Advertisement

Bisexuality pp 165-188 | Cite as

10 Well-Being: Bisexuality and Mental and Physical Health

  • Shani Habibi
  • Florence Stueck
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter explores the interlocking effects of bi-invisibility, monosexism, and binegativity, and how the resulting lack of social support networks contributes to the mental and physical health problems experienced by some bisexual individuals. Further, this chapter will explore practical considerations for mental health practitioners treating bisexual individuals. Because research indicates that sexual minorities, including bisexual individuals, are more likely to seek mental health services than heterosexual individuals, it is imperative that mental health practitioners educate themselves regarding the issues faced by sexual minority individuals in general and bisexual individuals in particular, and consider these issues when determining an overall treatment approach. Specifically, it is essential for mental health practitioners to understand that bisexual individuals encounter additional challenges that are unique to their identities. Aggregated research from the relatively small number of available studies expressly evaluating the mental health of bisexual individuals indicates they are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, substance use issues, and higher rates of attempted suicide than monosexual (the privileging of heterosexuality and homosexuality) individuals. The objectives of this chapter are to: (i) identify the unique mental and physical health challenges faced by bisexual individuals and (ii) discuss how mental health services can be tailored to better meet the needs of bisexual individuals. This chapter examines the impact of bi-invisibility, monosexism, binegativity, the stress associated with the coming-out process, violence, and sexual health on mental health outcomes. This chapter also addresses the importance of practitioners assessing their own attitudes and unconscious biases, the factors practitioners should consider when evaluating bisexual clients, case management approaches, the status of education and training in the area of bisexuality, and the importance of advocacy.

Keywords

Bisexuality Bi-invisibility Monosexism Binegativity Mental health Physical health 

References

  1. Alarie, M., & Gaudet, S. (2013). ‘I don’t know if she is bisexual or if she just wants to get attention’: The various mechanisms through which emerging adults invisibilize bisexuality. Journal of Bisexuality, 13(2), 191–214.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15299716.2013.780004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychological Association. (2012). Guidelines for psychological practice with lesbian, gay & bisexual clients. American Psychological Association, 67(1), 10–42. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024659
  3. Balsam, K., & Mohr, J. J. (2007). Adaptation to sexual orientation stigma: A comparison of bisexual and lesbian/gay adults. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 306–319.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.54.3.306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barker, M. (2007). Heteronormativity and the analyzing exclusion of bisexuality in psychology. In V. Clarke & E. Peel (Eds.), Out in psychology: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer perspectives (pp. 86–118). Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Barker, M., & Yockney, J. (2004). Including the B-word: Reflections on the place of bisexuality within lesbian and gay activism and psychology. Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review, 5(3), 118–122.Google Scholar
  6. Bauer, G. R., & Brennan, D. J. (2013). The problem with ‘behavioral Bisexuality': Assessing sexual orientation in survey research. Journal of Bisexuality, 13(2), 148–165.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15299716.2013.782260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baumgardner, J. (2007). Look both ways: Bisexual politics. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.Google Scholar
  8. Beemyn, B., & Steinman, E. W. (2000). Bisexuality in the lives of men: Facts and fictions. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Bostwick, W., & Hequembourg, A. L. (2013). Minding the noise: Conducting health research among bisexual populations and beyond. Journal of Homosexuality, 60(4), 655–661.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2013.760370 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bradford, M. (2004). The bisexual experience: Living in a dichotomous culture. Journal of Bisexuality, 4(1–2), 7–23.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J159v04n01_02 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brennan, D. J., Ross, L. E., Dobinson, C., Veldhuizen, S., & Steele, L. S. (2010). Men’s sexual orientation and health in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 101(3), 255–258.Google Scholar
  12. Burleson, W. E. (2005). Bi America: Myths, truths, and struggles of an invisible community. New York, NY: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  13. Chandra, A., Mosher, W. D., Copen, C., & Sionean, C. (2011, March). Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual identity in the United States: Data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of family growth. National Health Statistics Reports, 36, 1–36.Google Scholar
  14. Cochran, S. D., Sullivan, J. G., & Mays, V. M. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental services use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(1), 53–61.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.1.53 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Copen, C. E., Chandra, A., & Febo-Vazquez, I. (2016). Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual identity among adults aged 18-44 in the United States: Data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of family growth. National Health Statistics Report, 88, 1–14.Google Scholar
