Advertisement

Sustainability in North America: The Canadian Experience

  • Mark Roseland
  • Maria Spiliotopoulou
Chapter

Abstract

Sustainability in North America has long been rooted in significant concerns about the social and environmental consequences of rapid population and economic growth plus the constantly increasing consumption of natural resources. This chapter begins with the sustainability experience in North America and particularly the historical milestones in the United States with respect to sustainable development. Canada’s history and experience has—in some ways and in some points in time—followed the United States and in other ways has diverged significantly. The chapter then details the Canadian experience with sustainable development. While Canada is starting to move toward an integrated sustainable development strategy, more effort is still required for the transition from the current resource-dependent paradigm to a sustainable and even regenerative economy.

Keywords

Sustainable development Sustainability North America Canada Environmental policies 

Further Reading

  1. Agyeman, Julian. 2013. Introducing Just Sustainabilities: Policy, Planning, and Practice. London/New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  2. Bayulken, Bogachan, and Donald Huisingh. 2015. A Literature Review of Historical Trends and Emerging Theoretical Approaches for Developing Sustainable Cities (Part 1). Journal of Cleaner Production 109: 11–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.12.100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berke, Philip R., and Maria Manta Conroy. 2000. Are We Planning for Sustainable Development? Journal of the American Planning Association 66: 21–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360008976081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. David Suzuki Foundation. http://www.davidsuzuki.org/. Web Accessed 11 Sept 2016.
  5. Dwivedi, O.P., John Patrick Kyba, Peter Stoett, and Rebecca Tiessen. 2001. Sustainable Development and Canada: National and International Perspectives. Peterborough: Broadview Press.Google Scholar
  6. Environment Canada. http://www.ec.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=FD9B0E51-1. Web Accessed 15 Sept 2016.
  7. Government of Canada’s Federal Sustainable Development Strategy. http://fsds-sfdd.ca/index.html#/en/intro/. Web Accessed 18 Sept 2016.
  8. Kates, Robert W., Thomas M. Parris, and Anthony A. Leiserowitz. 2005. What Is Sustainable Development? Goals, Indicators, and Practice. Environment 47 (3): 8–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/00139157.2005.10524444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the US EPA. Washington: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  10. Office of the Auditor General of Canada. http://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/au_fs_e_370.html. Web Accessed 29 Sept 2016.
  11. Roseland, Mark. 2012. Toward Sustainable Communities: Solutions for Citizens and Their Governments. 4th ed. Gabriola Island/British Columbia: New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. Salcido, Rachael. 2016. Reviving the Environmental Justice Agenda. Chicago-Kent Law Review 91 (1): 115–137.Google Scholar
  13. Sartori, Simone, Fernanda Latrônico Da Silva, and Lucila Maria De Souza Campos. 2014. Sustainability and Sustainable Development: A Taxonomy in the Field of Literature. Ambiente & Sociedade XVII (1): 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/start. Web Accessed 17 Oct 2016.
  15. United Nations. 2015. Adoption of the Paris Agreement (FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1). Paris: United Nations.Google Scholar
  16. WCED. 1987. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report). https://doi.org/10.1080/07488008808408783.
  17. World Bank Open Data. http://data.worldbank.org/. Web Accessed 2 Aug 2016.
  18. Worldwatch Institute. http://www.worldwatch.org/. Web Accessed 11 Sept 2016.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Roseland
    • 1
  • Maria Spiliotopoulou
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Resource & Environmental ManagementSimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

Personalised recommendations