M. Nixon, and Marilyn M. Helms, eds. 2006. Encyclopedia of Management (5th edn.). Detroit, MI: Gayle Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
- Carr-Saunders, Alexander M., and Paul A. Wilson. 1933. The Professions. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
- Central Statistics Office. 2014a. “NaceCoder: Activities of Head Offices.” http://www.cso.ie/px/u/NACECoder/NaceItems/7010.asp. Accessed on 27 August 2017.
- Central Statistics Office. 2014b. “NaceCoder: General Medical Practice Activities.” http://www.cso.ie/px/u/NACECoder/NaceItems/8621.asp. Accessed on 27 August 2017.
- Chartered Financial Analyst Institute. 2017. “CFA Program.” https://www.cfainstitute.org/programs/cfaprogram/pages/index.aspx?wpid=programs&pagename=homepage. Accessed on 31 August 2017.
- Delacruz, Victor J. 2014. “Examining Perspectives on Professional Certification for an Emerging Strategic Management Profession.” DBA diss., University of Phoenix.Google Scholar
- European Commission. 2013. “European Classification of Skills/Competences, Qualifications and Occupations.” http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=11011&langId=en. Accessed on 27 August 2017.
- European Commission, EUROPA. 2010. “Competition: List of NACE Codes.” http://ec.europa.eu/competition/mergers/cases/index/nace_all.html. Accessed on 27 August 2017.
- European Union of Medical Specialists. 2017. “Presentation.” https://www.uems.eu/about-us/presentation. Accessed on 3 August 2017.
- Information Systems Audit and Control Association. 2017. “ISACA Certification: IT Audit, Security, Governance and Risk.” http://www.isaca.org/certification/pages/default.aspx. Accessed on 31 August 2017.
- Institute of Certified Professional Managers. 2017. “Certified Manager Certification.” https://www.icpm.biz/index.php/icpm_site/certified-manager. Accessed on 31 August 2017.
- Khurana, Rakesh, and Nitin Nohria. 2008. “It’s Time to Make Management a True Profession.” Harvard Business Review 86(10):70–7. https://hbr.org/2008/10/its-time-to-make-management-a-true-profession. Accessed on August 21, 2017.Google Scholar
- Khurana, Rakesh, Nitin Nohria, and Daniel Penrice. 2005. “Is Business Management a Profession?” Harvard Business School Working Knowledge. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/is-business-management-a-profession. Accessed on 29 June 2017.
- Lowell, A. Lawrence. 1923. “The Profession of Business.” Harvard Business Review 1:129–31.Google Scholar
- Moran, Mark. 2017. “AMA Code of Medial Ethics Gets Long-Awaited Update.” Psychiatric News. http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.pn.2017.3a3. Accessed on August 6, 2017.
- Scott, W. Richard. 2003. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems (5th edn.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- Sullivan, Peter. 2017. “American Medical Association Opposes GOP ObamaCare Bill.” The Hill, March 8. http://thehill.com/policy/healthcare/322889-largest-doctors-group-opposes-gop-obamacare-bill. Accessed on August 22, 2017.
- U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2010a. “Standard Occupational Classification: 2010 SOC Major Groups.” https://www.bls.gov/soc/major_groups.htm. Accessed on 27 August 2017.
- U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2010b. “Standard Occupational Classification: 11-0000 Management Occupations.” https://www.bls.gov/soc/2010/soc110000.htm. Accessed on 27 August 2017.
- U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2010c. “Standard Occupational Classification: 11-1011 Chief Executives.” https://www.bls.gov/soc/2010/soc111011.htm. Accessed on 27 August 2017.
- U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2010d. “Standard Occupational Classification: 11-1021 General and Operations Managers.” https://www.bls.gov/soc/2010/soc111021.htm. Accessed on 27 August 2017.
- U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2010e. “Standard Occupational Classification: 29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations.” https://www.bls.gov/soc/2010/soc290000.htm. Accessed on 27 August 2017.
- U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2017. “Occupational Outlook Handbook: Physicians and Surgeons.” https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/physicians-and-surgeons.htm. Accessed on 27 August 2017.