  16. D’Augelli, A. R., & Garnets, L. D. (1995). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual communities. In A. R. D’Augelli & C. J. Patterson (Eds.), Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over the lifespan: Psychological perspectives (pp. 293–320). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. de Bruin, K., & Arndt, M. (2010). Attitudes toward bisexual men and women in a university context: Relations with race, gender, knowing a bisexual man or woman and sexual orientation. Journal of Bisexuality, 10(3), 233–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diamond, L. M. (2008). Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: Results from a 10-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 44(1), 5–14.  https://doi.org/10.1037/00121649.44.1.5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dyar, C., Feinstein, B. A., & London, B. (2014). Mediators of differences between lesbians and bisexual women in sexual identity and minority stress. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(1), 43–51.  https://doi.org/10.1037/sgd0000090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dyar, C., Feinstein, B. A., Schick, V., & Davila, J. (2017). Minority stress, sexual identity uncertainty, and partner gender decision making among nonmonosexual individuals. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Done and Gender Diversity, 4(1), 87–104.  https://doi.org/10.1037/sgd0000213 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dillon, F. R., Worthington, R. L., Savoy, H. B., Rooney, S. C., Becker-Schutte, A., & Guerra, R. M. (2004). On becoming allies: A qualitative study of lesbian, gay-, and bisexual affirmative counselor training. Counselor Education and Supervision, 43(2), 162–178.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6978.2004.tb01840.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dillon, F. R., Worthington, R. L., Soth-McNett, S. M., & Schwartz, S. J. (2008). Gender and sexual identity-based predictors of lesbian, gay, and bisexual affirmative counseling self-efficacy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(3), 353–360.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.39.3.353 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dworkin, S. H. (2001). Treating the bisexual client. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(5), 671–680.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.1036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dworkin, S. H. (2002). Biracial, bicultural, bisexual: Bisexuality and multiple identities. Journal of Bisexuality, 2(4), 93–107.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J159v02n04_06 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eliason, M. (1997). The prevalence and nature of biphobia in heterosexual undergraduate students. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26(3), 317–326.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024527032040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eliason, M. J., & Hughes, T. (2004). Treatment counselor’s attitudes about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered clients: Urban vs. rural settings. Substance Use and Misuse, 39, 625–644.  https://doi.org/10.1081/JA-120030063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Espelage, D. L., Aragon, S. R., Birkett, M., & Koenig, B. W. (2008). Homophobic teasing, psychological outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students: What influence do parents and school have? School Psychology Review, 37, 202–216.Google Scholar
  28. Everett, B. G. (2013). Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infections: Examining the intersection between sexual identity and sexual behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(2), 225–236.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-9902-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Feinstein, B. A., Latack, J. A., Bhatia, V., Davila, J., & Eaton, N. R. (2016). Romantic relationship involvement as a minority stress buffer in gay/lesbian versus bisexual individuals. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental health, 20, 237–257.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19359705.2016.1147401 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Firestein, B. (2007). Cultural and relational contexts of bisexual women: Implications for therapy. In B. A. Firestein (Ed.), Becoming visible: Counseling bisexuals across the lifespan (pp. 127–152). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Freedner, N., Freed, L. H., Yang, Y. W., & Austin, S. B. (2002). Dating violence among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents: Results from a community survey. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(6), 469–474.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00407-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Frost, D. M., & Meyer, I. H. (2009). Internalized homophobia and relationship quality among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 97–109.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012844 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Green, R. J., & Mitchell, V. (2002). Gay and lesbian couples in therapy: Homophobia, relationship ambiguity, and social support. In A. S. Gurman & N. S. Jacobson (Eds.), Clinical handbook of couple therapy (pp. 546–568). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. Grove, J. (2009). How competent are trainee and newly qualified counselors to work with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients and what do they perceive as their most effective learning experiences? Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 9(2), 78–85.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14733140802490622 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Haldeman, D. C. (1996). Spirituality and religion in the lives of lesbians and gay men. In R. P. Cabaj & T. S. Stein (Eds.), Textbook of homosexuality and mental health (pp. 881–896). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  36. Halperin, D. M. (2009). Thirteen ways of looking at a bisexual. Journal of Bisexuality, 9(3–4), 451–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hays, D. G. (2014). Assessment in counseling: A guide to the use of psychological assessment procedures. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Hayes, B. G., & Hagedorn, W. B. (2001). Working with the bisexual client: How far have we progressed? Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 40(1), 11–20.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-490X.2001.tb00098.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Healthy People. (2010). Companion Document for LGBT Health [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.med.umich.edu/diversity/pdffiles/healthpeople.pdf
  40. Hebernick, D., Reece, M., Schick, V., Sanders, S. A., Dodge, B., & Fortenberry, J. D. (2010). Sexual behavior in the United States: Results from a national probability sample of men and women aged 14–94. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7, 255–265.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02012.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hequembourg, A. L., Livingston, J. A., & Parks, K. A. (2013). Sexual victimization and associated risks among lesbian and bisexual women. Violence Against Women, 19(5), 634–657.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801213490557 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Herek, G. M. (2002). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 39, 264–274.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490209552150 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Herek, G. M., Gillis, J., & Cogan, J. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(6), 945–951.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.67.6.945 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Horowitz, S. M., Weis, D. L., & Laflin, M. T. (2003). Bisexuality, quality of life, lifestyle, and health indicators. Journal of Bisexuality, 3(2), 5–28.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J159v03n02_02 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huebner, D. M., Rebchook, G. M., & Kegeles, S. M. (2004). Experiences of harassment, discrimination, and physical violence among young gay and bisexual men. American Journal of Public Health, 94(7), 1200–1203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Israel, T., Gorcheva, R., Walther, W. A., Sulzner, J. M., & Cohen, J. (2008). Therapists’ helpful and unhelpful situations with LGBT clients: An exploratory study. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(3), 361–368.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.39.3.361 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Israel, T., & Mohr, J. (2004). Attitudes towards bisexual women and men: Current research, future directions. Journal of bisexuality, 4(1-2), 2004, 117-134. doi: https://doi.org/10.1300/J159v04n01_09 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jennings, K., & Shapiro, P. (2003). Always my child: A parent’s guide to understanding your gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, or questioning son or daughter. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  49. Jorm, A. F., Korten, A. E., Rodgers, B., Jacomb, P. A., & Christensen, H. (2002). Sexual orientation and mental health: Results from a community survey of young and middle-aged adults. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180(5), 423–427.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.180.5.423 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kertzner, R., Meyer, I. H., Frost, D. M., & Stirratt, M. J. (2009). Social and psychological well-being in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: The effects of race, gender, age and sexual identity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79, 500–510.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016848 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Bartkiewicz, M. J., Boesen, M. J., & Palmer, N. A. (2012). The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York, NY: Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network.Google Scholar
  52. Li, T., Dobinson, C., Scheim, A. I., & Ross, L. E. (2013). Unique issues bisexual people face in intimate relationships: A descriptive exploration of lived experience. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental health, 17, 21–39.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19359705.2012.723607 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Logan, C. R. (1996). Homophobia? No, homoprejudice. Journal of Homosexuality, 31(3), 31–53.  https://doi.org/10.1300/j082v31n03_03 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McCormack, M., Anderson, E., & Adams, A. (2014). Cohort effect on the coming-out ‘experiences of bisexual men. Sociology, 48(6), 1207–1223. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038513518851 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McGeorge, C., & Carlson, T. S. (2011). Deconstructing heterosexism: Becoming an LGB affirmative heterosexual couple and family therapist. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 37(1), 14–26.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2009.00149.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McLean, K. (2007). Hiding in the closet? Bisexuals, coming-out and the disclosure imperative. Journal of Sociology, 43(2), 151–166. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783307076893 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McLean, K. (2008). Inside, outside, nowhere: Bisexual men and women in the gay and lesbian community. Journal of Bisexuality, 8(1–2), 63–80.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15299710802143174 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674–697.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Miller, K, & Ryan, M. J. (2011). Design, development and testing of the NHIS Sexual Identity Question [PDF file]. Retrieved from: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/qbank/report/Miller_NCHS_2011_NHIS%20Sexual%20Identity.pdf
  60. Mohr, J., Israel, T., & Sedlacek, W. E. (2001). Counselors’ attitudes regarding bisexuality as predictors of counselors’ clinical responses: An analogue study of a female bisexual client. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 212–222.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.48.2.212 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mohr, J. J., Jackson, S. D., & Sheets, R. L. (2016). Sexual orientation self-presentation among bisexual-identified women and men: Patterns and predictors. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(5), 1465–1479.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-016-0808-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mohr, J. J., & Rochlen, A. B. (1999). Measuring attitudes regarding bisexuality in lesbian, gay male, and heterosexual populations. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46(3), 353–369.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.46.3.353 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mohr, J., Weiner, J. L., Chopp, R. M., & Wong, S. J. (2009). Effects of client bisexuality on clinical judgment: When is bias most likely to occur? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 164–175.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012816 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Molina, Y., Marquez, J. H., Logan, D. E., Leeson, C. J., Balsam, K. F., & Kaysen, D. L. (2015). Current intimate relationship status, depression, and alcohol use among bisexual women: The mediating roles of bisexual-specific minority stressors. Sex Roles, 73(1), 43–57.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-015-0483 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Moore, S. T. (1990). A social work practice model of case management: The case management grid. Social Work, 35(5), 444–448.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/35.5.444 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moradi, B., Mohr, J. J., Worthington, R. L., & Fassinger, R. E. (2009). Counseling psychology research on sexual (orientation) minority issues: Conceptual and methodological challenges and opportunities. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 5–22.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014572 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mosher, W. D., Chandra, A., & Jones, J. (2005). Sexual behavior and selected health measures: men and women 15–44 years of age, United States, 2002 [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad362.pdf
  68. Mulick, P. S., & Wright, L. W. (2002). Examining the existence of Biphobia in the heterosexual and homosexual populations. Journal of Bisexuality, 2(4), 45–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Murphy, J. A., Rawlings, E. I., & Howe, S. R. (2002). A survey of clinical psychologists on treating lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33(2), 183–189.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.33.2.183 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Muzny, C. A., Austin, E. L., Harbison, H. S., & Hook, E. W., 3rd. (2014). Sexual partnership characteristics of African American women who have sex with women; impact on sexually transmitted infection risk. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 41(10), 611–617.  https://doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000194 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Neville, S., & Henrickson, M. (2006). Perceptions of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people of primary healthcare services. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 55(4), 407–415.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03944.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. O’Neill, B. (2002). …we didn’t connect at all…the experiences of a gay client. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Services, 14(4), 75–91.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J041v14n04_05 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Oswalt, S. B. (2009). Don’t forge the “B”: Considering bisexual students and their specific health needs. Journal of American College Health, 57(5), 557–560. doi: https://doi.org/10.3200/JACH.57.5.557-560 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Page, E. (2007). Bisexual women’s and men’s experiences of psychotherapy. In B. A. Firestein (Ed.), Becoming visible: Counseling bisexuals across the lifespan (pp. 52–71). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Pakula, B., Shoveller, J., Ratner, P. A., & Carpiano, R. (2016). Prevalence and co-occurrence of heavy drinking and anxiety and mood disorders among gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual Canadians. American Journal of Public Health, 106(6), 1042–1048.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303083 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pallotta-Chiarolli, M. (2005). When our children come out: How to support gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered young people. New South Wales: Finch.Google Scholar
  77. Pew Research Center. (2013). A survey of LGBT Americans: Attitudes, experiences and values in changing times. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/06/13/a-survey-of-lgbt-americans/
  78. Rainey, S., & Trusty, J. (2007). Attitudes of master’s-level counseling students toward gay men and lesbians. Counseling and Values, 52(1), 12–24.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161007X.2007.tb00084.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ray, N. (2006). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: An epidemic of homelessness [PDF file]. Retrieved from http://www.thetaskforce.org/static_html/downloads/HomelessYouth.pdf
  80. Reback, C. J., & Larkins, S. (2010). Maintaining a heterosexual identity: Sexual meanings among a sample of heterosexually identified men who have sex with men. Archives of Sex Behavior, 39(3), 766–773.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-008-9437-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Roberts, T. S., Horne, S. G., & Hoyt, W. T. (2015). Between a gay and a straight place: Bisexual individuals’ experiences with monosexism. Journal of Bisexuality, 15(4), 554–569.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15299716.2015.1111183 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Robinson-Wood, T. L. (2009). The convergence of race, ethnicity, and gender: Multiple identities in counseling (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  83. Ross, L. E., Dobinson, C., & Eady, A. (2010). Perceived determinants of mental health for bisexual people: A qualitative examination. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 496–502. doi: https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.156307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rostosky, S. S., Riggle, E. D. B., Horne, S. G., & Miller, A. D. (2009). Marriage amendments and psychological distress in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 56–66.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013609 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rust, P. C. (2002). Bisexuality: The state of the union. Annual Review of Sex Research, 13(1), 180–240.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10532528.2002.10559805 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rust, P. C., & Firestein, B. (2007). The construction and reconstruction of bisexuality. In B. A. Firestein (Ed.), Becoming visible: Counseling bisexuals across the lifespan (pp. 3–27). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Ryan, C. (2009). Helping families support their lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) children. Washington, DC: National Center for Cultural Competence, Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development. Retrieved from http://nccc.georgetown.edu/documents/LGBT_Brief.pdf Google Scholar
  88. Scherrer, K. (2013). Culturally competent practice with bisexual individuals. Clinical Social Work Journal, 41, 238–248.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10615-013-0451-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Steele, L. S., Ross, L. E., Dobinson, C., Veldhuizen, S., & Tinmouth, J. M. (2009). Women’s sexual orientation and health: Results from a Canadian population-based survey. Women & Health, 49(5), 353–367.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03630240903238685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Troutman, O., & Packer-Williams, C. (2014). Moving beyond CACREP standards: Training counselors to work competently with LGBT clients. The Journal for Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 6(1), 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.7729/51.1088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Van Leeuwen, J. M., Boyle, S., Salomonsen-Sautel, S., Baker, D. N., Garcia, J. T., Hoffman, A., et al. (2006). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual homeless youth: An eight-city public health perspective. Child Welfare, 85, 151–170.Google Scholar
  92. Walters, M. L., Chen, J., & Breiding, M. J. (2013). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation [PDF file]. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/nisvs/2010_soreport.html
  93. Weinberg, M. S., Williams, C. J., & Pryor, D. W. (1994). Dual attraction: Understanding bisexuality. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Weiss, J. T. (2003). GL vs. BT: The archaeology of biphobia and transphobia within the U.S. gay and lesbian community. Journal of Bisexuality, 3(3–4), 25–55.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J159v03n03_02 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Welzer-Lang, D. (2008). Speaking out loud about bisexuality: Biphobia in the gay and lesbian community. Journal of Bisexuality, 8(1–2), 81–95.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15299710802142259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wiseman, M. C., & Moradi, B. (2010a). Body image and eating disorder symptoms in sexual minority men: A test and extension of objectification theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(2), 154–166.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018937 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. World Health Organization. (2006). Defining sexual health: Report of a technical consultation on sexual health 28–31 January 2002, Geneva [PDF file]. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/sexual_health/sh_definitions/en/
  98. Wormer, K. V., & McKinney, R. (2003). What schools can do to help gay/lesbian/bisexual youth: A harm reduction approach. Adolescence, 38(151), 409–420.Google Scholar
  99. Worthen, M. G. F. (2013). An argument for separate analyses of attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual men, bisexual women, MtF and FtM transgender individuals. Sex Roles, 68(11–12), 703–723.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-012-0155-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Welfel, E. R. (2006). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  101. Whisman, M. A. (2007). Marital distress and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in a population-based national survey. Journal of Abnormal Psychologyl, 116(3), 638–643.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.116.3.638 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wiseman, M. C., & Moradi, B. (2010b). Body image and eating disorder symptoms in sexual minority men: A test and extension of objectification theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(2), 154–166.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018937 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yalom, I. D. (1995). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  104. Zivony, A., & Lobel, T. (2014). The invisible stereotypes of bisexual men. Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 43(6), 1165–1176.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-014-0263-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentMount Saint Mary’s UniversityLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations